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Research Problem

Research
 Three basic steps
 Pose a question
 Collect data to answer the question
 Present answer to the question
Research Process
 Identifying a research problem
 Reviewing the literature
 Specifying a purpose
 Collection data
 Analyzing and interpreting data
 Reporting and evaluating research
How to develop a good research topic

Why
Important
to know?
List of Topics

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Three things to remember
 It’s topic that strongly interest you
 It’s creative
 It is not too broad
What is a Research Problem?
 Some issue or problem
that investigator presents
and justifies in a
research study.
Locating a research problem
 Look at published
research study
 What is the issue or
problem?
 What controversy lead to
the need for study?
 What concern is address
behind the study?
 Recent Developments
Why research problem is
important?

 It establishes importance of the topic


 It create reader interest
 It focuses the reader’s attention on
how the study will add to literature
How the problem differ from other
parts of research
 A Research Problem is an issue or problem in
the study
 A Research Topic is the broad subject matter
being addressed in the study
 A Purpose is a major intent or objective of the
study
 Research Questions are those that the
researcher would like to answered or
addressed in the study
Topic, Problem, Purpose and Questions

General Topic Distance Learning

Lack of students in distance


Problem Classes
Deductive
Process
To study why students do
Purpose not attend distance classes
at a community college

Does the use of website


technology in the classroom
Specific Questions deter students from enrolling
in a distance education class?
Determine whether problem
should be researched
 Can you study the
problem?
 Do you have the
time?
 Do you have the
resources and skills
to carry out the
research?
 Do you have the
access to sites?
 Should you study the problem?
 Does it advance your knowledge?
 Does it contribute to practice?
 Will your study fill the gap in the existing
literature?
 Will your study extend past research or
examine the topic more thoroughly?
Quantitative and Qualitative
Research
Use quantitative research if Use qualitative research if
your problem requires you your problem requires you
to: to:

•Measure Variables •Learn about the views of


•Assess the impact of these people you plan to study
variables on an outcome •Assess the process over
•Test theories or broad time
explanations •Generate theories based on
•Apply result to a large participant perspectives.
number of people •Obtain detail information
about a few people or
research sites
Five elements of a “Problem Statement”

What
Remedying the
Evidence Deficiencies
Social Deficiencies
Topic for the in the
Work will do to
Issue Evidence
Issue selected
audiences

Subject •A concern •Evidence from •In the body of


Area •A problem the literature Evidence, What is •How will
•Something •Evidence from missing? addressing what
that needs the practical •What do we need we need to know
solution Experiences to know more help certain groups
about? of people like
Researchers,
Educators, Policy
makers, etc
Narrative Hook
 Narrative hook should be the first sentence of
the study
 Functions of the narrative hook
 Causes the reader to pay attention
 Elicits an emotional and attitudinal response from the
reader
 Causes the reader to continue reading
 Information that can be included
 Statistics
 Need for research
 Intent for the study
Stating the research problem
 State the problem in opening
paragraph
 Identify an issue
 Research-based Research problems
 Practical Problems
 Reference the problem using
literature
Justifying the importance of Research
problem
 Justification based on what other researchers
have found
 Justification based on personal and practical
experiences
 Justification based on the experiences others
have had in the practical arena
Identifying Deficiencies in the evidence
 What do we still need to know?
 What else do we need to know to improve
practice?
Identify the Audience
 Ask the following Question
“Who will profit from reading our study?”
 Other researchers
 Practitioners
 Policy Makers
 Special Population (e.g., Clients)
Statement of the problem
 One paragraph for each of the five
elements
 Heavily Reference this section to the
literature
 Provide statistics to support trends
 Use Quotes
What
Remedying the
Evidence Deficiencies
Social Deficiencies
Topic for the in the
Work will do to
Issue Evidence
Issue selected
audiences

Subject •A concern •Evidence from •In the body of


Area •A problem the literature Evidence, What is •How will
•Something •Evidence from missing? addressing what
that needs the practical •What do we need we need to know
solution Experiencies to know more help certain groups
about? of people like
Researchers,
Educators, Policy
makets, etc

Example ?
Elements of a Quantitative purpose
statement
 A Quantitative purpose statement identifies the
variables, their relationship, and the
participants and site of research.
 Guidelines for writing
 Use a single sentence
 Use wording such as The purpose of this study
 If using a theory, state the theory you plan to test
 Use Quantitative words ( e.g., relate, compare,
describe) to describe the relationships between
variables
Quantitative Research Questions
 Types of Quantitative Questions
 Describe results of your variable
 Compare two or more groups on the independent
variable in terms of dependent variable
 Relate two or more variable
 Guidelines for writing
 Pose a question
 Begin with How, What or Why
 Specify dependent, independent and controlling
variables
 Indicate the participant and research site for the
study
Quantitative and Qualitative
Research Questions
Quantitative- more Qualitative- more open
close ended ended

•Probable Cause/effect •Descriptive


(Why did it happen?) (What happened?)
•Use of theories •Interpretive of theories
(Why did it happen in (What was the meaning
view of explanation of to people of what
theories) happened?
•Assess differences and •Process Oriented
magnitude (How much (What happened over
Happned?) time)
Exploring vs Explaining Phenomenon
Quantitative Qualitative
Explaining or Predicting Understanding or Exploring a
Variables Central Phenomenon

X Y Y

Independent variable X
influences dependent In depth understanding of
variable Y Y; External forces shape
and shaped by Y
Research Aim, Objectives and Questions

 Research Aim
 What are you
heading with your
research?

 Write research
objective, research
question or both
 (Just)Research Objective
 (Just) Research Question
 Research Question
 Research Objective
 Research Objective
 Research Objective
 Research Question
 Research Question
 Our work builds on the knowledge of
metamaterial antenna design and its
performance. Hence this research
intends to find out How performance
of antenna design can be improved
using metamaterials.
 How the performance is enhanced using
metamaterials?
 How parameters improved in antenna
design using metamaterials?
 Don’t try to make it perfect now
 Don’t overestimate your powers
 Ask for feedback
Ethics in Research
 Social Responsibility
 Human Rights
 Animal Welfare
 Compliance with the law
 Public Health and safety
Reference Books
 ‘Research methodology: an introduction for science &
engineering students’, by Stuart Melville and Wayne
Goddard
 ‘Research Methodology: An Introduction’ by Wayne
Goddard and Stuart Melville
 ‘Research Methodology: A Step by Step Guide for
Beginners’, by Ranjit Kumar, 2nd Edition
 ‘Research Methodology: Methods and Trends’, by Dr. C.
R. Kothari
 ‘Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and
Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research’, by
John W. Creswell