The paper on the rotation physics of black holes. 1 1/2 pages

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The paper on the rotation physics of black holes. 1 1/2 pages

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Votume 11, NompE 5
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS
1 Serresenee 1963
rate for different masses of the intermediate
boson. The end point of the neutrino spectrum
from the 184-in. cyclotron is ~250 MeV, and
neutrinos with this energy in collision with a
stationary proton would produce a boson of mass
equal to 2270m,. However, with the momentum
distribution in the nucleus, higher boson masses
may be attained, but only a small fraction of the
protons can participate, so the rate of events
falls off rapidly.
Because of the low energy of the neutrinos pro-
duced at the 184-in. cyclotron, only a rather con-
servative limit of 2130m, can be placed on the
‘mass of the intermediate boson.
We would like to thank Professor Luis Alvarez
for suggesting this measurement and showing a
keen interest in its progress, and also Profes-
sor Clyde Cowan for communicating his results
before their publication. Our thanks are due
Mr, Howard Goldberg, Professor Robert Kenney,
and Mr. James Vale and the crew of the cyclotron,
without whose full cooperation the run would not
have been possible. We are also grateful to
Mr. Philip Bellin, Mr. Ned Dairiki, and Mr. Rob-
ert Shafer for their help in running the experiment.
“This work was done under the auspices of the U. S.
Atomic Energy Commission
‘clyde L, Cowan, Bull. Am. Phys, Soc. 8, 289 (1968);
and (private communication).
Stoichino Kinoshita, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 378 (1960).
*7, Tanikawa and §, Watanabe, Phys, Rev. 113, 1344
(1959).
‘Hugo R. Rugge, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory
Report UCRL-10262, 20 May 1962 (unpublished).
‘Richard J. Kurz, ‘Lawrence Radiation Laboratory
Report UCRL-10564, 15 November 1962 (unpublishod).
‘Howard Goldberg (private communication).
GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF A SPINNING MASS AS AN EXAMPLE,
OF ALGEBRAICALLY SPECIAL METRICS
Roy P. Kerr*
University of Texas, Austin, Texas and Aerospace Research Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio
(Received 26 July 1963)
Goldberg and Sachs" have proved that the alge-
braically special solutions of Binstein’s empty-
space field equations are characterized by the
existence of a geodesic and shear-free ray con~
grvence, ky. Among these spaces are the plane-
fronted waves and the Robinson-Trautman metrics*
for which the congruence has nonvanishing diver~
gence, but is hypersurface orthogonal.
Tn this note we shall present the class of solu-
tions for which the congruence is diverging, and
1s not necessarily hypersurface orthogonal. The
only previously known example of the general
case is the Newman, Unti, and Tamburino met-
rics,? which is of Petrov Type D, and possesses
a four-dimensional group of isometries.
If we introduce a complex null tetrad (+ is the
complex conjugate of‘), with
ds? =2U* +2mk,
then the coordinate system may be chosen so that
t= PO via,
k=du+2Re(adz),
m=dr~2Re{{(r~iayit +iDajie} +{rP/P
+Re[P"DD InP of) MEM,
reat
w
where { is a complex coordinate, a dot denotes
differentiation with respect to u, and the operator
Dis defined by
D=0/t-M9/au.
P is real, whereas 9 and m (which is defined to
bbe m, +im,) are complex. They are all independ~
cent of the coordinate y. is defined by
im(P"*D*2).
‘There are two natural choices that can be made
for the coordinate system. Either (A) P can be
chosen to be unity, in which case 9 is complex,
or (B) 2 can be taken pure imaginary, with P dif-
ferent from unity. In case (A), the field equations
(n- D*D*DA)= io, D9", @
Im(m -D*D*D2)=0, @)
Dtm=Smir. 4)
‘The second coordinate system is probably better,
bbut it gives more complicated field equations.
It will be observed that if m is zero then the
field equations are integrable. These spaces
correspond to the Type-III and null spaces with
231Votume 11, Nomaen 5
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS
1 Serres
1963,
nonzero divergence. If m+0, then there are
certain integrability conditions which must be
satisfied by Eqs. (2)-(4). ‘These may be solved
for m as a function of 9 and its derivatives pro-
vided that either A or & is nonzero. This ex-
pression for m may then be substituted back into
the field equations giving conditions on 9 and its
derivatives, from which further integrability
conditions are extracted.
If both & and é are zero, then we may trans~
form the metric to a coordinate system in which
is pure imaginary and P41, with®=P=0. The
{field equations then become
m=cu+A+iB,
where ¢ is a real constant, and
Prep *v(InP)|=2c, 9
"aren.
A, B, and @, which are all independent of w and
ry, are determined by
P™*9(P-*002/at)- P~*(82/2t) (InP),
(0/ag)(A -1B)=cQ,
where £=£-+in. If cis zero, then 2/ou is a
Killing vector.
“Among the solutions of these equations, there
is one which is stationary (¢=0) and also is axial-
ly symmetric. Like the Schwarzschild metric,
which it contains, it is Type D. Also, B is zero,
land m is a real constant, the Schwarzschild
mass. The metric is
y* +a cos*a) (a8? + sin*edg) +2Uiu +a sin*édg)
as*
xldrva sintede) (1
x(durasin’édo),
where a is a real constant. This may be trans~
238
formed to an asymptotically flat coordinate sys-
tem by the transformation
(r= ia)e!® sing
iy, reose
the metric becoming
Pl,
ds*=de* +dy* +d2*~ dt? +
( +a4rk
(yds +ydy) ar dy ~ydx)
+bFraiede rrat). (6)
‘This function r is defined by
rt (RP-av-ae?=0, RK
0 that asymptotically r=R+0(R~). In this co-
ordinate system the solution is analytic every-
where, except at R=a, z= 0.
If we expand the metric in Eq. (5) as a power
series in m anda, assuming m to be of order
two and a of order one, and compare it with the
third-order Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann approxima-
tion for a spinning particle, we find that m is the
Schwarzschild mass and ma the angular momen-
tum about the 2 axis. It has no higher order
multipole moments in this approximation. Since
there is no invariant definition of the moments in
the exact theory, one cannot say what they are,
except that they are small. It would be desirable
to calculate an interior solution to get more in-
sight into this
‘Supported in part by U. 8. Air Force through the
Aerospace Research Laboratory of the Office of Aero-
space Research.
"3, N. Goldberg and R. K. Sachs, Acta Phys. Polon.
22, 18 (962).
|. Robinson and A. Trautman, Proc. Rey. Soc, (Lon~
on) A268, 463 (1961).
1B, Newman, L. Tamburino, and 7. Unti (to be pub-
ished).

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