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Practice 1. Properties of fluids.

Determination of
density and viscosity
William Aguirre G.
Víctor Mauricio Valencia
Rodrigo Jiménez
Daniel E. Ramírez J.
Kevin Cañón
Esteban Diaz
Faculty of Engineering, University of La Salle
Bogota Colombia

I. Introduction
In the present laboratory report, we will make a compilation of the data obtained from the
practice of "Properties of fluids. Determination of the density "of the Fluid Mechanics
material carried out on February 20, 2019 in the fluids laboratory of the Universidad de la
Salle - Candelaria. In this way the analysis of some of the properties of the fluids will be
carried out, in this way we will look for having made a greater approach and understanding
to the properties of the fluids.
For this, different methods will be carried out with which it will be sought to identify or
calculate the properties of the fluids, such properties will be:
- Density.
- Specific volume.
- Specific weight.
- Viscosity
And in the same way you will see or find how each of the relationships mentioned are
related or determined among themselves, which will be better understood as these
properties differentiate the fluids from the solids and in the same way see as in the fluids It
has different properties.

II. Objectives
• Determine experimentally some of the physical properties of a given fluid (density, volume,
specific weight and viscosity).
• Find the density of a fluid by the methods: volumetric, Eureka Can and pycnometer.
• Differentiate the concepts of density, specific weight and specific gravity.
• Determine the viscosity coefficient of a liquid using the Stokes method and relate it to practice.
• Find the densities of the spheres and the liquid to determine the viscosity coefficient of the liquid.
• Perform the Ladenburg correction for the limiting speed taking into account the radius of the
sphere and the radius of the specimen.
III. Materials and Schemes

• Beaker
•Precision scale
• Test tube
• Metallic solid
• Picnometer
• Calibrator
• Eureka CAN container
• Thermometer
•Tweezers
• Densimeter
• Pipette
•Spheres

INSTRUMENT EMPLOYEE USE IMAGEN


Precision scale Precision scale

Hydrometer Hydrometer Used to


measure the density of a
liquid. It is based on the
hydrostatic principle of the
Greek mathematician and
inventor Archimedes, who
states that any body
submerged in a liquid
experiences an upward
thrust equal to the mass of
the dislodged liquid.
Picnometer Picnometer It is used to
determine the densities of
different substances. It is
also known as a density
bottle. It consists of a small
narrow-necked glass
bottle, closed with a
frosted, hollow cap and
ending at the top in a
capillary tube with
graduations
Graduated pipette Graduated pipette
Measure an exact volume
of fluid, quite accurately,
and transfer it from one
container to another.
Graduated cylinder Graduated cylinder

Thermometer Thermometer Measure


temperatures.

Beaker Beaker Transparent glass


container with cylindrical
shape and wide mouth,
used to measure volume
of liquids and also to heat
and mix substances.

Calibrator Calibrator They are used


to perform small linear
measurements much more
accurately than a flexo
meter. External linear
dimensions and depths
can be measured.
Clamps Clamps The laboratory
clamps are a type of
adjustable clamping,
usually made of metal, that
is part of the laboratory
equipment, by means of
which different glass
objects can be held
(laboratory funnels,
burettes ...) or more
elaborate assemblies
( distillation apparatus).

III. Theoretical framework


Density
By definition, all matter has mass and occupies volume. The density of a substance is the
ratio of its mass to its volume. At constant temperature and pressure, the density of a
substance is constant.

Density is an intensive property of a substance that does not depend on the amount of
substance present. Therefore, density can be used to identify a pure unknown substance if
a list of reference densities is available, and the experimenter can choose a convenient
amount of substance to work with the density measurement.
To measure the density of a sample of a substance, it is necessary to measure its mass
and volume. Mass is typically measured using an analytical balance, a precision
instrument that is based on the force exerted by the sample due to gravity. The sample
container (also used to measure volume) is heavy and tare, only the mass sample appears
on the balance screen when the sample is added to the container.
For liquids, this container is typically a volumetric flask, which has a mark corresponding to
a specific volume. The container is filled to the line of the liquid sample and weighed again
after the empty jar has been tared. The measure of the density is the ratio of the mass
measured to the volume indicated on the bottle.
Specific weight
Specific weight is defined as weight per unit volume and is obtained by dividing the weight of a
system by the volume it occupies. It is represented by the symbol γ (Greek letter gamma) and in the
International System of Units it is measured in N / m3 (newtons per cubic meter).
It is a term related to the relative density, also called specific gravity, because the weight is the mass
by gravity and the density is the mass between the volume. In fact, the specific weight can be
calculated as density by gravity:
• γ is the specific weight
• w is the weight of the substance
• V is volume
• m is the mass
• g is the acceleration of gravity
• ρ is the density of the substance
Specific Volume
The specific volume is an intensive property characteristic of each element or material. It is defined
mathematically as the relation between the volume occupied by a certain amount of matter (a
kilogram or a gram); in other words, it is the reciprocal of density.

Where:
• V: Volume
• M: Mass
• ρ: Density of the material.
It is expressed in units of volume on units of mass. Ex: m3 / kg or ft3 / lb.
Viscosity
The real fluids are characterized by having a resistance to flow called viscosity. That means that in
practice to maintain the speed in a liquid it is necessary to apply a force or pressure, and if this force
ceases the movement of the fluid eventually ceases after a finite time. The viscosity of a liquid
increases as the number of moles increases and decreases as the temperature increases. Viscosity is
a measure of the resistance to displacement of a fluid when there is a difference in pressure. When a
liquid or gas flows, it is assumed that there is a stationary layer, liquid or gas, adhered to the surface
of the material through which the flow occurs. The second layer rubs with the superficial adhesion
and the second with a third and so on. This rubbing between the successive layers is responsible for
the opposition to the flow or is responsible for the viscosity.

This procedure consists of measuring the time it takes to descend each liquid a distance through a
small capillary glass tube because of an unknown pressure difference. Analogously to the densities,
the time is measured for the water, whose viscosity is known (varies according to the measured
temperature), so that from the relative viscosity the viscosity of each liquid can be obtained
Viscosity depends on two important factors:

• Cohesion forces between molecules

• The speed of transfer of molecular movement amount

Therefore, it is directly dependent on the density of the substance. When the temperature of a
liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules increases and, therefore, the cohesion forces
decrease in magnitude

Therefore, the greater the intermolecular forces of a liquid, the more difficult it is for molecules to
move among themselves, therefore, the substance is more viscous. Also, liquids that are formed by
long, flexible molecules that can bend and become entangled with each other are more viscous.
III. Procedures
Volumetric method
Start.
He drank a Beaker and dried himself completely.
The Beaker was weighed with the help of a scale.
This process was repeated as many times as necessary in practice.
The Beaker is fired with the volume of the known fluid.
The Beaker was filled with fluid with a known volume, for which purpose a graduated cylinder was
used.
The temperature of the fluid was taken.
End.
Eureka Can Method
Start.
A solid was taken and its dimensions were measured with the help of a calibrator.
It was filled with fluid to the overflow orifice of the Eureka Can container.
The Beaker was weighed again with the fluid dislodged by the object.
The solid was introduced with the help of a pair of tweezers into the Eureka container, keeping in
mind the volume of liquid discharged in the Beaker.
He took a Beaker, dried it completely and weighed it empty.
The temperature of the fluid was measured.
This procedure was repeated with the remaining solids.
End.
Picnometer method
Start.
The pycnometer was cleaned and dried.
The empty pyknometer was weighed.
The temperature of the fluid was taken.
The pyknometer was weighed.
The pycnometer was filled with fluid and the remaining fluid was
carefully dried upon completion.
This procedure was repeated with the other fluids.
End.
Hydrometer method
Start.
The test tube was filled with the problem fluid.
The hydrometer was introduced into the specimen with the fluid.
We waited for the hydrometer to find its point of equilibrium and its respective
reading was made on the scale.
Its temperature was measured.
End.
Inicio.
He drank a Beaker and dried himself completely.
The Beaker was weighed with the help of a scale.
This process was repeated as many times as necessary in practice.
The Beaker is fired with the volume of the known fluid.
The Beaker was filled with fluid with a known volume, for which purpose a graduated cylinder was
used.
The temperature of the fluid was taken.

III. Results and analysis


Properties of fluids
Picnometer Method

Método del picnómetro Método de densímetro


(Densidad) (gravedad específica)
N˚ Masa Peso Volumen Temperatura N˚ Fluido Lectura
Picnómetro Picnómetro [gr] Conjunto [gr] Picnómetro [˚C] densímetro
1 34,1 83,7 50 ml 17,9 1 1 gr/ml
2 27,3 69,8 50 ml 18,4 2 0,850 gr/ml
3 31,4 77,7 51,577 ml 19,1 4 0,890 gr/ml

With the above data and applying the formulas of the fluids are the following values:
m 1 W
Densidad = ρ= ; Volumen específico = V s= ; Peso específico = γ=
V ρ V
N˚ Experimento Densidad [gr/ml] Volumen específico [ml/gr] Peso específico [N/ml]
1 0,990 1,008 0.0097
2 0,85 1,17 0,0083
3 0,915 1,092 0,0091

Comparison of results
N˚ fluido Densidad encontrada Lectura densímetro [gr/ml] % error
[gr/ml]
1 0,990 1 1
2 0,85 0,850 0
4 0,915 0,890 2.8

Método Volumétrico
Método Volumétrico
(Densidad)
N˚ Masa Beaker Peso Volumen Temperatura
Experimento [gr] Conjunto [gr] [ml] [˚C]
1 36 1
2 37 2
3 38 3
4 39 4
5 40 5
35
6 41 6 18,8
7 42 7
8 43 8
9 44 9
10 45 10

With the above data and applying the formulas of the fluids are the
following values:
m 1 W
Densidad = ρ= ; Volumen específico = V s= ; Peso específico = γ=
V ρ V
N˚ Experimento Densidad [gr/ml] Volumen específico [ml/gr] Peso específico [N/ml]
1 1 1 9.81
2 1 1 9.81
3 1 1 9.81
4 1 1 9.81
5 1 1 9.81
6 1 1 9.81
7 1 1 9.81
8 1 1 9.81
9 1 1 9.81
10 1 1 9.81

Viscosidad

No. Diámetro de las esferas. (cm) Tiempo(s).


1 0,296 3,385
2 0,298 3,3
3 0,309 3,48
4 0,297 3,63
5 0,298 3,62
6 0,297 3,57
7 0,298 3,64
8 0,298 3,68
9 0,298 3,47
10 0,301 3,54
promedio 0,299 3,5315

Datos Valor
S entre marcas. 27,3 cm
T (°C) 19, 1
P del fluido 0.900 gr/cm3
m de las esferas 1,1 gr
Diámetro probeta 6,056 cm

The speed limit of the sphere in the liquid is given by:

2
r 2 π r g (α −ρ)
(
lim ¿= 1+ 2.4
R )
V m=
9n
V¿
Where r is the radius of the sphere, R is the radius of the tube, α is
the density of the spheres, ρ is the density of the liquid and n is the
viscosity coefficient of the liquid.
27.3 cm
V m= =7.73 cm/s
3.53 s
0.299
r= =0.149 cm
2
6.056
R= =3.028 cm
2
0.149 cm cm cm
(
lim ¿= 1+ 2.4
3.028 cm )
7.73
s
=8.64
s
V¿
The viscosity coefficient is cleared and the following is obtained:
9 V lim ¿
2
2 π r g( α− ρ)
n= ¿
0.149 cm
¿
¿
¿3
4
π¿
3
1.1
gr
10
α= ¿

2 π ( 0.149 cm )2 (982 cm/s 2)( 7.94 gr /cm3 −0.9 gr /cm3 )


n= =12.4 P
cm
9(8.64 )
s
It should be noted that this viscosity coefficient is for a temperature
of 19.1 ° C.
Analysis of results
For the elaboration of this laboratory practice, the types of fluids in each of the specimens were very
helpful, but the comparison of the experimental data found with the values of the densities present
in the densities tables was somewhat complex since many of the These were not found specifically
and the values did not vary much in certain substances.
Conclusions
The density of 3 fluids was experimentally determined and, comparing values of density tables, it
was possible to know that the fluid present in specimen number 1 is ... .. and with respect to the
experimental value found, it had an error of 1%. The fluid present in test tube number 2 is mineral
oil and did not present an error in comparison with the data obtained experimentally. Finally, the
fluid present in test tube number 4 is 80w90 oil and presented an experimental error of 2.8% with
respect to the value found in the laboratory.
The density, volume, specific weight and viscosity are determined experimentally, using methods
such as volumetric, Eureka Can and pycnometer, in addition to the Ladenburg correction for the
speed limit of the spheres in the viscous liquid, obtaining very approximate results in most of the
cases to the real values with percentages of error lower than 3%.
It was possible to differentiate each of the concepts of density in relation to the specific weight of a
substance and the portion of mass that is capable of submerging in a given reference fluid by the
density meter method at 19.1 ° C.