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Road Defects at Barangay

San Andres, Sto Domingo, Albay


With sincerity and gratitude the researchers acknowledges the following

people for their support, help, and encouragement in making this project a


Madam Belaro, our Technical Communication Professor, for the

assistance, professional guidance, kindness and understanding.

To our parents, for their undying love and support for every big and little

thing that we posed for our education.

To our friends and classmates, whom we shared our common dilemmas

and lifted each other’s confidence and morale and to those who are not

mentioned but part and parcel in the realization of this endeavour.

Above all, to our almighty God, for his divine assistance and guidance in

times of discouragement. Also for giving us wisdom and spiritual strength that

helps us complete this research project. “I can do all things through Christ who

strengthens me.” (Philippians 4:13)

Table of Contents

Title Page


Table of Contents

Statement of the Problem…………………………….. 1


Significance of the Study………………………………4

Definition of Terms………………………………….…..5


Research Design………………………………….…....7

Source of Data …………………………………………7

Respondents ……………………………………….…..8

Instrumentation …………………………………….......8

Procedure ………………………………………….…...8

Results and Discussions …………………………….. 9



Conclusion …………………………………………….19

Recommendation ……………………………………..20



Curriculum Vitae



With the arrival of modern man, road building became a prevalent sign of

an advancing nation. It started as early as the ancient civilization when the man

sought for innovation in transporting people and goods. Until now, construction

and improvement of roads and highways is continuous process as technology

becomes advance.

According to Sam Stewart, Executive director of Uganda Road Sector

Support Initiative (URSSI), “Roads enhance mobility, taking people out of

isolation and therefore poverty”. Hence, roads play an important role in the

society. It has been a great help in raising the economic condition of places, both

urban and rural.

Moreover, road construction has been a project of government for years to

achieve this certain goals. The Department of Public Works and Highways

(DPWH) has been conducting a project of converting ragged roads into a useful

new road structure. Projects such as the Php 200 million provincial road

concreting which was been undertaken by the Capiz Provincial Government and

part of the Php 683-million credit facility of the provincial government with the

Philippine Veterans Bank was successfully constructed.

Another project was the road concreting of farm-to-market road in

SitioLaom to National Road of Banquerohan, Legazpi City. The implementation

and completion of the said project will enhance the expansion of the production

area and increase agricultural output and for the development of lands for the

great potential of agri-based industry.

This fact shows that the government has a large amount of money alotted

for the road construction and maintainance of the roads and highways in the

Philippines. But the problem in roads didn’t stop in the concreting of the roadway.

As every road becomes concreted another problem arises. Road defects become

visible and slowly it becomes a burden to the road users. Nevertheless bad road

defects did not just exist without a cause. Deterioration is primarily caused due to

aging, weathering and action of road traffic.

According to Research Development Division, cracks are caused by

asphalt fatigue by an adequate pavement thickness, shrink damage of underlying

cemented material. The road deformations are primarily cause by inadequate

stability in surfacing poor bond between pavement layers. Moreover potholes and

patches are caused by localized lost of surface course moisture entry in to

granular, and load associated disintegration. Therefore patches in adequate

patching material, drainage, workmanship and cracking along the joint with

existing pavement resulting to water entry.

Barangay San Andres is one of the identified brgy. roads that is currently

suffering road problem. The road of barangay San Andres has a length of

approximately 1.5 kilometers from its adjacent barangays, Bagong San Roque,

Sto. Domingo and Bayandong, Bacacay, Albay. It was concreted last 2004 with

the help of the municipality of Sto. Domingo. It is used as an alternative road in

travelling from Legazpi to Bacacay and vice versa and also a way to reach the

premises of Tabaco City.

Almost ten years had passed after its construction. Cracks and

deformation of the road becomes noticeable. Defects are seen in the surface of

the path way. Apparently the effects of this road problem become a burden to the

residents including the people in the neighboring barangay.

It is a big hassle travelling especially to the students, office workers and all

other residents living in Brgy. San Andres, Sto. Domingo, Albay. It delays

transportation and possibly can cause accidents, crashing of vehicles in

particular which can lead to serious injuries.

Big cracks and potholes turn out to be hazardous for vehicles and road

users. Safety is not guaranteed and what’s worst is, it may causefatalities.In

Malaysia, high number of fatalities was been recorded due to its transportation

crashes. The roadway condition and quality in terms of geometric design and

structural pavement was said to be one of the factors of accidents.

This study entitled “Road Defects at San Andres, Sto. Domingo, Albay”

will evaluate the possible causes and effects of road distresses in the said area.

It is nesessary to determine possible solution to the problem so that road

accidents will be lessen and possible damages. Furthermore, the factors that

contribute to the formation of road defects should be found out before it becomes

worst. Recommending remedies and various method for pavement preservation

will surely help in enhancing the life of pavement and delays its failure.


 Determine the various types of concrete cracks that exists in the road of

barangay San Andres, Sto. Domingo, Albay.

 Evaluate the effects of the road deterioration to the affected residents of

the barangay.

 Describe the factors that contributes to the road defects.

 Recommend a solution to the problem and suggest a particular method in

minimizing road failures.

Significance of the Study

This study has a particular importance in the accessibility aspect of the road.

This is also significant not only to the researchers but also to the residents,

government, and the academe.

This study may also serve as a looking glass for viewing the situaion of the other

local and national roads

Residents and Vehicle Owners

This will provide awareness to the people along the area about the possible

harmful effect of deteriorated pavement to the road users.


This will help the government to identify the root cause of road defects and

to make a possible solution about the maintenance of road infrastructures.

Future Researchers

This research paper will be another related study that they may possibly add

to their reference if need arises. It may serve as basis or additional source of

information if related topics are being conducted for study in the future. This

study will serve as reference for students who will study the projects similar to

this one.

Definition of Terms

Defect -refers to the visible evidence of an undesirable condition in the pavement

affecting serviceability, structural condition or appearance.

Deformation- is the change in a road surface from the intended

profile.Deformation may directly influence the riding quality of a pavement

(roughness and water ponding leading to loss of skid resistance) and may reflect

structural inadequacies.

Pavement -That with which anything is paved; a floor or covering of solid

material, laid so as to make a hard and convenient surface for travel; a paved

road or sidewalk; a decorative interior floor of tiles colored bricks.

Spalling- is a condition where distinct, usually angular pieces of concrete have

flaked(cracked), or are showing a tendency to flake from the concrete surfaces.

Cracks - are fissures resulting from partial or complete fractures of the pavement

surface and underlying layers.

Potholes - bowl-shaped depressions in the pavement surface resulting from the

loss of wearing course and base course material. They are produced when traffic

abrades small pieces of the pavement surface (cracking, delamination, etc),

allowing the entry of water.

Patches - repaired sections of pavement that may or may not be associated with

either a loss of serviceability (apart from a loss of appearance) or structural

capacity. The extent and frequency of patching can be a useful indicator of the

structural adequacy of the pavement.

Asphalt- semisolid bituminous substance:a brownish black solid or semisolid

substance used for surfacing roads.

Subgrade- is the underlying soil that supports the applied wheel loads. If the

subgrade is too weak to support the wheel loads, the pavement will flex

excessively which ultimately causes the pavement to fail.

Disintegration – is the progressive breaking up of the pavement into small,

loose pieces.

Road Traffic- is the most important factor influencing pavement

performance;Mostly influenced by the loading magnitude, configuration and the

number of load repetitions by heavy vehicles.


Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research method used in the study to attain the

answers and solutions to the research problem. It also includes the sub-topic

such as the research design, the sources of data gathered, respondents and


Research Design

This study intends to identify and classify the types of road defects that exist in

Barangay San Andres, Sto. Domingo Albay. It also considers the possible cause

of the road deterioration and effects of it to the people of the community.

Descriptive-analytical design was used in the research development. The

research wasdone through observation and examination. Subsequently the

analysis of data gathered was made.

The primary and secondary source of data was obtained from the interview

conducted to the residents and road users.

Sources of Data

The primary source of the data in the study was collected from the

Municipal Engineer of Sto. Domingo, Albay. Some information wastaken from the

response of the residents, road users and affected people of the road. Additional

information wasacquired using the available data found in the internet about the

road defects.

The respondents of the studyconsist of ten (10) residents ranging from 18

years old and above, ten (10) road users specifically tricycle drivers that have

registered routes from Sto. Domingo Proper to Barangay San Andres and lastly

five commuters including the people of the nearby barangay.


The researchers prepared a questionnaire as the main instrument in

gathering data. The questionnaire consisted of the (a) kinds of road defects

present in the area, (b) possible cause of road defect (c) the effects of road

deterioration in their everyday life


Site visit is the most important thing to do to perceive the real scenario.

The researchers went to Barangay San Andres, Sto. Domingo, Albay to observe

the road and examine visible defect. They took photos and afterward classify

each road defect according to its type. Then an interview was followed to get

the opinions as well as the reactions of the people in the barangay. Each

respondent was given a form that contains self-assessed questions concerning

the existence of road defect in the area. Lastly, the researchers summarized all

the data gathered and made an analysis


In the conducted observation in the road area of Brgy. San Andres,

Sto. Domingo, Albay, it was found out that the types of road defects are Shoving,

Block Cracks, Delamination, Polishing, Corner Cracks, Diagonal Cracks, Surface

Spalling, Potholes, and Uneven Surface.

Figure 1.0

Figure 1.0 shows the bulging of the road surface generally parallel to the

direction of traffic and horizontal displacement of surfacing materials. This type of

road defect isShoving which is caused by inadequate strength in surface base

and pavement thickness, poor bond between pavement layers, and the lack of

control of pavement edge.

Figure 2.0

Figure 2.1

Figure 2.2

Different kinds of cracks were observed in the surface of the roads. These

includes the Block crack(Figure 2.0) which is an interconnected cracks forming

a series of approximately rectangular shaped blocks. It is commonly distributed

over the full road surface and the block sizes are usually greater than 200 mm

and can exceed 3m. This kind of crack is caused by the linkage in main concrete

layer and shrinkage of the main cemented material.

Corner Crack(Figure 2.1) is another kind of crack that exists in the area

and defined as the crack linking a slanting linkage to the slab edge or a

longitudinal junction. Lack of load transfer linkage, entry of solids into the linkage

at edge slab and loss of sub-base support are the possible cause of the defect.

A multi-directional crack in the slab which is neither diagonal, nor

longitudinal is called Diagonal Crack shown in figure 2.2. It is cause by the

decrease of slab during curing, settlement of the sub-base or sub grade, rocking

slab and insufficient slab thickness.

Figure 3.0

Delamination is another type of road defects found at Brgy. San Andres,

Sto. Domingo, Albay. (Figure 3.0) It is the loss of separate areas of the wearing

course layer. This is capable to happen if the surface asphalt layer is too thin,

there is inadequate cleaning before placing the upper layers, the main surface is

highly polished, and outflow of water through the asphalt(especially in cracks) to

break bond between surface and lower layers.

Figure 4.0

Figure 4.0 shows the smoothing and rounding of the upper surface,

usually occurring in the wheel paths identified by comparative appearance and

feel of road traffic areas. This type of road defect is called Polishing. One of the

causes of this defect is the inadequate resistance to polishing of surface mass or

use of naturally smooth uncrushed aggregate (e.g. water-worn gravel).

Figure 5.0

Surface Spalling(Figure 5.0) is the breakdown of slab surface at edges,

joints, corners or cracks. The causes of this defect includes the penetration of

stones and other fine material into crack, weak concrete lacking in durability, and

mechanical damage caused by removal of formwork.

Figure 6.0

The irregularly shaped hole of various sizes in the road is called

Potholes(Figure 6.0). It is develop from another defect such as too thin surfacing

layer and the moisture entry to base course through a cracked road surface.

Figure 7.0

Last type of road defect visible in the Barangay is the Uneven Surface

(Figure 7.0). it is defined as the unevenness or ups and downs of the footway

surface and mainly caused by poor sub-base or sub-grade support, poor

construction and vehicle damage.

Table 1


Based on the interview conducted from the affected individuals, here are

summary of their response to the questionnaire given:

Respondents Effects

- Hazardous to the residents

because it may cause accidents

- Unpleasant view

- Gives fear to the residents

- Can cause accidents

- The wheel of the vehicles are

easily damaged
DRIVERS - Sometimes drivers may lose

control when they pass through

the cracks or other defects

- Inconvenient travel
- Bumpy

- Delay in travel time

Table 2


Table 2 shows the data gathered in the internet and from the interview

with the Municipal Engineer of Sto. Domingo, Albay. It presents the solutions for

every road defects observed in the Brgy.

Kinds of Road Solution


Shoving Patch with appropriate depth, higher

strength pavement material, such


Thoroughly clean cracks and apply

asuitable crack filling material. Thoroughly

Block Cracks
clean cracks and apply a suitable crack

filling or bonding material.Consider use of a

SAM reseal, or, if

extensive, a SAMI or GRS followed by

anasphalt overlay

Unstable areas should be removed,

cleaned, tack coated and replaced.

Delamination Compact underlying layer or replace with

appropriate depth asphalt. Reseal affected

areas using an appropriate binder.

Remove affected area, texture surface

and replace with new surfacing.

-Reseal using higher PAFV aggregate.

-Cold mill and resurface with

standardbituminous wearing course or

texturedwearing course if high

skiddingresistance is essential

_ Hot-in-place recycling

Thoroughly clean cracks and apply

asuitable crack filling material. Thoroughly

Corner Cracks
clean cracks and apply a suitable crack

filling or bonding material. Consider use of

a SAM reseal, or, if

extensive, a SAMI or GRS followed by

anasphalt overlay

Narrow cracks in unreinforced slabs and

medium cracks in all slabs will need to be

sealed; or

-Stitched crack repair

-Wide cracks will necessitate either a bay

replacement repair or a full depth repair

Surface Thin bonded concrete repair

Transverse full depth repair

Full depth corner repair

-Temporary repair involves cleaningthe

hole and filling it with eitherinstant hole

filling material or
bituminous wearing course material

-Permanent repair by square patching

or hot-in-place recycling

Reconstruct paving



This chapter presents the findings in the data acquired through observation and

interview. It also includes conclusion and recommendation


I. It was found out that there are nine (9) kinds of road defects that exist in the road.

The most visible defects are cracks, which has different types and has a length of

1 meter to 1.5 meter.

II. From interviews with the residents, commuters and road users, most of

them experience uneasiness, fear, and feel uncomfortable along the travel due to

the deficient road. The majority of the respondents say that road defects are

hazardous and can cause accidents, as can be seen from the responses to a

question about the effects of the road deterioration in the community.

III. It was found out that the road defects were cause by many aspects. Poor

construction of the road is the most common reason of road failure .Moreover, the

low structural component, stability and durability made the road deteriorate rapidly.

The road was also used as a detour for a period of time, which worsens the

condition of the road.

IV. From the available data from the internet and suggested by the Municipal

Engineer, it was obtained that the defects can be repaired or patch up in many

ways like reblocking and patching. Possible remedy can be offered depending on

the types of defects. Above all, it is possible through the government who will

reconstruct the roads.


Road deterioration may vary on the materials used in constructing the road and

thefactors that may affect it especially those road users. The researchers had

found out that various types of road deterioration are the following: shoving,

block cracks, delamination, polishing, corner cracks, diagonal cracks, surface

spalling, potholes and uneven surface. The common type of road deterioration

is the diagonal and longitudinal cracks.

The road deterioration causes accidents not only to the vehicles but also

to the residents of the barangays. It threatens the safety of the residents as well

as the road users. It can create multiple accidents, an unpleasant view, it can

also delay travel time and inconvenient travel.

They also found out the different factors that affect the road to deteriorate. Such

as defects caused during construction due to poor construction quality;

structural failure of base; poor highway facilities; seepage of water through

asphalt to break bond between surface and lower layers; construction joint or

shrinkage crack in asphalt surfacing due to low temperature or bitumen



The following recommendations are offered for related and future research for

road defects in Barangay San Andres or other places:

1. The road defects in various places must only be assessed and identified by a

licensed engineer, therefore information must be gathered from the municipal

office or another hired private civil engineer.

2. The number of road defects are subject to change because it increases

overtime and it is recommended that a short time span must be utilized in further


3. In researching road defects it is advantageous to conduct stress tests on road

defects for further analyzation.

4. It is also recommended to conduct another research about how to decrease

the number of road defects at barangay San Andres in he future

5. Future researchers need to establish an optimal scale of other defects that

can be found in a specific area.

6. For further research it is appropriate to also precisely define road defects with

visual aids.

7. Make various tests in each of the road defects to identify the levels of their

impact to road users and resident


Guide to Road Maintenace Solutions (2012 Edition) by: BP BETUMEMS

Pavement Deterioration and its Causes BY: Sharad.S.Adlinge, Prof.A.K.Gupta

Catalogue Of Road Defects Research & Development Division Rd/Gn/015b

January 2013

Sam Stewart, Executive director of Uganda Road Sector Support Initiative

(URSSI), Beautiful Cities and Better Roads Are My Passion.

Tiu Melanie M,” Proposed Concreting of Brgy.San Isidro from Sta. 0+000 to Sta.
1+000 in Sto.Domingo, Albay.”

SuzzaneDorosan, “Concreting of Farm to Market Road from SitioLaom to National
Road of Banguerohan, Legaspi City”

Investigation Of Patching Road Defect With Relation To Soil And Pavement

Parameter: A Case Study At Bukit Beruntung

Biscocho, Maricar R, Analyzing Issues on the Design, Construction, and

Maintenance of Pavements in the Philippines

Abdul-RahamanHaadi, Identification of Factors that Cause Severity of Road

Accidents in Ghana: a Case tudy of the Northern Region

McCarthy T. , European Road Safety Inspection Research Project

Obineze, Nekede, Analysis of Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: a Case study

Khalili, Mohadeseh , Logistic Regression Approach in Road Defects

Impact on Accident Severity

Curriculum Vitae