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Determination of

density and viscosity

William Aguirre G.

Víctor Mauricio Valencia

Rodrigo Jiménez

Daniel E. Ramírez J.

Kevin Cañón

Esteban Diaz

Faculty of Engineering, University of La Salle

Bogota Colombia

I. Introduction

In the present laboratory report, we will make a compilation of the data obtained from the

practice of "Properties of fluids. Determination of the density "of the Fluid Mechanics

material carried out on February 20, 2019 in the fluids laboratory of the Universidad de la

Salle - Candelaria. In this way the analysis of some of the properties of the fluids will be

carried out, in this way we will look for having made a greater approach and understanding

to the properties of the fluids.

For this, different methods will be carried out with which it will be sought to identify or

calculate the properties of the fluids, such properties will be:

- Density.

- Specific volume.

- Specific weight.

- Viscosity

And in the same way you will see or find how each of the relationships mentioned are

related or determined among themselves, which will be better understood as these

properties differentiate the fluids from the solids and in the same way see as in the fluids It

has different properties.

II. Objectives

• Determine experimentally some of the physical properties of a given fluid (density, volume,

specific weight and viscosity).

• Find the density of a fluid by the methods: volumetric, Eureka Can and pycnometer.

• Differentiate the concepts of density, specific weight and specific gravity.

• Determine the viscosity coefficient of a liquid using the Stokes method and relate it to practice.

• Find the densities of the spheres and the liquid to determine the viscosity coefficient of the liquid.

• Perform the Ladenburg correction for the limiting speed taking into account the radius of the

sphere and the radius of the specimen.

III. Materials and Schemes

• Beaker

•Precision scale

• Test tube

• Metallic solid

• Picnometer

• Calibrator

• Eureka CAN container

• Thermometer

•Tweezers

• Densimeter

• Pipette

•Spheres

Precision scale Precision scale

measure the density of a

liquid. It is based on the

hydrostatic principle of the

Greek mathematician and

inventor Archimedes, who

states that any body

submerged in a liquid

experiences an upward

thrust equal to the mass of

the dislodged liquid.

Picnometer Picnometer It is used to

determine the densities of

different substances. It is

also known as a density

bottle. It consists of a small

narrow-necked glass

bottle, closed with a

frosted, hollow cap and

ending at the top in a

capillary tube with

graduations

Graduated pipette Graduated pipette

Measure an exact volume

of fluid, quite accurately,

and transfer it from one

container to another.

Graduated cylinder Graduated cylinder

temperatures.

container with cylindrical

shape and wide mouth,

used to measure volume

of liquids and also to heat

and mix substances.

to perform small linear

measurements much more

accurately than a flexo

meter. External linear

dimensions and depths

can be measured.

Clamps Clamps The laboratory

clamps are a type of

adjustable clamping,

usually made of metal, that

is part of the laboratory

equipment, by means of

which different glass

objects can be held

(laboratory funnels,

burettes ...) or more

elaborate assemblies

( distillation apparatus).

Density

By definition, all matter has mass and occupies volume. The density of a substance is the

ratio of its mass to its volume. At constant temperature and pressure, the density of a

substance is constant.

Density is an intensive property of a substance that does not depend on the amount of

substance present. Therefore, density can be used to identify a pure unknown substance if

a list of reference densities is available, and the experimenter can choose a convenient

amount of substance to work with the density measurement.

To measure the density of a sample of a substance, it is necessary to measure its mass

and volume. Mass is typically measured using an analytical balance, a precision

instrument that is based on the force exerted by the sample due to gravity. The sample

container (also used to measure volume) is heavy and tare, only the mass sample appears

on the balance screen when the sample is added to the container.

For liquids, this container is typically a volumetric flask, which has a mark corresponding to

a specific volume. The container is filled to the line of the liquid sample and weighed again

after the empty jar has been tared. The measure of the density is the ratio of the mass

measured to the volume indicated on the bottle.

Specific weight

Specific weight is defined as weight per unit volume and is obtained by dividing the weight of a

system by the volume it occupies. It is represented by the symbol γ (Greek letter gamma) and in the

International System of Units it is measured in N / m3 (newtons per cubic meter).

It is a term related to the relative density, also called specific gravity, because the weight is the mass

by gravity and the density is the mass between the volume. In fact, the specific weight can be

calculated as density by gravity:

• γ is the specific weight

• w is the weight of the substance

• V is volume

• m is the mass

• g is the acceleration of gravity

• ρ is the density of the substance

Specific Volume

The specific volume is an intensive property characteristic of each element or material. It is defined

mathematically as the relation between the volume occupied by a certain amount of matter (a

kilogram or a gram); in other words, it is the reciprocal of density.

Where:

• V: Volume

• M: Mass

• ρ: Density of the material.

It is expressed in units of volume on units of mass. Ex: m3 / kg or ft3 / lb.

Viscosity

The real fluids are characterized by having a resistance to flow called viscosity. That means that in

practice to maintain the speed in a liquid it is necessary to apply a force or pressure, and if this force

ceases the movement of the fluid eventually ceases after a finite time. The viscosity of a liquid

increases as the number of moles increases and decreases as the temperature increases. Viscosity is

a measure of the resistance to displacement of a fluid when there is a difference in pressure. When a

liquid or gas flows, it is assumed that there is a stationary layer, liquid or gas, adhered to the surface

of the material through which the flow occurs. The second layer rubs with the superficial adhesion

and the second with a third and so on. This rubbing between the successive layers is responsible for

the opposition to the flow or is responsible for the viscosity.

This procedure consists of measuring the time it takes to descend each liquid a distance through a

small capillary glass tube because of an unknown pressure difference. Analogously to the densities,

the time is measured for the water, whose viscosity is known (varies according to the measured

temperature), so that from the relative viscosity the viscosity of each liquid can be obtained

Viscosity depends on two important factors:

Therefore, it is directly dependent on the density of the substance. When the temperature of a

liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules increases and, therefore, the cohesion forces

decrease in magnitude

Therefore, the greater the intermolecular forces of a liquid, the more difficult it is for molecules to

move among themselves, therefore, the substance is more viscous. Also, liquids that are formed by

long, flexible molecules that can bend and become entangled with each other are more viscous.

III. Procedures

Volumetric method

Start.

He drank a Beaker and dried himself completely.

The Beaker was weighed with the help of a scale.

This process was repeated as many times as necessary in practice.

The Beaker is fired with the volume of the known fluid.

The Beaker was filled with fluid with a known volume, for which purpose a graduated cylinder was

used.

The temperature of the fluid was taken.

End.

Eureka Can Method

Start.

A solid was taken and its dimensions were measured with the help of a calibrator.

It was filled with fluid to the overflow orifice of the Eureka Can container.

The Beaker was weighed again with the fluid dislodged by the object.

The solid was introduced with the help of a pair of tweezers into the Eureka container, keeping in

mind the volume of liquid discharged in the Beaker.

He took a Beaker, dried it completely and weighed it empty.

The temperature of the fluid was measured.

This procedure was repeated with the remaining solids.

End.

Picnometer method

Start.

The pycnometer was cleaned and dried.

The empty pyknometer was weighed.

The temperature of the fluid was taken.

The pyknometer was weighed.

The pycnometer was filled with fluid and the remaining fluid was

carefully dried upon completion.

This procedure was repeated with the other fluids.

End.

Hydrometer method

Start.

The test tube was filled with the problem fluid.

The hydrometer was introduced into the specimen with the fluid.

We waited for the hydrometer to find its point of equilibrium and its respective

reading was made on the scale.

Its temperature was measured.

End.

Inicio.

He drank a Beaker and dried himself completely.

The Beaker was weighed with the help of a scale.

This process was repeated as many times as necessary in practice.

The Beaker is fired with the volume of the known fluid.

The Beaker was filled with fluid with a known volume, for which purpose a graduated cylinder was

used.

The temperature of the fluid was taken.

Properties of fluids

Picnometer Method

(Densidad) (gravedad específica)

N˚ Masa Peso Volumen Temperatura N˚ Fluido Lectura

Picnómetro Picnómetro [gr] Conjunto [gr] Picnómetro [˚C] densímetro

1 34,1 83,7 50 ml 17,9 1 1 gr/ml

2 27,3 69,8 50 ml 18,4 2 0,850 gr/ml

3 31,4 77,7 51,577 ml 19,1 4 0,890 gr/ml

With the above data and applying the formulas of the fluids are the following values:

m 1 W

Densidad = ρ= ; Volumen específico = V s= ; Peso específico = γ=

V ρ V

N˚ Experimento Densidad [gr/ml] Volumen específico [ml/gr] Peso específico [N/ml]

1 0,990 1,008 0.0097

2 0,85 1,17 0,0083

3 0,915 1,092 0,0091

Comparison of results

N˚ fluido Densidad encontrada Lectura densímetro [gr/ml] % error

[gr/ml]

1 0,990 1 1

2 0,85 0,850 0

4 0,915 0,890 2.8

Método Volumétrico

Método Volumétrico

(Densidad)

N˚ Masa Beaker Peso Volumen Temperatura

Experimento [gr] Conjunto [gr] [ml] [˚C]

1 36 1

2 37 2

3 38 3

4 39 4

5 40 5

35

6 41 6 18,8

7 42 7

8 43 8

9 44 9

10 45 10

With the above data and applying the formulas of the fluids are the

following values:

m 1 W

Densidad = ρ= ; Volumen específico = V s= ; Peso específico = γ=

V ρ V

N˚ Experimento Densidad [gr/ml] Volumen específico [ml/gr] Peso específico [N/ml]

1 1 1 9.81

2 1 1 9.81

3 1 1 9.81

4 1 1 9.81

5 1 1 9.81

6 1 1 9.81

7 1 1 9.81

8 1 1 9.81

9 1 1 9.81

10 1 1 9.81

Viscosidad

1 0,296 3,385

2 0,298 3,3

3 0,309 3,48

4 0,297 3,63

5 0,298 3,62

6 0,297 3,57

7 0,298 3,64

8 0,298 3,68

9 0,298 3,47

10 0,301 3,54

promedio 0,299 3,5315

Datos Valor

S entre marcas. 27,3 cm

T (°C) 19, 1

P del fluido 0.900 gr/cm3

m de las esferas 1,1 gr

Diámetro probeta 6,056 cm

2

r 2 π r g (α −ρ)

(

lim ¿= 1+ 2.4

R )

V m=

9n

V¿

Where r is the radius of the sphere, R is the radius of the tube, α is

the density of the spheres, ρ is the density of the liquid and n is the

viscosity coefficient of the liquid.

27.3 cm

V m= =7.73 cm/s

3.53 s

0.299

r= =0.149 cm

2

6.056

R= =3.028 cm

2

0.149 cm cm cm

(

lim ¿= 1+ 2.4

3.028 cm )

7.73

s

=8.64

s

V¿

The viscosity coefficient is cleared and the following is obtained:

9 V lim ¿

2

2 π r g( α− ρ)

n= ¿

0.149 cm

¿

¿

¿3

4

π¿

3

1.1

gr

10

α= ¿

n= =12.4 P

cm

9(8.64 )

s

It should be noted that this viscosity coefficient is for a temperature

of 19.1 ° C.

Analysis of results

For the elaboration of this laboratory practice, the types of fluids in each of the specimens were very

helpful, but the comparison of the experimental data found with the values of the densities present

in the densities tables was somewhat complex since many of the These were not found specifically

and the values did not vary much in certain substances.

Conclusions

The density of 3 fluids was experimentally determined and, comparing values of density tables, it

was possible to know that the fluid present in specimen number 1 is ... .. and with respect to the

experimental value found, it had an error of 1%. The fluid present in test tube number 2 is mineral

oil and did not present an error in comparison with the data obtained experimentally. Finally, the

fluid present in test tube number 4 is 80w90 oil and presented an experimental error of 2.8% with

respect to the value found in the laboratory.

The density, volume, specific weight and viscosity are determined experimentally, using methods

such as volumetric, Eureka Can and pycnometer, in addition to the Ladenburg correction for the

speed limit of the spheres in the viscous liquid, obtaining very approximate results in most of the

cases to the real values with percentages of error lower than 3%.

It was possible to differentiate each of the concepts of density in relation to the specific weight of a

substance and the portion of mass that is capable of submerging in a given reference fluid by the

density meter method at 19.1 ° C.

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