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A literature review on “Implementing TQM philosophy
through employee training and development”

Submitted To:
Qazi Moinuddin Mahmud
Assistant Professor
Department of Management,
Faculty of business studies
University of Dhaka

Submitted By:
ID: 3-16-34-067
Batch: 34th
Course Name: Training and Development

Date of Submission: 12th August, 2018

A literature review on “Implementing TQM philosophy
through employee training and development”

The term training refers to a learning process that involves the acquisition
of knowledge, skills, and competencies. As a result of the teaching of vocational and practical
skills, knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Total quality management
(TQM) consists of organization wide efforts to install and make a permanent climate in which
an organization. Continuously improves its ability to deliver high quality of products and
services to customers.

Training is widely recognized by organizational development experts as an important

component in successful planned change efforts. Training and TQM are important in
preparing an organization for a change, in accomplishing the change itself, and in
institutionalizing it as a permanent part of the organization. The importance of training in the
successful implementation of TQM programs is also widely acknowledged. Because it
provides an opportunity to reform employees about the goals of TQM. It provides a recent
industrial management article concerning TQM program success, and its relative scarcity.
Some scholars point out, "TQM emphasizes improving and motivating a company's most
valued asset, its workforce." The authors develop a model that links employee empowerment
with improved motivation. As a result, this directly impacts project management and the
ultimate success of the TQM efforts. Yet they acknowledge, "The presence of important
longer-term considerations such as motivation and empowerment are often not closely

Worker empowerment is also important for keeping employees satisfied and productive,
according to Harry Gaines, an author in the same issue of Industrial Management. He
suggests that a key component of achieving an organizational transformation Worker
empowerment is also important for keeping employees satisfied and productive, according to
Harry Gaines, another author in the same issue of Industrial Management. He suggests that a
key component of achieving an organizational transformation is to allow employees to get
comfortable with change. He further points out that this comfort level may be the most
important result of having employees take charge of their own personal growth and
satisfaction. This comfort level may be the most important result of having employees take
charge of their own personal growth and satisfaction. This results in "numerous benefits to
the organization. Employees feel they have more control over their careers and their lives like
being on a more equal footing with managers, able to share more responsibility, and reap the
benefits of improved motivation and morale among employees." When employees are helped
to improve themselves, the organisation benefits.

Improvements may encompass job-related skills as well as improvements in skills that are not
necessarily job-related but that enhance self-esteem and pride. Employees get the message
that management cares about them as people. If people are to do things better, they must not
only want to do things differently, and they must have the skills and knowledge to do so. In
some organisations training is for managers only; in other organisations managers feel
themselves to be somehow above training, which is considered relevant only to the workers.
Both these attitudes are wrong training is for everybody. The training structure must be top-
down, starting with the top team and cascading down the organisation. The golden rule to
successful implementation is to ensure managers train their own people. This is necessary to
show management commitment and to ensure managers actually understand the TQM
principles and methods (Spenley, 1992, p. 94). Through training and development, a common
language may be achieved throughout the organisation. For TQM training and development
to be effective, the responsibility for such training and development must be vested in one
manager, preferably with the TQM manager himself or one of the members of the steering

Responsibility for the training and development of employees in quality rests with
management at all levels, and, in particular, the person nominated for the co-ordination of the
organization’s quality effort. If nobody is actually tasked to coordinate the quality training
and development efforts, the possibility that TQM training and development will not be
effective is rather good. The importance of effective development and training is emphasized
by all the authors of TQM. Bird (1993, p. 66) sees training as important in order to give
employees the necessary knowledge to bring about quality improvement across the company.
McDonnell (1994, p. 43), Schonberg (1992, p. 22) and Riley (1993, p. 32) all regard training
as fundamental in transforming the workforce so that it can function in the demanding TQM
environment. For quality training to be effective, however, it must be planned in a systematic
and objective manner. Quality training must be continuous to meet not only changes in
technology, but also changes involving the environment in which an organisation operates its

structure and the most important of all, the people who work there. Training must get
pertinent attention in the quality policy.

Quality training objectives must then be set, taking into account the specific quality training
needs. The responsibility for training and development must be allocated to a specific person
or department. After implementation of the quality training programme it is necessary to
evaluate and review the effectiveness of the programme.

Porter and Parker (1993, p. 19) identify four characteristic features to ensure successful
 Training must be viewed as a continuous process.
 Training must be focused so that people receive appropriate courses at the appropriate
level of their needs.
 Training must be planned for the future to include the development of total quality
skills and techniques.
 Training materials must be made customized to suit the particular organisation.

Clinton et al. (1994, p. 13) believe that employees require three basic areas of training and
development in the TQM process, namely: instruction in the philosophy and principles of
TQM; specific skills training such as the use of different TQM tools; and interpersonal skills
training to improve team problem-solving abilities. In developing TQM training programmes,
efforts should be aimed at an integrated approach to the instruction process. The authors are
of the opinion that without proper TQM training, the whole process is doomed for failure.
TQM educated employees and managers will be more positive and committed to the process
as they know what is expected from them. A well-planned, formal training curriculum is
absolutely essential in building an effective TQM process and culture. Training teaches
people to do things differently. Doing things differently leads to different results, and
different results begin to change attitudes.

The training strategy and plan should be in line with overall TQM objectives of the
organisation. A training plan should set out details for, inter alia, who must receive training,
when training should take place, who will execute the training and the possible contents of
the TQM training programme. It is important to note that although TQM training and
development must be in line with other (normal) training and development activities in an
organization, TQM training and development differs from other training and development.

Normal training and development may be in the form of a once-off course which may not be
presented every year. Training and development is for everybody in the enterprise. Although
the training contents may differ, it is essential that everybody should be able, with the aid of
the necessary training, to make a vast contribution to the improvement of total quality in an
organisation. TQM will only be successful if all employers, including top management and
other managers, are thoroughly educated in all aspects of total quality.

Contents of a TQM training programme will differ from organisation to organisation. The
contents of the training programme should however always be in line with the objectives of
the overall TQM programme, which is actually aimed at improving business processes.
Quality training programmes should therefore centre round the basic principles of
understanding the different processes in the organisation, the relationship between different
processes and eventually the improvement of these processes. Top management should
foremost establish the criteria (objectives) to be followed in the design of the training
programme; for example, that the training courses should be job- and outcome-oriented.

The main objective of any TQM training programme should be to achieve continuous
improvement in all activities. Total quality management as an approach originated from
quality assurance methods. These methods were adopted during World War 1. The war
resulted in the poor quality of production. To quench this issue Quality Inspectors or auditors
were placed on the production units to point out the faults for improving quality. After some
time these quality inspectors introduced Statistical Quality Control, SQC. A theory developed
by Dr. W. Edwards Deming. The theory states that a deviation in the manufacturing process
cause low and cheap quality products. If deviation is removed the quality would be improved.
SQC is based on testing of a sample. A sample of a product could be tested to check the
quality. The war always results in destruction and ruin of human systems and life. The same
happened to Japanese industry which collapsed in the World War 2. The Japanese Union of
Scientists and Engineers invited Dr Deming to train engineers in quality processes. By 1950’s
quality control and measures formed an integral part of Japan Industrial management. In
1970’s the quality control and management procedures were employed in Non-Japanese
companies. This new tide in business became Total Quality Management. (Murray, 2012).

Without a specific person being appointed to take responsibility for TQM training, very little,
or no, training will indeed take place, which will hamper the TQM implementation process.

Another interesting conclusions is that the more formal the TQM system, the less use is being
made of outside consultants. It would however be of great value to make frequent use of
outside consultants (specialists) to address certain quality issues, which cannot be handled by
the TQM manager. TQM is an ongoing process and therefore training should also be
continuous. The majority of the respondents have indicated that continuous TQM training is
not taking place. It also appears that most organisations give more training in the early
implementation days, and thereafter neglect continuous training. It is, therefore,
recommended that outside consultants should be used to train the people inside the
organization who will eventually be responsible for TQM training and development
throughout the organization. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a never ending process of
improving work processes. It operates according to the premise that organisations cannot rest
comfortably without continuously improving whatever is being done. There has to be a
culture of continuous improvement and everyone in the organisation must strive towards it.
This could be accomplished only through continuous training. Successful TQM training in
the organisation needs budgetary allocation and commitment, support and enthusiasm of the
top management.


 Batten, J.D (1992), "New paradigms for a total quality culture", Training & Development,
 Clinton, R.J, Williamson, S, Bethke, A.L (1994), "Implementing total quality management:
the role of human resources management",SAM Advanced Management Journal, pp.10-16.
 McDonnell, J (1994), "The route to total quality management – part one", Managing Service
Quality, Vol. 4 No.3, pp.41-5.
 Porter, L.J, Parker, A.J (1993), "Total quality management – the critical success
factors", Total Quality Management, Vol. 4 No.1, pp.13-22
 Riley, J.F (1993), "‘Just exactly what is total quality management?", Personnel Journal,