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-INTRODUCTION

-PHILOSOPHICAL
FOUNDATION OF
EDUCATION

Shiarell Loida M. Cruz


Julie Anne V. Casa
Deverly I. Biaco

(Students MAEd. Administration and Supervision)

FS 101 Advanced Foundation of Education


under
Dr. Josefina DoÑa
EDUCATION
• Derived from
- Latin word ‘E’ and ‘Duco’ means to draw out of the inner
qualities of the child
- ‘Educare’ means to nurture and to bring up, to draw out
the qualities of a child to make a complete man

• A process to develop the intellectual faculties of the man.


It makes the civilized, refined, and educated.

• It is a systematic process through which a child or a man


acquires knowledge, experience, skill and sound attitude.
NATURE of EDUCATION
A. Education is a life-long process
B. Education is a systematic process
C. Education is development of individual and the society
D. Education is modification of behavior
E. Education is a training
F. Education is instruction and direction
G. Education is Life
H. Education is continuous construction of our experiences
I. Education is power and treasure
RELEVANCE of PHILOSOPHY to EDUCATION
1. Provides the teacher with basis for making his
decision concerning his/her work.

2. Help the teacher develop a wide range of interest,


attitudes, and values concomitant to his/her
professional life as teacher.
RELEVANCE of PSYCHOLOGY to EDUCATION
Psychologists working in the field of education study
how people learn and retain knowledge. They apply
psychological science to improve the learning process
and promote educational success for all students.
RELEVANCE of SOCIO ANTHROPOLOGY to
EDUCATION
• Sociology and anthropology involve the systematic
study of social life and culture in order to understand
the causes and consequences of human action.
• Sociologists and anthropologists study the structure
and processes of traditional cultures and modern,
industrial societies in both Western and non-Western
cultures. They examine how culture, social structures
(groups, organizations and communities) and social
institutions (family, education, religion, etc.) affect
human attitudes, actions and life-chances.
PHILOSOPHY’s RELATIONSHIPS to EDUCATION
Subdivision of Philosophy Related Educational Concerns
METAPHYSICS: Knowledge of most worth:
What is real? The curriculum

EPISTEMOLOGY: How we teach and learn:


What is knowledge Methods of Instructions

AXIOLOGY:
What is moral and right?(ethics) Behavior, character, civility, and
What is beautiful and good appreciation and expression
(aesthetics)

LOGIC: How we organize and structure


How can we reason? courses, lessons, and units
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM

Metaphysics Reality is spiritual or mental and unchanging


Things arte considered true when they are in
the mind
Epistemology Knowing is the recall of latent ideas
Axiology Values are universal, absolute, and eternal
Educational A subject-matter curriculum emphasizes the
Implications culture’s great and enduring ideas
Proponents Emerson, Froebel, Hegel, Plato
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
Metaphysics Reality is objective and exists independently
of us but we can know it.
Reality is already in existence and in the
invention of man.
Epistemology Knowing consists of conceptualization based
on sensation and abstraction
Axiology Values are absolute and eternal, based on
universal natural laws
Educational A subject-matter curriculum emphasizes
Implications humanistic and scientific disciplines
Proponents Aquinas, Aristotle, Broudy, Maritain,
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM/PROGRESSIVISM/EXPERIMENTALISM
Metaphysics Rejects metaphysics, asserting that beliefs about
reality are based on experience, the interaction
with environment, and are constantly changing.
Learning through experience
Epistemology Knowing results from experiencing, testing ideas by
using the scientific method
Axiology Values are situational or relative
Educational Instruction is based on problem solving according
Implications to scientific method
Proponents Childs, Dewey, James, Peirce
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Metaphysics Discounts metaphysics, arguing that reality is
subjective, with existence preceding essence
Focuses on the freedom of a person
Epistemology Our knowing comes from making personal choices
Axiology Values are to be freely chosen by the person
Educational Classroom dialogues stimulate awareness that each
Implications person creates a self concept through significant
choices
Teacher’s Role: to guide the students
Proponents Kierkegaard, Sartre, Marcel, Morris
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. PERENNIALISM
AIM To transmit universal and enduring truth and values
Aims to develop intellectual and moral qualities
CURRICULUM Fundamental skills, the liberal arts and sciences,
the great books of Western civilization
EDUCATIONAL Instruction that features transmission, discussion,
IMPLICATIONS and reflection on enduring truths and values
PROPONENTS Hutchins, Adler, Maritain
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. ESSENTIALISM
AIM To develop basic skills of literacy and numeracy
and subject-matter knowledge
Only basic and practical subjects should be taught
to students
CURRICULUM Basic skills, essential subject matter- history,
mathematics, language, science, computer literacy
EDUCATIONAL To prepare competent and skilled individuals for
IMPLICATIONS the competitive global economy
PROPONENTS Bagley, Bestor
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. NATURALISM
AIM To develop basic skills of literacy and numeracy
and subject-matter knowledge
CURRICULUM Basic skills, essential subject matter- history,
mathematics, language, science, computer literacy
EDUCATIONAL To prepare competent and skilled individuals for
IMPLICATIONS the competitive global economy
PROPONENTS Bagley, Bestor
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
AIM To reconstruct society in order to meet the
cultural crisis brought about by social, political,
and economic problems.
CURRICULUM Skills and subjects that identify problems of
society. Active learning with focus of
contemporary and future
EDUCATIONAL Role of a teacher: Agent of change and reform
IMPLICATIONS
PROPONENTS Geroge Counts, Theodore Brameld
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
8. NATURALISM
AIM To reconstruct society in order to meet the cultural
crisis brought about by social, political, and economic
problems.
CURRICULUM Child centered according to the present and future
needs of the child
Earlier stage: Sensory training
Later stage: Physical sciences, language, math, manual
work, moral education
EDUCATIONAL Individual is to be given unrestricted freedom and only
IMPLICATIONS then his harmonious development will take place
PROPONENTS Thales, Thomas Hobbes, Jean Rousseau, Herbert
Spencer
PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS
- Is the technique typically used by philosophers in analytic
tradition that involve “breaking down” philosophical issue.

Principle Analytic Tools in Philosophical Investigations


1. CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS
- The process that allows one to give , or to determine a
concept’s precise definition

2. LOGICAL ANALYSIS
- The rules and procedures that allow one to formulate
and evaluate rational arguments
PIONEERS OF EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY

Friedrich Froebel (1782 – 1852)


• a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi, who
laid the foundation for modern education based on
the recognition that children have unique needs and
capabilities.

• Originator of Kindergarten System

• He believed that humans are essentially productive


and creative – and fulfilment comes through
developing these in harmony with God and the
world.
PIONEERS OF EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY

Maria Montessori (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952)


• an Italian physician and educator best
known for the philosophy of education that
bears her name, and her writing on
scientific pedagogy.
• Developed Montessori Method of
education, a child-centered educational
approach based on scientific observations of
children.
PIONEERS OF EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)


• He believed that people were noble savages, innocent,
free, and uncorrupted by socioeconomic artificialities
and the goal of his education is “to create learning
environment that allow the children innate natural
goodness to flourish which closely related to the nature
that children experience”.
• Rousseau’s philosophy: “Naturalism”
• He contended that all the ill and miseries of civilization
are due to a departure from a State of Nature.
Everything is good as it comes from the hands of the
Author of Nature; but everything degenerates in the
hand of the man.
PIONEERS OF EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY

John Dewey (1859-1952)


• an American philosopher, psychologist,
and educational reformer whose ideas have been
influential in education and social reform.
• one of the primary figures associated with the
philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of
the fathers of functional psychology
• The proponent of learning by doing – rather than
learning by passively receiving. He believed that
each child was active, inquisitive and wanted to
explore.