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VOL 4 eISSN-2348-0173
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AYURVEDA & ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE pISSN-2395-3985
ISSUE 1 (2016)

RESEARCH ARTICLE
Scientific Journal Impact Factor 5.733 (2015) by InnoSpace Sci. Res., Morocco

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC PROPERTY STUDIES ON


NANOCRYSTALLINE LAUH (IRON) BHASMA-AN AYURVEDIC
MEDICINE

Rakesh Kumar Singh1* , Sanjay Kumar2, Abhay Kumar Aman3, Shweta Kala4 ,
Umesh Pradhan5 , Malavi Shayan6 , Manoranjan Kar7

1. Assistant Prof. cum Prof. cum In-charge, Establishment, Aryabhatta Centre for Nanoscience &
Nanotechnology, Aryabhatta Knowledge University, Patna, India, Contact +919304197595,
Email:- rakeshsinghpu@gmail.com

2. Ph.D Scholar, Aryabhatta Centre for Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, Aryabhatta Knowledge
University, Patna, India, Contact No. +919430472128, Email –sanjaymicrobiologist@gmail.com

3. Ph.D Scholar, Aryabhatta Centre for Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, Aryabhatta Knowledge
University, Patna, India, Contact No. +917050030308, Email – abhayaman.aku@gmail.com.

4. Administrator, Sri Sri Ayurveda Trust, Kotdwar, The Art of Living Foundation, India, Contact No.
+918650392647, Email - shweta@ssakotdwar.com

5. Managing Trustee, Sri Sri Ayurveda Trust, Kotdwar, The Art of Living Foundation, India, Contact
No. +919927800279, Email– umesh.pradhan@ssakotdwar.com

6. Ayurveda Physician, Sri Sri Ayurveda Trust, Kotdwar, The Art of Living Foundation, India, Contact
No. +917795400761 Email - malavi1331@gmail.com

7. Associate Prof. Dept. of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bihta, Patna - 801103, India,
Contact No. +91-9470836606, Email – mano@iitp.ac.in

Article Received on - 23rd Dec 2015


Article Revised on - 14th Jan 2016
Article Accepted on - 30th Jan 2016
17

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Rakesh Kumar Singh et.al., Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property Studies on Nanocrystalline Lauh (Iron) Bhasma-An Ayurvedic Medicine,
Int. J. Ayu. Alt. Med., 2016; 4(1):17-23
VOL 4 eISSN-2348-0173
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AYURVEDA & ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE pISSN-2395-3985
ISSUE 1 (2016)

RESEARCH ARTICLE

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC PROPERTY STUDIES ON


NANOCRYSTALLINE LAUH (IRON) BHASMA-AN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE

*Corresponding Author ABSTRACT:


Ayurveda Bhasma an inorganic medicine has been used since ancient time and
Rakesh Kumar Singh claimed to be very useful medicine. However there is a dearth of scientific
Assistant Prof. & Prof. in charge investigation of these products. We have synthesized Lauh Bhasma by the method
Establishment, mentioned in Ayurveda Sar-Sangrah. The Bhasma was characterized by the X-ray
Aryabhatta Centre for Nano- diffractomter (XRD), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Field Emission
science & Nanotechnology,
Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), equipped with EDAX and
Aryabhatta Knowledge
University, Patna, India, Photoluminescence (PL) Spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that this
Contact +919304197595, Bhasma is in nanocrystalline form and be considered as nanomedicine. Average
Email:- particle size corresponding to prominent peak position is found to be 36nm using
rakeshsinghpu@gmail.com Scherrer’s equation. In terms of nanotechnology, nanocrystalline materials are solid
powder having crystallites size less than 100nm in at least one dimension. Thus
prepared material in this work is consider as nanomedicine. EDAX analysis
confirmed the presence of the elements, Fe, O, Al, Ni, Sm, Na and K in which Fe is the
major element with weight percentage of 45.6. Magnetization-Hysteresis loop study
by the Vibrating sample magnetometer reveals the magnetic nature of the Bhasma,
which is due to iron in large amount. The magnetization, coercivity and retentivity
of these materials are found to be 23.15 emu/g, 311.71 Oe and 2.11 emu/g
respectively. Luminescence in Lauh Bhasma was observed in visible-NIR region
QR Code IJAAM with 13 peaks upon excitation of 200eV Laser source. This investigation reveals
that, the Lauh Bhasma not only can be used as a very good nanomedicine but also
can be employed as magnetic materials for various technological applications due
to both magnetic as well as luminescence properties. The advantage is that, the
preparation is natural which will be ecofriendly and cost-effective.

www.ijaam.org Key Words: Ayurveda, Nanomedicine, Lauh Bhasma, Magnetism, Luminiscence


DIDS: 04.2016-72168127

INTRODUCTION behavior as a medicine, interact with our body at


Since the down of civilization, man is aware that molecular level. Chemical evaluation of different
Health is Wealth. In spite of this awareness disease Aurvedic synthesis of Iron has been done by Pandit
has always been a part & parcel of human life. et al [6].
Ayurveda is most ancient traditional scientific
system of medicine, originated in Indian Lauh Bhasma an iron oxide based herbo-metallic
subcontinent. It has dream considerable attention preparation, is an Ayurvedic effective medicine
by the researcher in the world due to preparation prescribed for the iron deficiency disease such as
from natural resources which has bad side effects anemia, jaundice and few others [7, 8]. According to
as well as environmental friendly. Although nano- the Ayurveda science, any purified metal does not
science named in recent years, but the nano-size react adversely with the tissue of the body and
18
effects was utilized in Bhasma. The nano-particles therefore a herbo-metallic drug is supposed to be
of metal and minerals are being used as an more effective compared to any other medicinal
effective medicine. The concept of preparation of preparation. Literature review reveals that several
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Bhasma and widely recommended for variety of herbo-mineral formulations available in the
ailments in clinical use since 7th century AD. market, are beneficial in severe disease like
Bhasma are claimed to be biologically produced anemia, diabetes, cancer, liver and skin disorder
nanoparticle (NPs) as nanomedicine, prescribed etc. [9-11]. Therefore nanomaterials synthesized
with several other medicine of Ayurveda. Bhasma from herbal sources showed better therapeutic
are nanocrystalline materials, consists of potential, better biocompatibility and less toxicity
crystallite size between 1-100nm at least in one which brings forward the concept of herbo-
dimension. Various research groups found that, nanoceuticals [12, 13]. Here, the present study is
Bhasma prepared under different methods are in undertaken on Lauh Bhasma describe in the
1-100nm range [1-5]. Due to its large Ayurveda to understand its different chemical and
surface/volume ratio of nanocrystalline bhasma physical properties. The present study open a path

Rakesh Kumar Singh et.al., Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property Studies on Nanocrystalline Lauh (Iron) Bhasma-An Ayurvedic Medicine,
Int. J. Ayu. Alt. Med., 2016; 4(1):17-23
VOL 4 eISSN-2348-0173
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AYURVEDA & ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE pISSN-2395-3985
ISSUE 1 (2016)

to understand the traditional Ayurvedic medicines Where K is a constant that has value 0.9, β (FWHM)
used in the different countries, such as China, at 2θ and λ is the wavelength of Cu-Kα radiation
India, Japan etc. Even now a days it is used in (λ= 1.54056Å). The crystallite size for seven most
almost all countries. intense intensity peaks found to be 43, 30, 34, 36,
34, 29 and 25nm. But average particle size
MATERIALS AND METHODS corresponding to prominent peak position is
Lauha Bhasma was prepared at Ayurveda 36nm. Crystallite sizes are below 50nm, hence the
pharmacy of Sri Sri Ayurveda Trust, The Art of Scherrer’s formula is good enough for qualitative
Living foundation India. It was undergoes to calculation. It revel that crystallite size of all
different Samskaras(Process) like Shodhana and constituents are in the order of nanometer size,
Marana to synthesize Bhasma. Shodhana is the which is also observed from FE-SEM analysis.
purification processes by which, heat the metal up
to the red hot and quenching in liquid media in the Morphological study of the prepared Lauh Bhasma
presence of Triphala [13]. This decoction of has been carried out by the FE-SEM technique.
Triphala for the process was prepared by boiling Hitachi make S-4800 cold field emission electron
Triphala with eight times water and reducing to source equipment was used for obtaining the FE-
one forth. Then after dried powder of Lauha SEM micrograph. FE-SEM micrographs of different
material was mixed with 1/12th parts of purified magnifications of 5000, 45,000 and 1,20,000 are
cinnabar and was lavigated by aloe Vera gel shown in Figures 3(a), (b) and (c) respectively. The
continuously for approximate 7 hours. Such FE-SEM micrograph shows the agglomeration of
method was also used to prepare bhasma powder nano size crystallites as shown in the figure 3(a),
by other research groups.[3,13] After this it is where the agglomerated sizes are almost close to
subjected to muffle furnace for structural feature. 3µm. However the Lauh Bhasma as shown in the
This process repeated for eight times. In muffle Figures 3(b) and 3(c) confirms the nanocristallites
furnace, temperature pattern required highest of basically the particles are not separated each
temperature and duration at highest temperature other. The nanosize particles are cylindrical rather
changed in each Puta to obtain suitable circular as observed from higher magnification FE-
temperature pattern. We start from temperature SEM micrograph and depicted in the Figure 3(c).
6500C and duration at highest temperature for 40
minute and gradually was increased in each Puta Elemental analysis was carried out by EDAX
until obtaining of suitable temperature range. The attached with S-4800 FE-SEM. The weight
detail of synthesis of Bhasma is mentioned in percentage are enlisted in Table-1. Al, Si, K, Fe, Ni,
Ayurveda Sar Sangrah [13]. The flow chart is shown Sm and O are found to be present in the Lauh
in the Figure 1. The synthesized Bhasma was Bhasma (figure 4). However, highest percentage of
characterized by the X-ray diffractomter, Vibrating weight are found to be Fe and O. Mostly Fe
sample magnetometer, Field Emission Scanning elements are present as Fe3O4 which is consisted
Electron Microscopy, equipped with EDAX and with the XRD analysis, where maximum number of
Photoluminescence Spectrometer measure peaks are indexed to Fe3O4.

RESULTS As the XRD results confirms the formation of Lauh


The crystallographic phase analysis of Bhasma Bhasma as a nanocrystalline Fe3O4 materials.
sample was carried out using a Rigaku Miniflex – II Therefore Magnetic parameters values were
X-Ray Diffracometer with CuKα radiation source (λ measured using the Vibrating sample
= 1.5418 Å) operating in the Bragg-Brentano magnetometer (7304, Lakeshore, USA) at room
19

geometry in a 2θ range of 100– 800 at a scan step of temperature. The M-H hysteresis loop is shown in
0.020 with a scan rate of 2o/min. The XRD pattern the figure-5. The magnetization, coercivety and
Page

is shown in figure 2. Measure peaks can be indexed retentivity of this materials are found to be 23.15
to Fe3O4 [14]. Indexing of measure peaks are shown emu/g, 311.71 Oe and 2.11 emu/g respectively.
in figure 2. Hence, It confirms that, measure
compound present in the Lauh Bhasma is Fe3O4. In a Physical characteristic of Bhasma, a specific
Some of the peaks are not indexed .They could be color is mentioned for each Bhasma. Bhasma are
Al/Si or oxides of these of two metals which has generally white, pale or red. The color depends on
been confirmed from the FE-SEM study and the parent materials and the particle size of
discussed in next section. Crystalline size of Bhasma. The PL study of this iron Bhasma was
different constituent were calculated using examined using 200 eV nm radiation source. The
Scherrer’s formula [15] emission of light comes from a material, when it is
stimulated by the input of energy from a source of
d=Kλ /β cos θ ---------------------------------- (1) suitable radiation, is called luminescence. The

Rakesh Kumar Singh et.al., Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property Studies on Nanocrystalline Lauh (Iron) Bhasma-An Ayurvedic
Medicine, Int. J. Ayu. Alt. Med., 2016; 4(1):17-23
VOL 4 eISSN-2348-0173
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AYURVEDA & ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE pISSN-2395-3985
ISSUE 1 (2016)

photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Lauh Bhasma addressed a broad spectrum of uses in several
nanoparticles were measured using the areas science, engineering & technology. Such
fluroscence spectrometer (LS – 55, Perkin Elmer, luminescence may be ascribed to the transition of
U.K,). Figure 6 shows the room temperature PL excited optical centers present in the inside
spectra that were taken in the wavelength range of electronic levels of the present nano size Lauh
200-900nm and excited by a photon of wavelength Bhasma. The oxygen vacancies are known to be
of 200nm. A characteristic luminescence spectrum most common defects which may acts as radiative
is exhibited with 13 peaks with different intensity centers in luminescence processes. The maximum
in visible-NIR region as shown in the Figure 6. peak intensity corresponds to the maximum
transition probability. If the wavelength of the
DISCUSSION radiation is λ and ΔE is the gap between the
In the present work, crystalline size of the bhasma electronic energy states, the transition probability
is observed 36nm. Tridib Kr. Bhowmick et al. is significant only when hν = ΔE in accordance with
reported the crystalline size of the Jasada Bhasma the Fermi golden rule of Quantum mechanics [23].
powder with 52.7nm [16]. From EDAX and XRD Therefore the observed emission spectrum was
analysis, it is concluded that in addition to Fe3O4 widely varied depending upon the individual
other compounds are present in the Lauh Bhasma. vibrational energy levels of the ground and excited
Some of the compounds were not traced from the states and exchange interaction in iron oxide
XRD pattern which is the limitation of the XRD nanoparticles.
technique. Detail analysis is required by other
techniques to confirm the exact composition with CONCLUSION
percentage. However, the present preliminary The present study reveals that the measure
studies open a new window for the Ayurveda constituent of these bhasma is iron oxide (Fe3O4).
medicine. Also, it is our future research problems Hence it is used in any kind of iron deficiency of
to establish Lauh Bhasama as an Ayurveda disease. EDAX analysis predicts the presence of Al,
medicine as a natural substitute for disease Si, K, Fe, Ni, Sm and O elements. However analysis
remedies with identifying and purifying the toxic of XRD and EDAX confirms that the mesure
elements. The XRD results reveal that crystallite consitutent is Fe3O4 in the Lauh Bhasma, however
size of all constituents is in the order of nanometer other elements or compounds are very less
size, which is also observed from FE-SEM analysis. compare to Iron Oxide. VSM measurement has
The magnetic parameters values show the sample been explored its magnetic nature. PL also
Lauh Bhasam is a super paramagnetic particle. confirms the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles.
These values are comparable with the reported In a nutshell the present study opens a window to
monocrystalline super paramagnetic understand the Lauh Bhasma an Ayurvedic
nanoparticles. [17-19] This investigation reveals that, medicine in terms of modern science. The present
the Lauh Bhasam not only can be used as a very study will help to use the Lauh bhasma in proper
good medicine but also can be employed as dose and other side effect can be avoided. The
magnetic materials for technological applications. present study also prompted to understand the
The advantage is that, the preparation is natural effectiveness of medicine with different crystallite
which will be environment friendly. The sizes of Lauh Bhsma which will be reported in
luminescence observed in our materials is closely future articles. Also one can study the clinical
linked to crystal structure, types of elements in the application of the Lauh Bhasma nanomedicine.
material, band gap, impurities, composition and
crystal defects.[20-22] The synthesis of nano- ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
20

materials with luminescence properties are a key Authors are thankful to Department of Education,
focus in material science and technology for the Govt. of Bihar, which has been very supportive in
Page

rational designing of multifunctional nano- establishment and functioning of the Aryabhatta


particles and could have profound impact on Center for nanoscience and nanotechnology,
several research areas ranging from basic science Aryabhatta Knowledge University and Dr. R. K.
to luminescence (PL) devices, catalysis, biological Kotnala, Chief scientist, National Physical
detections, and imaging etc. Their unique optical, Laboratory (NPL), CSIR, Delhi for magnetic
magnetic, and structural properties have measurement facility.
Table 1- Weight percentage and Atomic percentage of different elements present in the Lauh Bhasma
Element O Al Si K Fe Ni Sm
Weight% 29.73 6.57 7.41 9.38 45.61 0.15 1.16
Atomic% 54.14 7.09 7.69 6.99 23.79 0.07 0.23

Rakesh Kumar Singh et.al., Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property Studies on Nanocrystalline Lauh (Iron) Bhasma-An Ayurvedic
Medicine, Int. J. Ayu. Alt. Med., 2016; 4(1):17-23
VOL 4 eISSN-2348-0173
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AYURVEDA & ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE pISSN-2395-3985
ISSUE 1 (2016)

Figure 1: Flow chart of Ayurveda process for preparing Lauh Bhasma

21

Figure 2: XRD Pattern of Lauh Bhasma. Measure peaks are indexed to Fe3O4
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(a) (b) (c)

Figure 3: FE-SEM micrographs of Lauh Bhasma at different magnifications (a) 5000 (b) 45,000and (c) 1,20,000

Rakesh Kumar Singh et.al., Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property Studies on Nanocrystalline Lauh (Iron) Bhasma-An Ayurvedic
Medicine, Int. J. Ayu. Alt. Med., 2016; 4(1):17-23
VOL 4 eISSN-2348-0173
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AYURVEDA & ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE pISSN-2395-3985
ISSUE 1 (2016)

Figure 4: EDAX spectrum of Lauh Bhasma. Peaks are indexed to the different elements present in the Lauh Bhasma

25
15
5
-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000
-5
-15
-25

Figure 5: M-H magnetic hysteresis loop of Lauh Bhasma

22
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Figure 6: Photo Luminescence spectra of Lauh Bhasma powder

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Rakesh Kumar Singh et.al., Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property Studies on Nanocrystalline Lauh (Iron) Bhasma-An Ayurvedic
Medicine, Int. J. Ayu. Alt. Med., 2016; 4(1):17-23
VOL 4 eISSN-2348-0173
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AYURVEDA & ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE pISSN-2395-3985
ISSUE 1 (2016)

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CITE THIS ARTICLE AS –


Rakesh Kumar Singh et.al., Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property Studies on Nanocrystalline Lauh (Iron) Bhasma-
An Ayurvedic Medicine, Int. J. Ayu. Alt. Med., 2016; 4(1):17-23
Source of Support – Nil Conflict of Interest – None Declared

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Rakesh Kumar Singh et.al., Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property Studies on Nanocrystalline Lauh (Iron) Bhasma-An Ayurvedic
Medicine, Int. J. Ayu. Alt. Med., 2016; 4(1):17-23
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