Anda di halaman 1dari 11

EJERCICIO # 3

Primera parte (punto 1 al 4)

Evaluar las siguientes integrales impropias si convergen o divergen:

1
dx
3. 
0 1 x
1
dx

0 1 x
𝑑𝑥

1
Calculamos la integral indefinida  1 x
dx  2 1  x  c

1
∫ 𝑑𝑥
√1 − 𝑥
Aplicar integración por sustitución ∫ 𝑓(𝑔(𝑥)). 𝑔´(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑓(𝑢)𝑑𝑢, 𝑢 = 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑢 =
1 − 𝑥 𝑑𝑢 = −1𝑑𝑥
Sustituir 𝑢 = 1 − 𝑥
𝑑𝑢
= −1
𝑑𝑥
𝑑
(1 − 𝑥)
𝑑𝑥
𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑎
𝐴𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑙𝑎 : (𝑓 ± 𝑔)′ = 𝑓′ ± 𝑔′
𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑎
𝑑 𝑑
=𝑑𝑥 = (1) − 𝑑𝑥 (𝑥)

𝑑
= (1) = 0
𝑑𝑥
𝑑
= (1)
𝑑𝑥
𝑑
𝐷𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑑𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑢𝑛𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 = (𝑎) = 0
𝑑𝑥
=0
𝑑
(𝑥) = 1
𝑑𝑥
𝑑
(𝑥)
𝑑𝑥
𝑑
𝐴𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑠 𝑙𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑖ó𝑛: (𝑥) = 1
𝑑𝑥
=1
= 0−1
Simplificamos
= −1
⇒ 𝑑𝑢 = −1𝑑𝑥

⇒ 𝑑𝑥 = (−1)𝑑𝑢

1
=∫ (−1)𝑑𝑢
√𝑢
1
= ∫−
√𝑢
𝑆𝑎𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒: ∫ 𝑎. 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑎. ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥
1
= −∫ 𝑑𝑢
√𝑢
1
= 𝑢−1/2 𝑑𝑢
√𝑢
𝑥 𝑎+1
Aplicar la regla de la potencia: ∫ 𝑥 𝑎 𝑑𝑥 = , 𝑎 ≠ −1
𝑎+1
1
𝑢−2+1
= 1
− +1
2

𝑆𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑖𝑟 𝑒𝑛 𝑙𝑎 𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 ∶ 𝑢 = 1 − 𝑥
1
(1 − 𝑥)2+1
=− 1
−2 + 1

Simplificar

= −2√1 − 𝑥
Agregamos una constante a la solución

= −2√1 − 𝑥 + 𝑐

Calcular los límites


1 1
dx dx

0 1 x
𝑑𝑥: 
0 1 x
𝑑𝑥 = 0 − (−2)

= 0 − (−2)

Simplificamos
=2
𝑃𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑜 6

∫ 𝑥 2 √𝑥 − 4 𝑑𝑥
4

𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝑑𝑢
𝑆𝑒𝑎: 𝑢 = 𝑥 − 4 → = 1 → 𝑑𝑢 = 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥

𝑥 =𝑢+4

𝐿𝑢𝑒𝑔𝑜:
1⁄
∫(𝑢 + 4)2 ∗ √𝑢 𝑑𝑢 = ∫[𝑢2 + 2(𝑢)(4) + 42 ] ∗ 𝑢 2 𝑑𝑢

1⁄ 𝑠⁄ 3⁄ 1⁄
=∫[𝑢2 + 8𝑢 + 16]𝑢 2 𝑑𝑢 = ∫ [𝑢 2 + 8𝑢 2 + 16𝑢 2] 𝑑𝑢

𝑠⁄ 3⁄ 1⁄
= ∫𝑢 2 𝑑𝑢 + ∫ 8𝑢 2 𝑑𝑢 + ∫ 16𝑢 2 𝑑𝑢
7 𝑠⁄ 3⁄
2𝑢 ⁄2 8(2)𝑢 2 16(2)𝑢 2
= + +
7 𝑠 3

7⁄ 𝑠⁄ 3⁄ 𝑠
2 (𝑥 − 4) 2 16(𝑥 − 4) 2 32(𝑥 − 4) 2
=[ + + ]∫
7 𝑠 3 4

7⁄ 𝑠⁄ 3⁄
2 (𝑠 − 4) 2 16(𝑠 − 4) 2 32(𝑠 − 4) 2
=[ + ]
7 𝑠 3
7⁄ 𝑠⁄ 3⁄
2(4 − 4) 2 16(4 − 4) 2 32 (4 − 4) 2
−[ + + ]
7 𝑠 3

2 16 32 10 + 112 32 366 + 1120 1486


= + + = + = =
7 𝑠 3 3𝑠 3 10𝑠 10𝑠

Decimos pues que la integral dada es convergente

dx
7.  25  x 2
dx
 25  x 2
√𝑎
𝑃𝑎𝑟𝑎 √𝑎 − 𝑏𝑥 2 𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑖𝑟 𝑥 = sin(𝑢)
√𝑏
Aplicamos la integración por sustitución ∫ 𝑓(𝑔(𝑥)). 𝑔´(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑓(𝑢)𝑑𝑢, 𝑢 =
𝑔(𝑥) 𝑥 = 5sin(𝑢) 𝑑𝑥 = 5cos(u)𝑑𝑢
𝑆𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑖𝑟 𝑥 = 5sin(𝑢)
𝑑𝑥
= 5cos(𝑢)
𝑑𝑢
𝑑
= (5 sin(𝑢))
𝑑𝑢
𝑆𝑎𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 = (𝑎. 𝑓)′ = 𝑎. 𝑓′
𝑑
=5 (sin(𝑢))
𝑑𝑢
𝑑
𝐴𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑠 𝑙𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 = (sin(𝑢)) = cos(𝑢)
𝑑𝑢
= 5cos(𝑢)
⇒ 𝑑𝑥 = 5 cos(𝑢) 𝑑𝑢

1
 25  5 sin( u )) 2
.5 cos(u )du

5cos(𝑢)
∫ 𝑑𝑢
√25 − 25𝑠𝑖𝑛2 (𝑢)

𝑆𝑎𝑐𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑠 𝑙𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒: ∫ 𝑎. 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑎. ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥


cos(𝑢)
= 5. ∫
√25 − 25𝑠𝑖𝑛2 (𝑢)

√25 − 25𝑠𝑖𝑛2 (𝑢) = √25√−𝑠𝑖𝑛2 (𝑢) + 1


cos(𝑢)
= 5. ∫ 𝑑𝑢
√25 − 25𝑠𝑖𝑛2 (𝑢) = √25√−𝑠𝑖𝑛2 (𝑢) + 1
𝑈𝑠𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒 𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑: 1 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 (𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (𝑥)
cos(𝑢)
= 5. ∫ 𝑑𝑢
√𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (𝑢)√25

√𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (𝑢) = (cos(𝑢)), 𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑞𝑢𝑒 cos(𝑢) ≥ 0


cos(𝑢)
= 5. ∫ 𝑑𝑢
√𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (𝑢)√25

𝑆𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑠
1
= 5. ∫ 𝑑𝑢
5
𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑒 𝑢𝑛𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 ∫ 𝑎𝑑𝑥 = 𝑎𝑥
1
= 5. 𝑑𝑢
5
1
𝑆𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑖𝑟 𝑒𝑛 𝑙𝑎 𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑢 = arcsin ( 𝑥)
5
1 1
= 5. arcsin ( 𝑥)
2 5
Simplificamos
𝑥
= arcsin ( )
5
Agregamos una constante a la solución
𝑥
= arcsin ( ) + 𝐶
5

EJERCICIO 10
5𝑋 − 2
∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑥2 − 4
Integración por sustitución

𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑙𝑎 𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑎 ∫ 𝑓(𝑥) ± 𝑔(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 ± ∫ 𝑔(𝑥)𝑑𝑥

5𝑥 2
=∫ 𝑑𝑥 − ∫ 2 𝑑𝑥
𝑥2−4 𝑥 −4
5𝑥 5
∫ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑙𝑛|𝑥 2 − 4|
𝑥2−4 2
5𝑥
∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑥2−4

𝑠𝑎𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 ∫ 𝑎. ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥


𝑥
= 5. ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑥2 − 4
𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛

∫ 𝑓(𝑔(𝑥)). 𝑔(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑓(𝑢)𝑑𝑢, 𝑢 = 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑢 = 𝑥 2 − 4 𝑑𝑢 = 2𝑥𝑑𝑥

𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑖𝑟 𝑢 = 𝑥 2 − 4
𝑑𝑢
= 2𝑥
𝑑𝑥
𝑑
= (𝑥 2 − 4)
𝑑𝑥
𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑙𝑎 𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑎 /𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑎 (𝑓 ± 𝑔) = 𝑓 ± 𝑔
𝑑 2 𝑑
= (𝑥 ) − (4)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑 2
(𝑥 ) = 2𝑥
𝑑𝑥
𝑑 2
(𝑥 )
𝑑𝑥
𝑑 9
𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑙𝑎 𝑝𝑜𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑎 (𝑥 ) = 𝑎. 𝑥 𝑎−1
𝑑𝑥
= 2𝑥 2−1
𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟
= 2𝑥
𝑑
(4) = 0
𝑑𝑥
𝑑
(4)
𝑑𝑥
𝑑
𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑑𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑢𝑛𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 (𝑎) = 0
𝑑𝑥
=0
= 2𝑥 − 0
𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟
=2𝑥
⇒ 𝑑𝑢 = 2𝑥𝑑𝑥

1
⇒ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑢
2𝑥
𝑥 1
= ∫ . 𝑑𝑢
𝑢 2𝑥
1
=∫ 𝑑𝑢
2𝑢
1
= 5. ∫ 𝑑𝑢
2𝑢

𝑠𝑎𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 ∫ 𝑎. 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑎. ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥

1 1
= 5. ∫ 𝑑𝑢
2 𝑢
1
𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 ∫ 𝑑𝑢 = ln(|𝑢|)
𝑢
1
= 5. ln|𝑢|
2
𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑖𝑟 𝑒𝑛 𝑙𝑎 𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑢 = 𝑥 2 − 4
1
= 5. ln|𝑥 2 − 4|
2
𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟
5
= ln|𝑥 2 − 4|
2
2 𝑥
∫ 𝑑𝑥 − arctanh ( )
𝑥2 − 4 2
2
∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑥2 −4

𝑠𝑎𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 ∫ 𝑎. 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑎. ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥

1
= 2. ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑥2 − 4

√𝑎
𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎 𝑏𝑥 2 ± 𝑎 𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑖𝑟 𝑥 = 𝑢
√𝑏
𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛
∫ 𝑓(𝑔(𝑥)). 𝑔′(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑓(𝑢)𝑑𝑢, 𝑢 = 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑥 = 2𝑢 𝑑𝑥 = 2𝑑𝑢

𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑖𝑟: 𝑥 = 2𝑢
𝑑
(2𝑢)
𝑑𝑢
𝑠𝑎𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 (𝑎. 𝑓)′ = 𝑎. 𝑓′
𝑑
=2 (𝑢)
𝑑𝑢
𝑑
𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑢 ) = 1
𝑑𝑢
= 2.1
𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟
=2
⇒ 𝑑𝑥 = 2𝑑𝑢

1
=∫ . 2𝑑𝑢
(2𝑢)2 − 4
1
=∫ 𝑑𝑢
2(𝑢2 − 1)
1
= 2. ∫ 𝑑𝑢
2(𝑢2 − 1)

𝑠𝑎𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒: ∫ 𝑎. 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑎. ∫ 𝑓 (𝑥)𝑑𝑥

1 1
= 2. . ∫ 2 𝑑𝑢
2 𝑢 −1
𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑖𝑒𝑑𝑎𝑑 𝑎𝑙𝑔𝑒𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎 (𝑎 − 𝑏) = −(−𝑎 + 𝑏)
1 1
= 2. . ∫ 𝑑𝑢
2 −(−𝑢2 + 1)

𝑠𝑎𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒: ∫ 𝑎. 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑎. ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥

1 1
= 2. (− ∫ 2 𝑑𝑢)
2 𝑢 −1
1
𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 ∫ 𝑑𝑢 = arctanh(𝑢)
−𝑢2 + 1
1
= 2. (− arctanh(𝑢))
2
1
𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑖𝑟 𝑙𝑎 𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑢 = 𝑥
2
1 1
= 2. (− arctanh ( 𝑥))
2 2
𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟
𝑥
= −arctanh ( )
2
5 𝑥
= 𝑙𝑛|𝑥 2 − 4| − (−𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ ( ))
2 2

𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟
𝑥 5
= arctanh ( ) + 𝑙𝑛|𝑥 2 − 4|
2 2
𝑎𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑎𝑟 𝑢𝑛𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 𝑎 𝑙𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝑑𝐹(𝑥)
𝑠𝑖 𝑓(𝑥)𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑠 ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹(𝑥) + 𝑐
𝑑𝑥
𝑥 5
= arctanh ( 2 ) + 2 𝑙𝑛|𝑥 2 − 4|+c

11.
𝜋
2
∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 4 (𝑥)𝑠𝑒𝑛3 (𝑥)𝑑𝑥
0
𝜋
2
= ∫ (𝑐𝑜𝑠 4 (𝑥))𝑠𝑒𝑛2 (𝑥)𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)𝑑𝑥
0
𝜋
2
= ∫ (𝑐𝑜𝑠 4 (𝑥))(1 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (𝑥))𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)𝑑𝑥
0

𝑢 = cos(𝑥)
𝑑𝑢
= −𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑢 = −𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)𝑑𝑥
𝜋
2
= − ∫ 𝑢4 (1 − 𝑢2 )𝑑𝑢
0
𝜋 𝜋
2 2
= − ∫ 𝑢 𝑑𝑢 + ∫ 𝑢6 𝑑𝑢
4
0 0
𝜋
𝑢5 𝑢7
= (− + ) ( 2 )
5 7 0
𝜋
𝑐𝑜𝑠 5 (𝑥) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 7 (𝑥) 2
=− + ( )
5 7 0
𝜋 𝜋
𝑐𝑜𝑠 5 ( 2 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 7 ( 2 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 5 (0) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 7 (0)
= (− + ) − (− + )
5 7 5 7

1 1 7−5 2
= − = =
5 7 35 35