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Wavenumber Algorithm

Emmanouil Alivizatos, Athanasios Potsis, National Technical University Of Athens, Greece

Andreas Reigber, Technical University Berlin, Germany

Alberto Moreira, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Microwaves and Radar Institute, Germany

Nikolaos Uzunoglu, National Technical University Of Athens, Greece

Abstract

Modern Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are continuously developing into the direction of higher spa-

tial resolution and new modes of operation. This requires the use of high bandwidths, combined with wide azi-

muthal integration intervals. For focusing such data, a high quality SAR processing method is necessary, which

is able to deal with more general sensor parameters. Wavenumber domain (Omega-K) processing is commonly

accepted to be an ideal solution of the SAR focusing problem [1]. However, it is mostly applicable on space-

borne SAR data where a straight sensor trajectory is given. In case of airborne SAR data, wavenumber domain

processing has certain limitations in performing high-precision motion compensation.

In this paper, a detailed description of the motion errors in the wavenumber domain, as well as a motion com-

pensation technique in this domain is formulated. The correction of the motion errors in the two dimensional

spectral domain can result in very accurate second order motion compensation. This procedure can also be com-

bined with a 2D sub-aperture technique, which results in a fully azimuth-frequency adaptive block processing

scheme. The reason why the wavenumber MoCo can be very critical especially in low frequency-widebeam and

high squinted SAR data, is that in these cases wavelength dependent corrections become mandatory.

and variable Doppler centroid in range or/and in azi-

1.1 Importance of the motion compen- muth direction.

sation procedure On the other hand, in the Omega-K algorithm [4], [5],

due to its processing architecture a high precision mo-

A crucial problem in most airborne SAR sensors is tion correction cannot be introduced in its processing

the compensation of motion errors, induced by at- scheme. Compared with the ECS two-step motion

mospheric turbulence (i.e. the compensation of compensation (MoCo), only one step MoCo can be

changes of the platform velocity vector in orientation applied [6]. In its very basic implementation it starts

and/or in magnitude). If not corrected, the image normally with range compression, allowing a first or-

quality will considerably degrade [2]. der MoCo. However, the range dependent part of the

Airborne sensors, in contrary to spaceborne sensors, MoCo, which can only be applied after the correction

always show deviations from the ideal flight track. of RCM, is not possible in Omega-K [6].

SAR imaging from such unstable platforms requires

an accurate measurement of the antenna position dur-

ing the flight and a modified processing scheme, 1.3 Extended Wavenumber Algorithm

which takes into account the non-linear movement of (Extended Omega-K)

the sensor.

Several processing schemes, which try to compensate

1.2 The ECS and Wavenumber Do- this problem, using different approaches, can be

main approach for motion compensation found in the literature [7], [8]. The technique de-

scribed in [6] for example is based on the Taylor ap-

Chirp Scaling (CS) algorithm [3] was developed proximation of the phase in the two dimensional spec-

mainly to avoid interpolations, which are necessary tral domain performs a scaling of the data in range by

when we had to deal with strong range-cell migration a scaled inverse range FT. In contrary the EOK algo-

data (e.g. when wide azimuth beam data have to be rithm, first proposed in [9], extends the basic Omega-

processed). An improved version of the CS was the K processing procedure and proposes a modified Stolt

ECS algorithm [2], which was developed originally mapping in order to apply a robust and high accurate

MoCo algorithm even in case of high squint angles transforms the initial wavenumber domain (kx, ω) to

and long synthetic apertures. (kx, kr) where:

The MoCo procedure in the EOK algorithm [9] is per- 2

⎛ ω + ωο ⎞ 2 ω

formed in two different steps. A first order MoCo kr = ⎜ ⎟ − kx − o (1)

takes place right just after or before the range com- ⎝ c/2 ⎠ c/2

pression and a second order MoCo after the Modified ωο is the center frequency, c is the speed of light and

Stolt mapping, following in principle the same MoCo kx is the Doppler wavenumber (kx = 2*π*fD/v, fD is the

correction procedure as in ECS. Doppler and v is the platform velocity).

A problem of the Extended Omega-K approach ap- After the Stolt Mapping further motion compensation

pears in case of high squint and wideband SAR data cannot be performed due to the fact that the azimuth

processing, because of the range and wavenumber chirps don't have any range dependence more (i.e.

dependence of the motion errors. A solution of this constant length and Doppler rate).

problem is presented in this paper using a sub- For this reason, a modified Stolt mapping [2] is per-

aperture technique. formed:

2 2

⎛ ω + ωο ⎞ 2 ⎛ω ⎞ 2 (2)

kr = ⎜ ⎟ − kx − ⎜ ο ⎟ − kx

2 Extended Wavenumber Do- ⎝ c/2 ⎠ ⎝ c/2 ⎠

main Algorithm The data are not azimuth focused and a second mo-

tion compensation step can be integrated. From the

2.1 Extended Omega-K processing above equation it becomes evident that the Modified

steps Stolt mapping introduces also a wavelength depend-

ent effect to the azimuth signal (and also to the mo-

The main processing steps of EOK, as analytically tion errors). An interpretation of this effect as well as

described in [2], are: a possible solution is proposed in the following sec-

i) First order Motion Compensation tions.

ii) 2D FFT

iii) Range compression

iv) Modified Stolt Mapping 2.2 Wavelength dependent nature of

v) 2D IFFT motion errors

vi) Second Order Motion Compensation

vii) Azimuth FFT In this section a formulation of the problem is per-

viii) Azimuth Compression formed, based on the signal analysis of a target’s re-

ix) Azimuth IFFT sponse before and after the modified Stolt mapping.

Range compression of the data is performed if a The response of a point target in the signal domain

chirped pulse has been transmitted. After the modified can be expressed as [11]:

Stolt mapping and the 2D IFFT are performed the δ( x - x , r − r ) → (3)

o o

data are RCM corrected but still azimuth unfocused.

Important to note is that the original formulation of ⎛ 2 R( x − xo ; ro ) ⎞ ⎛ 2 R( x − xo ; ro ) ⎞

go ⎜ t − ⎟ exp⎜ − jωo ⎟

the Omega-K algorithm does not allow for the second ⎝ c ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠

order motion compensation with enough accuracy.

This is due to the fact that after the Stolt mapping all where xo is the azimuth position of the target, ro is the

2

the SAR data in the signal domain will have the azi- range of closest approach, R( x; ro ) = ro + x2 and

muth chirps with the same length and Doppler rate

go(.) is the complex envelope of the transmitted sig-

(i.e. no range dependence). This leads to a mismatch

nal. Without loss of generality we choose xo = 0 and

between the SAR data and the motion compensation

the 2D response in the ω-kx wavenumber domain, us-

phase correction to be applied. The EOK algorithm

ing the method of stationary phase [11], is:

with a modified Stolt interpolation and with a

subaperture approach for motion compensation repre- ⎡ ⎛ ω + ωo ⎞

2 ⎤

PP ( k x ,ω ) ≅ exp ⎢ − jro ⋅ ⎜ (4)

⎟ − kx ⎥

2

sents one accurate solution for this limitation of the

⎢⎣ ⎝ c/2 ⎠ ⎥⎦

standard Omega-K algorithm.

while the geometry of the signal spectrum is charac-

2.1 Modified Stolt Mapping terized by the following relation [1]:

x kx ω + ωo

The modified Stolt mapping, introduced to the EOK =− ⇒ k x = − sin θ ⋅

2

ro + x 2 ω + ωo c/2 (5)

algorithm [2], provides the possibility for improved

second order motion compensation. In the conven- c/2

tional Omega-K algorithm, the Stolt mapping proce- x

sin θ = (6)

2

dure [11] corresponds to an interpolation, which ro + x 2

t ω

x kx

2D Fourier

Transform

2D Inverse

Fourier

Transform

(a)

kr kr

x

kx

Azimuth

Inverse

Fourier

Transform

Azimuth

Fourier (c)

Transform

(b)

Fig. 1 (a) Correspondence between the different as-

shown in Fig 1b. Furthermore, the image of the re-

pect angles (left) and the straight lines in the signal

sponse in the kr-azimuth domain is illustrated. To re-

spectrum (right), (b) 2D spectrum (left) and azimuth -

turn back to the signal domain, only an inverse FT in

‘range frequency’ (right) of the target’s response after the kr direction is needed. After the inverse FT, targets

modified Stolt mapping (simulation parameters: 120 are separated in range. But a problem appears in

MHz center frequency, 30 MHz bandwidth, PRF = every target’s response because of the way the inverse

100 Hz and –25˚ to 25˚ aspect angle) and (c) wave- FT in kr is calculated. This effect can be verified by

length dependent position shift of the motion errors in observing that every horizontal line away from the

the phase response. azimuth center of the target truncates curves corre-

From the above equation becomes evident that there sponding to different aspect angles. As a result of this,

is an one-one correspondence between the angle θ in the signal domain, an integrated error from an in-

and the parametric straight line, in the wavenumber terval of the target’s illumination time is accumulated

domain, given by Eq. 5. This correspondence is also to the target’s final signal domain response (see Fig

demonstrated in Fig 1a. 1c).

It must be noted, that because the deviation from the This effect becomes even more important in high

nominal track changes as the platform moves, the de- squint processing, because an integrated motion error

viation is only a function of the target’s range and as- from the entire target’s illumination time is accumu-

pect angle but also of azimuth. As a consequence, dif- lated. It must be noted that this wavelength dependent

ferent aspect angles (equivalently azimuth positions position of the motion errors exists also to the initial

for a specific target) of the aperture correspond to dif- raw data, but the second term of the phase response

ferent deviations. These lines can be characterized as after the Stolt mapping (see Eq. 7) is not kr depend-

iso-MoCo lines. ent, in contrary to the phase response before the Stolt

The modified Stolt mapping is performed by the mapping. Consequently, the expansion is correct for

change of variable given by Eq. 2. The response in the center frequency (kro = 2 ωo/c) but not for other kr.

the modified kr-kx wavenumber domain is:

⎛ω ⎞

PPmod − SM ( k x ,ω ) ≅ exp ( − jro ⋅ k r ) exp ⎢ − jro ⋅ ⎜ o ⎟ − k x 2 ⎥ aperture technique

⎢⎣ ⎝ c/2⎠ ⎥⎦

and the straight line (see Eq. 5) that corresponds to a data in order to compensate the above-described ef-

certain angle becomes (after the change of variable) a fect. Based on this technique, for every azimuth-range

parametric curve defined by the following equation: position, the motion errors from different angles are

unwrapped and then compensated.

2

⎛ω ⎞ (8) After performing a 2D FFT to every block of the im-

k r = k x ⋅ cot θ − ⎜ o ⎟ − k x

2

every (kx, kr) point is calculated from Eq. 8:

2

the computational burden and requires extra precau-

⎛ω ⎞ 2 tion to avoid unwanted phase jumps at the boundaries

kr + ⎜ o ⎟ − k x

⎝ c / 2⎠ (9) of the sub-apertures. A new version of the algorithm,

cot θ = without the use of sub-aperture, is currently under de-

kx

velopment. Instead of correcting fully the problem in

Afterwards, the kx’, which is the kx where the curve the wavenumber domain, a correction of the expan-

(see Eq. 8) crosses the horizontal axis (kr = 0) is cal- sion for a reference range is performed, using a suit-

culated: able phase function.

ωo kx

k x' =

c/2 ⎛ 2 ⎞

2 (10) 4 Literature

⎛ ω ⎞

k x + ⎜ kr + ⎜ o ⎟ − k x ⎟

2 2

⎜ ⎝c / 2⎠ ⎟ [1] C. Cafforio, C. Prati, and F. Rocca: "SAR Data Focusing Using

⎝ ⎠

Seismic Migration Techniques", IEEE Trans. on Aerosp. and

In case of high squint, the above equation becomes: Elec. Sys., Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 194-207, 1991.

[2] A. Moreira, J. Mittermayer and R. Scheiber: ”Extended Chirp

k x' = k xd + sin( θsqu int ) ⋅ cos( θsqu int ) ⋅ kr (11) Scaling Algorithm for Air- and Spaceborne SAR Data Proc-

essing in Stripmap and ScanSAR Imaging Modes”, IEEE

Where kxd is the kx wavenumber corresponding to the Trans. on Geosc. and Rem. Sens., Vol. 34, pp. 1123-1136,

squint angle and θsquint is the squint angle. Sep. 1996.

The kx and kx’ both correspond to two different azi- [3] R.K. Raney, H. Runge, R. Bamler, I. Cumming and F. Wong:

muth positions (according to stationary phase theo- ”Precision SAR Processing without interpolation for range

rem). The deviation (function of the azimuth position) cell migration correction”, IEEE Trans. on Geosc. and Rem.

for every point of the wavenumber domain (kx, kr) Sens., Vol. 32, pp. 786-799, July 1994.

corresponds to a specific azimuth position. This spe- [4] G. Franceschetti and G. Schirinzi ”A SAR processor based on

cific azimuth position corresponds to the sum of the two dimensional FFT codes”, IEEE Trans. On Aerosp. Elec.

reference azimuth position x’ of the specific block and Sys., Vol. 26, pp. 356-366, Mar. 1990.

the time difference between the previously described [5] R. Bamler: “A comparison of range-Doppler and wavenumber

azimuth positions. Furthermore, it can be expressed as domain SAR focusing algorithms”, IEEE Trans. on Geosc.

the deviation, which corresponds to the reference and Rem. Sens., Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 706-713, July 1992.

azimuth position shifted by the following time inter- [6] C. Cafforio, C. Prati, and F. Rocca: ”Full Resolution Focusing

val: of SEASAT SAR Images in the Frequency-Wavenumber

Domain”, Int. Journal of Rem. Sens., Vol. 12, pp. 491-510,

⎛ kx k x' ⎞ (12) 1991.

time _ difference = r' ⋅⎜ − ⎟

⎜ 2 2 2 ⎟ [7] G. Fornaro: ”Trajectory Deviations in Airborne SAR: Analysis

⎝ k ro − k x k ro − k x ' 2 ⎠ and Compensation”, IEEE Trans. on Aerosp. and Elec. Sys.,

ω (13) Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 997-1009, July 1999.

k ro = o

c/2 [8] R. Lanari: ”A new method for the comparison of the SAR range

where r’ is the reference range position of the specific cell migration based on the chirp Z-transform”, IEEE Trans.

block. on Geosc. and Rem. Sens., Vol. 33, pp. 1296-1299, Sept.

Accurate motion compensation is achieved by per- 1995.

forming the above procedure for every block and [9] A. Reigber, A. Potsis, E. Alivizatos, N. Uzunoglu and A.

every point (kx, kr) of the 2D spectrum. Moreira, “Wavenumber Domain SAR Focusing with Inte-

grated Motion Compensation”, IGARSS 2003.

A detailed description of the motion errors position in

the wavenumber domain as well as a motion compen-

sation technique in this domain was analytically for-

mulated in this paper. It was demonstrated, that the

correction of the motion errors in the two-dimensional

spectral domain could result in very accurate 2nd order

motion compensation. This procedure was combined

with a 2D sub-aperture technique resulting in a fully

azimuth-frequency adaptive block processing scheme.

Although the proposed MoCo algorithm successfully

compensates in several SAR system operational

modes, the use of sub-aperture techniques increases

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