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backcross, dominance and incomplete

Submitted by: sidra-tul-muntaha

Submitted to: mam noor kausar

Backcross test, Dominance and Incomplete

Genetic backcrossing, common in plant breeding, refers to a series of controlled
crosses between multiple generations of offspring and a particular parent.

Backcrossed hybrids are sometimes described with acronym BC for example an F1

hybrid crossed with one of its parents can be termed a BC1 hybrid, and a further cross
of the BC1 hybrid to the same parent produces a BC2 hybrid.

The end goal of backcrossing is to introduce a higher percentage of genes from a

particular parent into an offspring lineage. Initially, the genetic makeup of any offspring
generation is made up of 50% from each parent.

However if one parent has a higher percentage of desirable traits that are absent from
the progeny, more of these traits can be introduced into subsequent generations
through backcrossing with the desired parent.

Advantages and disadvantages:

 If the recurrent parent is an elite genotype, at the end of the backcrossing
proframme an elite genotype is recovered.
 As there is no new recombination, the elite combination is not lost.
 The method reduces the amount of field testing needed, as the new cultivar will
be adapted to the same area as the orinignal cultivar.
 Backcross breeding is repeatable. If the same parents are used, the same
backcrossed cultivar can be recovered.
 It is a conservative method, not permitting new recombinants.

 Backcross test is not effective for transferring quantitative traits. The trait should
be highly heritable and readily identifiable in each generations
 The presence of undesirable linkages may prevent the cultivar being improved
from attaining the performance of the original recurrent parent.
 Recessive traits are more time consuming to transfer.

when F1 is crossed to the parent with dominant phenotype. In such a cross plants will
be 100% of that phenotype.
When F1 plant is crossed to the parent with pure recessive trait. In such a cross 50%
plants will have character from one parent and 50% from another parent.
Incomplete dominance:
There are some gene pairs in which neither allele is dominant, and when both alleles
are present in the chromosomes both traits are expressed in the phenotype.
The resulting heterozygote phenotype is typically in between the two different homozygote
phenotypes. This pattern of inheritance is called incomplete dominance.

A curly haired person and a straight haired person mate and all their offspring have wavy hair
(note that wavy hair is a phenotype in between that of the curly and straight haired
individuals). The result of a cross between two wavy haired individuals The resulting F1
offspring would be:

25% Curly (CC)

50% Wavy (CS)
25% Straight (SS)
In complete dominance, the effect of one allele in a heterozygous genotype completely masks the
effect of the other. The allele that masks over the other allele is dominant to other one and the
allele which is masked is said to be recessive.

Complete dominance means that the heterozygous is indistinguishable from that of the dominant

The example of inheritance of pea seed shape . round seeds maybe represented by R and
recessive by r. in these combinations three combinations are possible.
- RR and rr are homozygous and Rr is heterozygous.
- The RR has round peas while rr would be wrinkled.
- In Rr individuals the R allele masks the presence of the r allele, so these individuals will
also have round peas
- Thus R is completely dominant to r allele.