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Research Plan for the Science Investigatory Project

Title Proposal: Biosorption Activity of Activated Carbon Synthesized from Sargassum


longifolium (brown algae)
Research Proponents: Jhesyl Mae Mayor and Faith Elijah Maebano
Research Adviser: Gerson Dumpasan
Research Mentor: Rex F. Cañete
Research Consultant: Aezer Cajegas

A. RATIONALE

Water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases not only to people
but also to the myriads, animals and other plants that depend on water to live (Egyptian Journal
of Aquatic Research, 2014). Heavy metal contamination are toxic metals that occur in the earth’s
geological structures, and can therefore enter water resources through natural processes. It has
become one of the major environmental problems that pose serious health hazard because when
these metals accumulate the water people may die or have an illness.

Algae can be found in different bodies of water which makes it more convenient as a
biosorbent than others (S. Rajesh kumar et al., International Journal of Pharmacognosy [IJP],
2014). Luckily, the Philippines is blessed with lots of algae specifically the Sargassum
longifolium in Brgy. Cagangohan, Panabo City, Davao del Norte. Too much intake and exposure
of Copper which is one of the toxic metals can cause vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, liver
damage, kidney disease and nausea. It can also affect the environment when copper ends up in
soil because it strongly attaches to organic matter and minerals. Copper does not break down in
the environment and because of that it can accumulate in plants and animals when it is found in
soils. Activated carbons (ACs) exhibit a great adsorption capacity in wastewater and gas
treatments, owing to their highly developed porosity, large surface area, and variable surface
chemistry (Sustainability p. 86-98, 2014). This study focuses on the Removal of Copper in
aqueous solution through biosorption using the Activated Sargassum Longifolium, species of
marine brown algae, determined to have the presence of various functional groups of
polysaccharides, proteins and lipids on the cell wall surface.

B. GOALS

This study of brown algae (Sargaasum longifolium) carbon aims to investigate its
efficacy as a potential biosorbent of copper. Furthermore, it will seek to:

1.) To analyze the characteristics and morphology of Sargassum longifolium as a biosorbent


2.) To identify the effect of initial metal concentration on the efficiency of Sargassum
longifolium
3.) To identify the effect of pH on the efficiency of Sargassum longifolium
4.) To identify the effect of sorption time on the efficiency of Sargassum longifolium
5.) To identify the effect of biosorbent mass on the efficiency of Sargassum longifolium
6.) To identify the adsorption capacity of Sargassum longifolium

C. PROCEDURES
A.) Pre- Experimentation
A.1 Gathering and Preparation of Materials
1. Obtaining the needed chemical from laboratories with available copper.
2. Preparation and cleaning of glass wares and laboratory apparatusses.
3. Gathering of the marine algae from tide pools and shallow waters of Brgy. Cagangohan,
Panabo City.
4. Preparation and Characterization of Biosorbent:

The Sargassum longifolium will be washed with tap water several times to remove
unnecessary particles and will be sun dried for 2 days and analyzed with SEM. After, It will be
carbonized through pyrolisisc by heating it up with a temperature of 500 degree celsius for 2
hours. Then it will be activated by mixing it with water and KOH with a weight ratio of KOH/
Sample equal to 1:2 for 24 hours in order to enhance the pores. The water will then be
evaporated at 130 degree celsius for 4 hours and these dried mixtures will be heated at a rate of
10 degree celsius to 800 degree celsius for 1 hr. After the samples will be cooled down in a room
temperature and will be washed with HCl and deionized water until the pH of the washing
solution reached 6-7, it will proceed to SEM analysis. (Adsorption of Coconut Shell Carbons
Prepared by KOH Activation for Removal of Lead(II) From Aqueous Solutions, 2014)

B.) Actual Experimentation


B.1 Effect of initial copper concentration
1. Preparation of Cu solution with different concentrations. Copper Nitrate will be diluted with
deionized water. The initial concentration would be 5 ppm, 10 ppm, 15 ppm and and 0 ppm as
the control group.
2. Containers will be prepared for different concentrations labeled T1, T2, T3, and T0 for 5, 10, 15
and 0 mg/L, respectively.
3. The pH level of all the concentrations would remain constant with pH level of 5.
4. The biosorbent weighing 2g would be poured into each of the different heavy metal
concentration.
5. After 2 hours, the algae will be collected from the solution and will run through columns into
the flask for storage and later testing.
6. Stirring rate of 100 rpm will be kept constant.
(Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using marine green algae, Ulva lactuca, 2014)
Copper Solution
T0 – Stock solution + 2g of algae
T1 – 5 mg/L + 2g of algae
T2 – 10 mg/L + 2g of algae
T3 – 15 mg/L + 2g of algae
T4 – 20 mg/L + 2g of algae

B.2 Effect of pH
1. Same initial concentration of the copper solutions will be prepared by diluting the Copper
Nitrate with deionized water. The concentration would be 10mg/L.
2. Ph level of the solutions will be manipulated using Sodium Hydroxide and will be measured
using pH tester. Different levels of pH would be 2, 5, 8, and 7 as the control group.
3. Containers will be prepared for solution with dissimilar pH level labeled T1 for pH of 2, T2 for
pH of 5, T3 for pH of 8, and T0 for the control group.
4. Constant biomass of green algae will be 2g.
5. After 2 hours, the algae will be collected from the solution and will run through columns into
the flask for storage and later testing.
6. Stirring rate of 100 rpm will be kept constant.
(Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using marine green algae, Ulva lactuca, 2014)
Copper Solution
T0 – 10 mg/L+ 2g of algae
T1 – 10mg/L + 2g of algae
T2 – 10mg/L + 2g of algae
T3 – 10mg/L + 2g of algae
T4 – 10mg/L + 2g of algae
B.3 Effect of biosorbent’s mass
1. Same initial concentration of the copper solutions will be prepared by diluting the Copper
Nitrate with deionized water. The concentration would be 10mg/L.
2. The solutions prepared will have a consistent pH of 5.
3. Different mass of algae will be prepared. The masses would be 5g, 10g, 15g and with no algae
as the control group.
4. Five containers of solutions will be prepared. It will be labeled T1, T2, T3 and T1 for 1g, 2g, 3g
and having no algae as the control group.
5. After 2 hours, the biosorbent will be separated from the solution and will be put to another
container for later testing.
6. Stirring rate of 100 rpm will be kept constant.
(Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using marine green algae, Ulva lactuca, 2014)
Copper Solution
T0 – 10 mg/L with no added algae
T1 – 10mg/L + 5g of algae
T2 – 10mg/L + 10g of algae
T3 – 10mg/L + 15g of algae
T4 – 10mg/L + 20g of algae
B.4 Effect of biosorption time
1. Initial concentration of the copper solutions would be 10 ppm and will be prepared by diluting
the Copper Nitrate with deionized water.
2. Constant level of pH for all the solutions would be 5.
3. The biosorbent weighing 10g would be poured into each of the different heavy metal
concentration.
4. The algae will be separated from the solution after different times such as 1 hour, 2 hours, 3
hours.
5. Four containers will be prepared with labels T1 for 1 hour, T2 for 2 hours, T3 for 3 hours.
6. The collected algae will be stored in a flask for later analyzation of results.
7. Stirring rate of 100 rpm will be kept constant.
(Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using marine green algae, Ulva lactuca, 2014)
Copper Solution
T0 – 10mg/L with no added algae
T1 – 10mg/L + 10g of algae
T2 – 10mg/L + 10g of algae
T3 – 10mg/L + 10g of algae
T4 – 10mg/L + 10g of algae
B.5 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

The AAS will be used to identify the concentrations adsorbed by the algae in the different
factors affecting the biosorbent efficiency.

B.6 Adsorption Experiments

The sorption capacity qe (mg/g) and removal efficiency Q were obtained according to the
equqtions 1 and 2 respectively:

qe=(C0-Ce) V

Q=(Co-Ce) x 100%

Co

where V is the volume of the solution, W is the amount of adsorbent, Co and Ce are the initial
and equilibrium concentration in the solution

(Adsorption of Coconut Shell Carbons Prepared by KOH Activation for Removal of


Lead(II) From Aqueous Solutions, 2014)

C.) Post Experimentation (Disposal)


Collect waste liquids containing heavy metals in a single large wide-mouthed
container lined with a sliding lock plastic bag. Leave the bag open so most of the water can be
evaporated in a fume hood. When the bag is full of settled solids, zip it closed and place it in a
five-gallon bucket labeled “Hazardous Waste – Heavy Metals” and snap the lid closed. When
this five-gallon bucket is full of bags of sludge, dispose of it as hazardous waste. Keep a logsheet
listing the name and amount of the waste solutions that are placed in the bags and the date they
were added. An inventory of what the waste is made of can save the expense of testing for
identification by the hazardous waste disposal vendor or site when it is disposed. Cleaning of
laboratory apparatus will also be implemented carefully.

D.) Risk and Safety

 Wear appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


 Don’t put heavy metals down the sink (use the receptacle provided).
 Clean up other spills using the appropriate materials available.
 Clean glassware and other containers thoroughly after use.
 Don’t store chemical substances in food containers such as bottles.

E.) DATA ANALYSIS


Statistical Analysis
One-way repeated measures ANOVA will be utilized to analyze the difference between
the collected data of the variables in every subject.
Research Design
The Experimental design will be utilized for the Quantitative analysis of the percentage
of concentration adsorbed by activated algae while Qualitative analysis will be used to
identify cause and effect relationships between variables and to distinguish placebo
effects from treatment effects and to infer direct causal relationships in the study.

IV. References
Akbar Esmaeili, Samira Ghasemi " Evaluation of the Activated Carbon Prepared of Algae
Marine Gracilaria for the Biosorption of Ni (II) from Aqueous Solutions" archived on
(February 19, 2018) from:
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.388.5988&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Chengwen Song *, Shuaihua Wu, Murong Cheng, Ping Tao, Mihua Shao and Guangrui Gao "
Adsorption Studies of Coconut Shell Carbons Prepared by KOH Activation for Removal of
Lead(II) From Aqueous Solutions", archived from: http://www.mdpi.com/2071-
1050/6/1/86/pdf (December 18, 2017)

Narsi R Bishnoi,* Anju Pant and Garima Biosorption of copper from aqueous solution using
algal biomass "Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by fresh water alga
Anabaena sphaerica biomass" retrieved on: December 19, 2017 from:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4293879/

Tang Shu Hui1,2 and Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini1,2," Potassium hydroxide activation of
activated carbon: a commentary RESOURCES - CAUSES AND IMPACTS" archived on:
February 19, 2018 from: http://fcee.utm.my/abbas/files/2016/06/CrbonLettShuHui.pdf

Virginia Hernández-Montoya, Josafat García-Servin and José Iván Bueno-López (2012).


“Thermal Treatments and Activation Procedures Used in the Preparation of Activated
Carbons, Lignocellulosic Precursors Used in the Synthesis of Activated Carbon -
Characterization Techniques and Applications in the Wastewater Treatment” archived on:
February 19, 2018 from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/lignocellulosic-precursors-
used-in-the-synthesis-of-activated- carboncharacterization-techniques-and-applications-
in-the-wastewater-treatment/no-title-specified-1