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Hypothesis of the Universe Hypothesis of the Origin of the Solar

System
 Peter Jakobsen
He investigated the nature of the
gaseous matter that fills the vast volume Nebular Hypothesis:
of intergalactic space. According to this theory, the Sun and all the
planets of our Solar System began as a giant cloud
 Galileo Galilei of molecular gas and dust called a nebula. Then,
was the first to discover physical about 4.6 billion years ago, something happened
details about the individual bodies of the that caused the cloud to collapse. This could have
Solar System. been the result of the shock waves from a
supernova. This cloud started rotating, and the dust
 Edwin P. Hubble particles combined to form planets. As the cloud
rotated faster, it flattened, and the planets
Revolutionized cosmology by
combined to form, first of all, the Sun at the center,
proving that the clouds of light and secondly, the planets in orbit around the Sun.
astronomers saw in the night
sky were actually other galaxies beyond
Fission Theory
our Milky Way he used the
Hubble space telescope The "fission theory" says that our sun
burst one day, and all our planets came from it.
Working at the Mount Wilson Then the moons shot out from each planet,
Observatory in California, announced stopped, turned sideways and began circling the
that all of the galaxies he had observed planets they came out of. Our moon is said to have
were receding from us, and from each emerged from an explosion in the Pacific Ocean.
other, at speeds of up to several
thousand miles per second. Capture Theory
The "capture theory" says that our planets
The Big Bang Theory and moons were wandering around in space and
the planets were captured by the gravity of our
Explains how universe began as a sun, and the moons were captured by the
very hot, small, and dense superforce with no planets.
stars, atoms, form, or structure (called a
"singularity"). Then about 13.7 billion years Planetary Collision Theory
ago, space expanded very quickly (thus the
The "collision theory" of the origin our moon
name "Big Bang"). This started the formation of
theorizes that our world is said to have collided
atoms, which eventually led to the formation of
with a small planet. The resulting explosion threw
stars and galaxies.
off rocks which formed our orbiting moon.

Steady state theory


Water plumes on Jupiter's moon
The Steady State Theory states that the Europa?
Universe doesn’t evolve or change over time. A Scientists re-examining data from an old
steady state universe has no beginning or mission bring new insights to the tantalizing
end. The Steady State theorists admit that the question of whether Jupiter's moon Europa has the
universe is expanding, but predict that new ingredients to support life. The data provide
matter continually comes to life in the spaces independent evidence that the moon's subsurface
between the receding galaxies. liquid water reservoir may be venting plumes of
water vapor above its icy shell.
Properties of Earth that Supports Life LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE

Atmosphere Troposphere
This is the layer of the atmosphere closest
Earth has a breathable atmosphere. Oxygen is the to the Earth's surface, extending up to about 10-15
gas that is required for the life of most creatures. km above the Earth's surface. It contains 75% of
This is present in Earth's atmosphere and also in the atmosphere's mass. The troposphere is equator
water. than at the poles.

Climate Stratosphere
The stratosphere starts just above the
Earth has a suitable climate. This is caused by the troposphere and extends to 50 kilometers (31
moderate amount of carbon dioxide in the planet's miles) high. The ozone layer, which absorbs and
atmosphere, which is constantly refreshed scatters the solar ultraviolet radiation, is in this
whenever there is a volcanic eruption. layer.

Water
Mesosphere
Earth has water! Water is considered to be the The mesosphere starts just above the
most important chemical necessary for life. It stratosphere and extends to 85 kilometers (53
contains the oxygen needed for life. miles) high. Meteors burn up in this layer

Light Thermosphere
The thermosphere starts just above the
All planets receive light from the Sun, but no planet
mesosphere and extends to 600 kilometers (372
uses it as usefully as Earth.
miles) high. Aurora and satellites occur in this layer.

The Ozone Layer


Exosphere
The Ozone Layer is able to absorb most This is the upper limit of our atmosphere. It
ultraviolet radiation. It prevents it from reaching the extends from the top of the thermosphere up to
surface of the earth 10,000 km (6,200 mi).
Earth’s Subsystem
Biosphere
Atmosphere
The biosphere is the “life zone” of the Earth,
It is a layer or a set of layers of gases that and includes all organism (including humans) and
surrounds the Earth. It also protects the Earth from all organic matter that has not yet decomposed
incoming solar rays, it circulates the gases that
plants and animals need to survive and it is Geosphere
responsible for our weather.
The geosphere includes the Earth's crust
and the uppermost part of the mantle. It is the solid
part of the Earth, from the core to the surface. It
includes the volcanoes, rocks, minerals, oil etc.
Mineral resources are mined in the geosphere.
Hydrosphere
Mantle
About 71% of Earth's surface is covered
with water, mostly by oceans. The remaining 29% Is the widest section of the Earth. It has a
is land consisting of continents and islands that thickness of approximately 2,900 km. The mantle is
together have many lakes, rivers and other sources made up of semi-molten rock called magma. In the
of water that contribute to the hydrosphere upper parts of the mantle the rock is hard, but lower
down the rock is soft and beginning to melt.
The hydrosphere contains all the water found in
our planet. Core

o Surface Water Is in the center and is the hottest part of the


o Frozen Water Earth. It is solid and made up of iron and nickel with
o Ground Water temperatures of up to 5,500°C. With its immense
o Atmosphere heat energy, the inner core is like the engine room
of the Earth.

How do the four subsystems affect and interact Physical Layers


with each other?
Lithosphere
1. Volcanic Eruption The solid top layer of the Earth. Includes the crust
and the upper part of the mantle.
Volcanoes (geosphere) erupted, sending
ash and gases into the air (atmosphere) and
sending lava and ash down onto surrounding Asthenosphere
forests and human habitations (biosphere). Thin layer of mantle under the lithosphere.
More liquid than rest of the mantle-“low viscosity”
2. Hurricane
Mesosphere
Hurricanes (atmosphere) sweep across the
The rest of the mantle Hotter, but higher
ocean (hydrosphere) and onto the land
pressures keep this layer more rigid. “high
(geosphere), damaging the dwellings of the people
viscosity”
who live among the coast (biosphere).
Outer Core
3. Earthquake
The outer core is liquid. The circulation of
Earthquake (geosphere) can damage its molten iron is thought to be the source of earth's
buildings which may kill people (biosphere), as well magnetic field.
as cause fires which release gases into the air
Inner Core
(atmosphere). Earthquake in the ocean may cause
There is very high pressure in the inner core
a Tsunami (hydrosphere) which can eventually hit As a result the inner core is solid.
land and kill both animals and people (biosphere).

The Layers of the Earth

Compositional Layers
Crust

Is the outer layer of the earth. It is a thin


layer between 0-60 km thick. The crust is the solid
rock layer upon which we live.