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for Contaminated Glass Insulator

N. A. Othman,* M. A. M. Piah, Z. Adzis, H. Ahmad, N. A. Ahmad

Institute of High Voltage and High Current,

Faculty of Electrical Engineering,

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,

81310 UTM Johor Bahru,

Malaysia.

Abstract—Overhead transmission line insulators are designed thin homogenous layer with different conductivities on the

to perform dual functions namely electrical protection and surface insulation. Boundary element method is applied in [3]

mechanical support. However, irregular distribution of voltage to observe the effects on the field distribution to insulator shape

and electric-field in the insulators may lead to corona, partial for in different conditions. The calculation of field distribution

discharge, premature aging and indeed flashover. An attempt has using charge simulation method around a post type insulator

been made with finite element software to calculate the voltage for a different severity of surface contamination has been

and electric-field distribution in this paper. QuickField™ conducted for power frequency voltage, lightning and

Professional software is adopted to simulate the distribution of switching impulse voltages in [4]. Surface charge simulation

voltage and electric-field along the insulator surface with and

method has been used on the surface of the element cylindrical,

without the presence of contaminants. Glass insulator,

conical and toroidal in [5] to investigate the effects of

particularly cap and pin insulator is taken as main research

object. The result shows that the contaminated insulator distorts

asymmetric contamination on the axisymmetric insulator.

the distribution of voltage and electric-field significantly. Meanwhile, the distribution of e-field for polluted

Therefore, vital to study both voltage and electric field insulators is investigated in [6] using finite difference method

distribution as it is valuable for designing insulator as well as to by simplifying the boundary conditions. The finite element

predict the performance of the insulator under contaminated method (FEM) is one of the most popular methods that have

conditions. been used extensively due to its versatility, makes it easier to

Keywords— glass insulator; voltage distribution; electric field

incorporate into standard program [7]. Voltage and e-field

distribution; finite element software. distribution for different types of ceramic disc insulators were

studied in [8] by using two-dimensional (2D) FEM software,

where the supporting structures, conductors and other

I. INTRODUCTION accessories of the power transmission network is neglected.

Insulators strings are extensively used for suspension of Reliable agreement was found between the experimental and

overhead transmission line have provided excellent service for simulation results in [9] using three-dimensional (3D) FEM

decades. However, overhead insulator has beset crucial software. However, each of numerical methods has its own

problems when dealing with contamination. Since the earliest merits and drawbacks that can be achieved in [10].

days of power transmission network invented, the deposition of

In this paper, one unit suspension insulator was simulated

contamination source especially from industrial and coastal

using the QuickField™ Professional software that based on

areas on the insulator surface becomes a major concern [1].

finite element method. A thin film of contaminant is modeled

Indeed, the voltage and electric-field (e-field) distribution on the insulating surface to study in depth the influence of

of insulator string from insulator pin to insulator cap is greatly contamination layer against voltage and e-field distribution.

uneven. High e-field intensity and high voltage distribution is

believed might easily lead to corona, partial discharge, II. INSULATOR AND CONTAMINATION MODEL

premature aging and even flashover. These problems will

affect the distribution of electricity throughout the country as High-voltage glass suspension insulators of cap and pin

well as affecting the operation of transmission lines. Therefore, particularly U40B [11] type is selected in this study. Technical

the calculation of e-field and voltage distribution in and around parameters of the modeled insulator is shown in Fig.1 where

the insulation against contamination is important to be studied six different regions are depicted as cap (G1), cement between

to improve the reliability of the system. cap and glass (G2), glass (G3), cement between glass and pin

(G4), pin (G5), and surface to be contaminated (G6). Diameter,

Computation of voltage changes and e-field distribution is D of the insulator is 175mm, configuration height, H is

believed to provide information on the condition of the

110mm and nominal creepage distance of the insulator is

insulator. Various software that based on numerical methods

has been adopted to calculate the voltage and e-field 190mm for this model.

distribution as early as in [2], where the classical method of For the contamination model, a thin film is created so that

integral equation has been applied to investigate the effects of the entire surface of the insulator coated by contamination as

This work was partly supported by a project grant 01H69 and 03H86

from the Malaysia Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) and University of

Technology Malaysia (UTM).

shown in Fig. 2b. This film is also modeled as a uniform TABLE 1. MATERIAL PROPERTIES [12, 13]

conductive layer with 2mm thickness, adopting the properties Types of Relative electric Electric conductivity,

of sea water as the contamination source. material permittivity, İr ı (S/m)

Glass 4.2 0

Cement Grout 15 10-4

Air 1 0

Contamination 81 10-3

time-harmonic voltage applied. Combination of Gauss’s Law,

Current Continuity Equation and Ohm’s Law given in (1), (2)

and (3) respectively is applied in this analysis:

∇⋅ ε E = ρ (1)

δρ

∇⋅ J = − (2)

δt

J =σE (3)

İ is dielectric constant of dielectric material (İ=İrİo).

ı is the electric conductivity of dielectric material

Fig. 1. Schematic of the U40B Insulator Model Adopted for Study [11]

J is current density (A/m2)

E is electric field strength (V/m).

The simulation is modeled in free space, where the

potential of 11kV is applied to the insulator pin, while the

insulator cap is grounded. It is worth noting that the

supporting structures, conductors and other accessories are to

be neglected in this study.

The voltage and e-field distribution for clean insulator is

illustrated in Fig. 3 and 5, respectively. The voltage is

distributed to gradually decrease from insulator pin to

insulator cap. Meanwhile, the e-field strength is quite high

inside the glass material followed by nearby area of insulator

pin and finally around the insulator cap. The density of field

lines also represents the intensity of the e-field inside and

around the insulator.

The voltage and e-field distribution for contaminated

insulator is different from the aforementioned condition. The

Fig. 2. Modeling of the insulator in: (a) clean (b) contaminated voltage distribution seems to be distributed evenly from

insulator’s pin to cap along the insulator shed as illustrated in

Fig. 4. Meanwhile, e-field distribution in Fig. 6 concentrated

III. SIMULATION PARAMETERS more within the glass located between the insulator’s cap and

The actual profile data of the insulator in Table 1 is pin followed by the insulator shed.

transferred manually to the computer for simulation purpose.

The voltage distribution trend along creepage distance for

By adopting a cylindrical reference system with the z-axis

coincident with the axis of the insulator, the simulation is both conditions is completely different as illustrated in Fig. 7.

performed in an axisymmetric 2D problem which is indeed a The distribution of voltage for clean insulator decreased

sharply from 11kV to 4.2kV. This voltage then fluctuates until

representation of 3D modeling model in QuickField™ [12].

100mm distance subsequently remains at approximately 4kV

Since the insulator surface is modeled to be contaminated and

and finally drops to 0kV when approaching the insulator cap.

wet, the simulation is performed in AC conduction analysis

This is because the voltage distribution under clean and dry

with 50Hz frequency.

condition is characteristically as capacitive [14], which is

117

determined by capacitance of the insulator and stray

capacitance.

decrease from the insulator pin to the insulator cap when

Fig. 4. Voltage Distribution of Contaminated Insulator contamination layer is modeled on the insulator surface. The

insulator surface becomes more conductive in contaminated

conditions which cause voltage distribution turns into resistive

nature. Hence, it can be concluded that the voltage distribution

gradually approaches the linear resistive distribution in

contaminated conditions.

118

12

Clean

10

Contaminated

8

Voltage (kV)

0

0 50 100 150 200

Creepage distance measured from insulator pin (mm)

Fig. 7. Voltage distribution along creepage distance measured from insulator

pin Fig. 9. Location of measured charge

contaminated insulators. It is worth to note that high e-field is 3.5

obtained at the triple junction region (air-cap-glass) in both Clean

3

conditions usually due to manufacturing imperfections. Contaminated

However, e-field strength found in the contaminated insulator 2.5

is much higher compared to the clean insulator. A drastic

Charge (μC)

increase in the e-field strength in the gap between the glass and 2

cap may lead to the occurrence of glow corona that ultimately 1.5

causes flashover. The existence of glow corona is believed due

to the effect of negative ions that resulting from the discharge 1

process in the gap area [15, 16]. It is therefore crucial to pay

attention in this region during the manufacturing process to 0.5

prevent any discharge activities occur easily.

0

1 2 3 4

An attempt to measure the charge value at four different

Location of measurement

location of glass insulator has been made as seen in Fig. 9. It

Fig. 10. Value of charge according to the location

has been accepted in Fig. 10 that the value of charge in the

contaminated insulator is much higher compared to the clean

insulator at all four locations. The value of charge in the Indeed, charges are developed during the applied voltage.

location 4 contributes to the highest amount of charge The released electrons from the charge developed are believed

followed by location 1, 2 and 3. Though the amount of charge may become ionized through collision on their way to anode

in the location 4 is highest, due to natural cleaning process electrode and forming the ionization current [16].

such raining, contamination problems can be overcome at this

location. V. CONCLUSION

An attempt to simulate the distribution of voltage and

2,500

electric field for clean and contaminated insulators using the

Clean

QuickField™ Professional software is conducted in this paper.

2,000 Contaminated

Electric field strength (KV/mm)

contaminant layer are modeled on the surface of the insulator.

1,500

The simulation results show that the accumulated contaminants

1,000

on the insulator surface significantly affects the voltage and e-

field distribution. This distorted field will expedite the

500 premature aging process that may lead to flashover and result

in power system network interrupted. It is believed that the

0 calculated field would help in improving the insulator design

especially for contaminated areas with various climates.

-500 From this study, it was found that the voltage distribution

0 50 100 150 200

Creepage distance measured from insulator pin (mm) seems not stable and decrease drastically at the insulator ribs

Fig. 8. E-field strength along creepage distance measured from insulator pin (at a distance of 100mm earliest) for clean and contaminated

119

insulator, respectively. Therefore, careful attention must be Distribution of Polymeric Insulator," J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 2,

pp. 12482-12491, 2012.

made in designing the insulator especially at the insulator ribs [15] F. F. Bologna, J. P. Reynders, and A. C. Britten, "Corona Discharge

to overcome the unstable voltage distribution on the insulator. activity on a String of Glass Cap-and-Pin Insulators under Conditions

So, the studied approach using this commercial available of Light wetting, Light non-uniform Contamination," in IEEE Bologna

software is applicable to study the distribution of voltage as Power Tech Conference Proceedings, 2003, p. 8 pp. Vol.3.

[16] K. Feser and H. Singer, "From the Glow Corona into the Breakdown,"

well as e-field before designing any type of insulators. Hence,

ETZ-A Bd., vol. 1, pp. 36-39, 1972.

further simulation investigations are encouraged on various

types of disc insulator used in high voltage transmission line

system.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

and 03H86 from the Malaysia Ministry of Higher Education

(MOHE) and University of Technology Malaysia (UTM).

REFERENCES

[1] R. Wilkins, "Flashover Voltage of High-Voltage Insulators with

Uniform Surface-Pollution Films," Proceedings of the Institution of

Electrical Engineers, , vol. 116, pp. 457-465, 1969.

[2] A. Skopec, J. G. Wankowicz, and B. Sikorski, "Electric Field

Calculation for an Axially-symmetric Insulator with Surface

Contamination," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical

Insulation, vol. 1, pp. 332-339, 1994.

[3] S. Chakravorti and H. Steinbigler, "Boundary Element Studies on

Insulator Shape and Electric Field around HV Insulators with or

without Pollution," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical

Insulation, vol. 7, pp. 169-176, 2000.

[4] S. Chakravorti and P. K. Mukherjee, "Power Frequency and Impulse

Field Calculation around a HV Insulator with Uniform or Nonuniform

Surface Pollution," IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, vol. 28,

pp. 43-53, 1993.

[5] P. K. Mukherjee, A. Ahmed, and H. Singer, "Electric Field Distortion

Caused by Asymmetric Pollution on Insulator Surfaces," IEEE

Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation,, vol. 6, pp. 175-

180, 1999.

[6] N. Morales, E. Asenjo, and A. Valdenegro, "Field Solution in Polluted

Insulators with non-symmetric Boundary Conditions," IEEE

Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation,, vol. 8, pp. 168-

172, 2001.

[7] M. V. K. Chari, G. Bedrosian, J. Dangelo, and A. Konrad, "Finite

Element Applications in Electrical Engineering," IEEE Transactions on

Magnetics, , vol. 29, pp. 1306-1314, 1993.

[8] B. S. Reddy, N. A. Sultan, P. M. Monika, B. Pooja, O. Salma, and K.

V. Ravishankar, "Simulation of Potential and Electric Field for High

Voltage Ceramic Disc Insulators," in 2010 International Conference on

Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS),, 2010, pp. 526-531.

[9] V. T. Kontargyri, I. F. Gonos, and I. A. Stathopulos, "Measurement and

Simulation of the Electric Field of High Voltage Suspension

Insulators," European Transactions on Electrical Power, vol. 19, pp.

509-517, 2009.

[10] F. J, "Instructive Review of Computation of Electric Fields using

Different Numerical Techniques," International Journal of Engineering

Education (IJEE), vol. 18, pp. 344-356, 2002.

[11] G. I. Group, "Insulators for Power Transmission Lines and Substations

with Voltage from 0.4 kV to 1150 kV," ed, 2012.

[12] S. Ilhan, A. Ozdemir, S. H. Jayaram, and E. A. Cherney, "Simulations

of Pollution and their Effects on the Electrical Performance of Glass

Suspension Insulators," in 2012 Annual Report Conference on

Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), , 2012, pp.

803-806.

[13] S. Ilhan, A. Ozdemir, S. H. Jayaram, and E. A. Cherney, "AC and

Transient Electric Field Distributions along a 380 kV V-string

Insulator," in Conference Record of the 2012 IEEE International

Symposium on Electrical Insulation (ISEI), 2012, pp. 399-403.

[14] S.Z. Moussavi, B. Sheikhdoragh, and A.A. Shayegani-Akmal,

"Investigation on Pollution Factors on Electric Field and Potential

120

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