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controller in temperature

control of a pilot high-

temperature short-time heat

exchanger

(analogue to digitalldigital to analogue card) and an electro-pneumatic trans-

ducer to control an aseptic processing high-temperature short-time (HTST)

system, which requires accurate temperature control. In this study fuzzy

algorithms based on linguistic rules describing the operator’s control strategy were

applied to temperature control. The controller, with suitable membership

functions, rules and defuzzification mechanism, was a simple controller for

regulation of the HTST temperature and can be compared to the conventional

proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method which controlled temperature

within +0.5”C. Some results were not better than obtained with a traditional

PID controller but in certain temperature ranges it could control the system

temperature as well as the PID controller based on self-tuning of the rules and

membership functions for the system.

controller. There followed several publications both on

Fuzzy set theory was first introduced by Zadeh (1965) the theory and application of fuzzy control. Tong

and it has been used successfully in a number of control (1976) applied fuzzy logic to a pressurized tank contain-

applications. The first application of fuzzy set theory to ing liquid, although it was no better than performance

the control of dynamic processes was reported by obtained by a controller designed using conventional

Mamdani and Assilian (1975). They described control techniques. Ostergaard (1976) applied fuzzy logic

of a small laboratory scale model of a steam engine and successfully on a heat exchanger. Sheridan and Skjoth

boiler combination. Using a fuzzy logic controller to (1983) attempted to use fuzzy algorithms to mimic kiln

regulate the engine speed and boiler pressure, they operators at the Durkee plant of the Oregon Portland

obtained acceptable control. Kickert and Lemke (1976) cement company.

designed a fuzzy logic controller for a laboratory scale Ingredients of food are dependent on place, season

warm water plant. The first expriment applied fuzzy and climate. Food processes, therefore, often have ill-

logic to design a controller on an industry plant was defined, time-varying and complicated systems, and it

undertaken by Rutherford and Carter (1976). The is suitable to control them using fuzzy set theory. The

purpose was to control the permeability at the Cleve- firs applications of fuzzy set theory to food control were

land sinter plant and they showed that the fuzzy logic reported by Eerikainen et al. (1988) and Aarts et al.

(1990). Several authors have since conducted research

Food Industry Research and Development Institute, P.O. into these fields, such as glutamic acid fermentation

Box 246. Hsinchu, 30099, Taiwan, Republic of China (Czogala and Rawlik, 1989; Kishimoto, 1990), done-

Fuzzy logic control of HTST heat exchanger: J.S. Shieh et al.

ness of beef steaks (Unklesbay et al., 1988), driving a car, controlling room temperature, cooking a

sensory analysis (Lincklaen et al., 1989), process meal etc. Although they are not familiar with any

control for food process (Brown et al., 1990) and mathematical description of the process, they still

predictive control for corn quality control (Zhang et al., perform well. Fuzzy set theory, proposed by L.A.

1990). This study attempted to control temperature of a Zadeh (1965), offers the possibility of creating control

high temperature short-time (HTST) system in an actions which functions more like human thinking. For

aseptic process by using a fuzzy logic controller. example;

Conventional digital control algorithms, such as a

IF temperature is higher THEN valve is closed

proportional-integral-derivative (PTD) controller, can

IF temperature is lower THEN valve is open

be developed by formulating the transfer function of

the process which is usually very complex. Fuzzy logic This concept is very simple and similar to on/off

controllers can’ therefore incorporate human intelli- control, but it can also mimic human thinking. If

gence into an HTST system to obtain a more flexible suitable membership functions are chosen for the

control environment. system, the ‘higher’ and ‘closed’ concepts can be

divided into many fuzzy sets, such as PB, PS etc. (see

below). The control action is thus not just the on/off

THEORY control and depends on many linguistic sets. It is

therefore closer to human thinking and better than

It is very important to control temperature of a HTST conventional control theory which needs complicated

system in an aseptic process. The FDA regulation of mathematical equations to describe the system.

aseptic processing and packaging systems specifies that There are three steps (rules, membership functions

there shall be an accurate temperature recording device and defuzzification) which determine fuzzy logic con-

and sensor which are installed between the holding trol. To perform fuzzy inference and describe the

tube and the inlet to the cooler. When the product HTST system, the following notations will be used: PE,

temperature in the holding tube drops below the product error (set point -product temperature); HE,

temperature specified in the scheduled process, pro- hot water error (set point-hot water temperature); V,

duct flow should be diverted away from the filler or control valve output; PB, positive big; PS, positive

aseptic surge tank by means of a flow-diversion system. small; ZR, zero; NS, negative small; NB, negative big.

Meanwhile, the evaluation of lethal value, F0 (Merson et According to the operator’s experience and some

al., 1978; Teixeira and Manson, 1983) is dependent on expert knowledge, the following six rules can be

product temperature and time in the holding tube. defined to control the HTST system:

Therefore, if the temperature of HTST can be con-

trolled more accurately, the product will retain better 1. If PE is PB and HE is any, then V is PB

quality and the shelf life will be extended. 2. If PE is PS and HE is PS or ZE, then V is PS

The procedures of aseptic processing (Teixeira 3. If PE is ZR and HE is PS, then V is ZR

and Manson, 1983) are preheating, heating, holding, 4. If PE is ZR and HE is NS, then V is NS

cooling, subcooling and filling. Basically, these 5. If PE is NS and HE is NS or ZR, then V is NS

processes belong to a temperature control system. This 6. If PE is NB and HE is any, then V is NB

pilot-scale HTST system was equipped with hot-water There are many shapes (Dombi, 1990; Kouati and

heating and water cooling apparatus. A two-stage plate Jones, 1991) of possible membership functions, such as

exchanger was included in the system to heat and cool triangle, trapezoid etc. which can be used in the fuzzy

the product (Figure 1). Using the conventional PID logic controller. For simplicity, a trapezoidal shape is

method, it is very difficult to describe HTST transfer used in the HTST system (Table 1). There are two

function from energy balance and because of a too main methods for defuzzification procedures, mean of

complicated mathematical model, modelling reduction maximum (MOM) and centre of area (COA) (Braae and

was used to obtain low-order transfer function in order Rutherford, 1978). The latter procedure has been

to control the HTST system with the PID method. adopted because it gives smoother signals. Therefore,

It is possible for people to obtain good results when the control input can be written as follows (Li and Lau,

1989):

z_ CY(Mn x Un)

Ci’Mn

Pressure tube where M is the membership function; U is the universe

of discourse; n is the number of rules.

Relief valve

1Recycle process (-’ Linguistic

sets -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

PB 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 1

Product out ; J PS 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 1 0.6 0

ZR 0 0 0 0.6 1 0.6 0 0 0

Cool water out

NS 0 0.6 1 0.6 0 0 0 0 0

NB 1 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Figure 1 HTST flow chart

Fuzzy logic control of HTST heat exchanger: J.S. Shieh et al.

Table 2 Lookup table (Table 2). Comparing the third and fourth columns in

Table 3, itis easy to obtain the size of valve open. Using

Hot water error

Product

this method, the control valve can open to various sizes

error -2 -1 0 1 2 depending on product and hot water error.

-2 -2 -2 -2 -2 0

-1 -2 -2 -2 -1 0

0 -2 -2 0 0 0 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

1 -2 0 2 I 1

2 0 2 2 2 2

A APV CREPACO pilot-scale HTST system was

equipped with hot water heating and water cooling

Table 3 Quantized variable apparatus. A two-stage plate heat exchanger composed

of stainless 316 material was included in the system to

HE (“C) PE (“C) V (mA) Quantized level heat and cool the product. Two T-type thermocouple

-5 -5 4 -2

sensors were installed at the site of product out and hot

-2.5 -2.5 8 -1 water input (Figure 2). High pressure steam from

0 0 12 0 a boiler through the reducing valve decreased pressure

2.5 2.5 16 I to 4 bars. Then, using regulating valve controlled steam

5 5 20 2

into water to produce hot water which can heat product

via a plate heat exchanger. The regulating valve was

When hot water error and product error have been adjusted by electro-pneumatic converter which was

obtained, one can decide which quantized levels belong controlled by an analogue to digital/digital to analogue

to them. The values of membership functions can then (ADDA) card. When product temperature was below

be obtained from Table 1. Meanwhile, each rule has a the set point the computer sends a signal via the

different grade of contribution for these errors. ADDA card to open the solid state relay (SSR) and

Combining all rules produces a lookup table(Table 2). control product returned to the original tank. On the

other hand, signals from thermocouples were so small

In this investigation, the electro-pneumatic trans-

that they need to be amplified to a suitable range via an

ducer has a range from 4 to 20mA to control the

amplifier card which connected to the ADDA card.

regulating valve from closed to open. Therefore, one

The whole system of process control was therefore

can define the following range: HE from -5 to SC,

accomplished with an IBM PC-AT compatible com-

PE from -5 to 5°C and V from 4 to 20mA. The

puter which was linked with the HTST through an

values of quantized variable are shown in Tabfe 3. The

ADDA and amplifier card (&we 2).

first and second column represent the hot water and

product temperature range in different quantized

levels. The third column is the valve range in different

quantized levels. When sensors detect the hot water RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

and product temperature, it can decide which quan-

tized level belongs to this value. Then, the quantized In general, the high-temperature short-time (HTST)

level of control input is obtained from the lookup table system is defined at a sterilizing temperature from 95 to

Recycle process

Product in

Air

Steam

valve

Fuzzy logic control of HTST heat exchanger: J.S. Shieh et al.

120°C and the holding time is >5 s. Regarding an ultra- time constant 7 and time delay td are easy to acquire

high temperature (UHT) system, the sterilized temper- from the reaction curve method. According to the

ature is defined as >135”C and the holding time is equation proposed by Ziegler and Nichols (1942),

about 3-5 s. The holding time is dependent on the flow Cohen and Coon (Stephanopoulos, 1984), Lopez et al.

rate of product and length of the holding tube. From (1967) and Rovira et al. (1969), it is very simple to

the microbiological point of view, a suitable holding calculate the parameters: proportional (P), integral (I)

time can be chosen as regards some bacteria. This and derivative (D) P, Zand D. In the HTST system, the

sytem can change the pump rate and adjust the holding values of k,, 7 and td are 0.9, 79.2s and 0.5s, so the

time from 20-30s. It is thus able to sterilize high-acid controller parameters of P, Z and D in the preceding

food such as juice and cannot be used to sterilize low- method are shown in Table 4.

acid food such as milk except using UHT. Different set- Figure 3 shows temperature control of HTST with

point values were therefore chosen between 95 to the methods proposed by Ziegler and Nichols (1942)

120°C in order to simulate the HTST system. Accord- and Rovira et al. (1969). The P, Z and D values were

ing to FDA regulations, product temperature through a 209.7, 1.0s and 0.25s, and 97.7, 107.1s and 0.26s,

holding tube should be larger than the set point value, respectively. Although Figure 3 shows only two of the

which is the sterilized temperature, and the tempera-

ture variation at the holding tube should be <2”F

(?0.55”C).

Using a conventional PID method, the transfer

function of HTST can be obtained from the energy

balance. System parameters, such as process gain k,,

IAE 168.0 2.0 0.12

ITAE 181.2 2.2 0.19

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Rovira et al. IAE 97.7 107.1 0.26 a Time (s)

ITAE 80.8 99.6 0.22

125-

/’

--Controllerout

- I I /

.---___-...___

L_ 4 I !

/ ’ 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

I I I b

0 100 200 . 300 400 500 600 700 Time (s)

a Time (s)

125r

125-

..- .._..

__.___

25-

i-t J I _J

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

b" 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 C Time (s)

Time (5)

Figure 4 Temperature control of HTST at different set-point values

Figure 3 Temperature control of HTST with different traditional using the method of Rovira ef al. Set-point: (a) 120°C; (b) 105°C;

methods. (a) Ziegler-Nichols; (b) Rovira et a/. (c) 95°C

Fuzzy logic control of HTST heat exchanger: J.S. Shieh et al.

methods from Table 4, it has similar results for the Figure 3 and 4 show the experimental results of

other methods. In general, the tuning method proposed HTST using the conventional PID method which

by Rovira et al. (1969) is better than the other methods. belong to a SISO (single input/single output) system. In

From Figure 3a, it can be seen that the product the HTST system, the feedback point can affect the

temperature is stable but the controller output is results. The holding time of this system is so long (i.e.

saturated quickly, as in on/off control. It is therefore 25s) that the feedback point must be the hot water to

easy to damage the regulating valve and is not suitable prevent temperature cycling due to phase lag. Using

to control the system. hot water as the feedback point, it can be seen that if

Figure 4 shows temperature control of HTST at the hot water temperature can be kept stable, the

different set-point values using the method of Rovira et product temperature will be more stable as product

al. The P, I and D values were 80.8, 99.6s and 0.22s. passes through the holding tube to exchange heat from

The different set-point values were 120, 105 and 95°C. the hot water. Although this procedure has some

From Figure 4, it can be.seen that the method of Rovira advantages, the main difficulty is determining the

et al. can control HTST temperature within kO.5”C. temperature difference of hot water and product

product after the holding tube. According to FDA

125r ____

regulation, product temperature is very sensitive to

food safety and quality after the holding tube. For this

reason we attempted to use the fuzzy logic controller to

solve this problem.

By using fuzzy set theory, the two input variables

were chosen to be the errors of hot water and product

temperature while the regulating valve was the system

output. The shape of membership function was chosen

to be trapezoidal. Six rules were taken from experience

and the defuzzification was chosen to be the centre of

the area. Figure 5 shows temperature control of HTST

251 at different set-point values using the fuzzy logic

controller. The product temperature was stable below

the set-point when the set-point was high (Figure AZ).

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 When set-point was low, the product temperature was

a Time (s)

stable above the set-point (Figure 5~). In Figure 5b the

125

product temperature was just stable at the set point and

can be compared to the conventional PID method

which can control HTST temperature within f0.5”C.

This fuzzy logic controller is therefore designed to

control HTST temperature at 100°C. At other tem-

peratures rules and membership functions should be

adjusted to obtain a lookup table such as Table 2 and to

control the HTST system more accurately.

CONCLUSIONS

various conventional PID methods has been proved

’ L-1)

I

I

very successful. Using the method of Rovira et al. gives

b Time (s)

better results than the other methods and it can control

HTST temperature within ?0.5”C. However, it

125 cannot use product temperature as a feedback point

r

which could be a disadvantage regarding food safety

and quality. A fuzzy logic controller was introduced to

this system in order to solve this problem. The results

with the fuzzy logic controller are not very successful

over some ranges, but, it offers a good approach to

solve this problem of controlling the system more

carefully and accurately. Much research will have to be

carried out especially in the area of self-tuning rules

and selection of membership function gain. Regarding

self-tuning rules, there are many publications (Procyk,

1977; Daley, 1984; Moore,l991) investigating this area

of self-organizing fuzzy logic control (SOFLC). It can

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

provide an adaptive rule-learning capability to comple-

C Time (s) ment a fuzzy logic control strategy. The selection of the

Figure 5 Temperature control of HTST at different set-point values

gains in membership functions of fuzzy logic control is

using a fuzzy logic controller. Set-point: (a) 110°C; (b) 100°C; not wholly subjective and several authors (Daley, 1986;

95°C 1987; Linkens and Abbod, 1992) have conducted

Fuzzy logic control of HTST heat exchanger: J.S. Shieh et al.

research relating this to fuzzy logic control. Combing Lopez, A.M., Miller, J.A., Smith, C.L. and Murrill, P.W. (1967)

Tuning controllers with error integral criteria. Instrum. Technol.

SOFLC and selection gain in membership functions will

14, 57-62

permit more accurate control of HTST temperature.

Mamdani, E.H. and Assilian, S. (1975) An experiment in linguistic

synthesis with a fuzzy logic controller, Inr. J. Man-Machine Stud.

7, 1-13

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of Ball’s formula method of thermal process calculations. Food

Aarts, R.J., Seppri, L., Eerikiiinen, T. and Linko, P. (1990) In: Technol. 32 (3), 66-72

Engineering and Food, Vol. 1, Physical Properties and Process Moore, C.G. (1991) Indirect adaptive fuzzy controllers. PhD Thesis,

Control(Spiess, W.E.L. and Schubert, H., eds), Elsevier Applied Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Southampton

Science Publishers, London, pp. 909-918 University, UK

Braae, M. and Rutherford, D.A. (1978) Fuzzy relation in a control Ostergaard, J.J. (1977) Fuzzy logic control of a heat exchanger

setting. Cybernetics 7, 185-199 process. In: Fuzzy Auromara and Decision Processes (Gupta, M.,

Brown, R.P., Davidson, V.J., Hayward, G.L. and Whitnell, G.P. Daridis, G. and Gaines, B.,eds) North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp.

(1990) Fuzzy process control for food processes. In: Proceedings 285-320

of the 1990 Conference of Food Processing Automation, Am. Sot. Procyk, T.J. (1979) Self-organizing control for dynamic processes,

Agric. Eng., St Joseph, Ml, May 6-8 PhD Thesis, Queen Mary College, London, UK

Cxugala, E. and Rawlik, T. (1989) Modelling of a fuzzy controller Rovira, A.A., Murrill, P.W. and Smith, C.L. (1969) Tuning

with application to the control of biological processes. Fuzzy Sets controllers for setpoint changes. Instrum. Control Sysr. Dec., 67-

and Systems 31, 13-22 69

Daley, S. (1984) Analysis of fuzzy logic controller. PhD Thesis, Leeds

University, UK Rutherford, D.A. and Carter, G.A. (1976) A heuristic adaptive

controller for a sinter plant. Proc. 2nd IFAC Symp. Automation

Daley, S. and Gill, K.F. (1986) A design study of a self-organizing in Mining, Mineral and Me&l Processing. Johannesburg, pp. 315-

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Daley, S. and Gill, K.F. (1987) Attitude control of spacecraft using an Sheridan, S.E. and Skjoth, P. (1983) Automatic kiln control at

extended self-organizing fuzzy logic controller. Proc. Inst. Me&. Oregon Portland cement company’s Durkee plant utilising fuzzy

Eng. 201, 97-106 logic. Proc. 25rh IEEE Cement Ind. Tech. Conf., San Antonio,

Dumbi, J. (1990) Membership function as an evaluation. Fuzzy Sets Texas

and Systems 35, l-21 Stephanopuulus, G. (1984) Chemical Process Control. Prentice Hall,

Eeriktiinen, T., Linko, S. and Linko, P. (1988) The potential of fuzzy Englewood Cliffs, NJ

logic in optimization and control: fuzzy reasoning in extrusion Teixeira, A.A. and Mansun, J.E. (1983) Thermal process control for

cooker control. In: Auromaric Control and Optimization of Food aseptic processing systems. Food Technol. 37 (4), 128-133

Processes (Renard, M. and Bimbenet, J.J., eds), Elsevier

Applied Science Publishers, London, pp. 183-200 Tong, R.M. (1976) Some problems with the design and implementa-

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fuzzy logic controller in a warm water plant. Auromaucu 12, 301-

308 Unklesbay, K., Keller, J., Unklesbay, N. and Subhangkasen, D.

(1988) Determination of doneness of beef steaks using fuzzy

Kishimoto, M. (1990) Application of fuzzy control for optimization of pattern recognition. J. Food Eng. 8 (2), 79-90

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Zadeh, L.A. (1965) Fuzzy sets. Information Control 8, 28-44

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Lincklaen Westenberg, H.W., de Jong, S., van Meel, D.A. and Zieller, J. and Nichols, N.B. (1942) Optimum settings for automatic

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Linkens, and Abbod, M.F. (1992) Self-organizing fuzzy logic

D.A. Received 16 July 1991

control and the selection of its scaling factors. Trans. Inst. Revised 9 March 1992

Measurement Conrrol (in press) Accepted 30 March 1992

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