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T - absolute temperature [°K]

t = time [sec]
u = superficial linear velocity of solution [cm/sec]
y = exchange ratio in the resin phase [-]
Z = ionic valence [-]
a =ionic self-diffusivity ratio, Da/Db [-]
de == film thickness
void fraction [cm]
[* = viscosity of solution [g/cm-sec]
p = density of solution
<P = electrostatic potential
A, B = counter ion species
R = resin phase
S = solution phase
Y = non-counter ion Literature cited
1) Carberry, J.J.: A. I. Ch. E.Journal, 6, 460 (1960)
2) Gilliland,
35; 10 (1957) E.R. and D.J. Goldstein: Can. J. Cheni. Eng.y
3) Kataoka,
gaku Kogaku,
K. Takashima,
368 (1965)
I. Furuta and K. Ueyama: Ka-
4) Kataoka,
491 (1967) T., N. Maeda, M. Sato and K. Ueyama: ibid., 31,
5) 365
J.C.W. and M.M. David: A. I. Ch. E.Journal, 9,
6) Moison, R.L. and H.A. O'Hern: Chem. Eng. Progr. Sym-
posium Series, No. 24, 55, 71 (1959)
Rao, G.M. and M.M. David: A. I. Ch. E.Journal, 10, 213
8) Selke, W.A., Y. Bard, D. Pasternak and S.K. Aditya: A.

I. Ch. E. Journal, 2, 468 (1956)



Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto

In the design of packed columns, the H.E.T.P. is . OCn Cl . Vn Vn , Xn -Xn

widely used because of simplicity in calculations. On n
In xo-a
_ ln^-*
_ 3^0 -3/0- = In
~xo-xo w /,\

the other hand, the H.T.U. is generally considered InX \nZ In2.
theoretically sounder than the H.E.T.P. since the con- It can be considered that this equation holds for the
centration change in a packed column is continuous and general case where n is not an integer. Then, the
not stepwise. If the relationship between H.E.T.P. differential number of theoretical plates corresponding
and H.T.U. is clarified, the theoretical weakness of H. to the differential length of the operating line between
E.T.P. can be remedied, and the H.T.U., for which the points (x,y) and (x+dx, y+dy) is obtained by
more fundamental data are available, can be easily con- differentiation of Eq. (3).
verted into the more practical H.E.T.P. by means of dy* - dy dx ~ dx*
j y*-y - x-x* r,x
the relationship. dn= In/ ~ inJt (4)

If the slope of the operating line, dy/dx=L/G, and the

Derivation of Relationship slope of the equilibrium line m-dy*/dx=dy/dx* are

It might be argued that the number of theoretical

platesIshould be an integer by nature. However, in
deriving a rigorous relationship between H.E.T.P. and
H.T.U., it is necessry to consider the differential num-
ber of theoretical plates corresponding to a differential
height of the packed bed.
Whenboth the equilibrium and operating lines are
straight, the number of theoretical plates n is given
from a simple geometry. Referring to Fig.1, it is
easily shown that
L xo-a Xi-a
= Xn~a (1)
Xn-i - a

å ^-=^
Xo - a
= r (2)
* Received on June 30, 1967 Fig. I Graphical representation of composition
** Dept. of Chem. Eng., Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka changes for theoretical plates


and Taylor (l) defined the average slope of the equili-
brium line tuf as follows:

_ L [**_dx_
L Nol Jx0x-x* , .
niF - ~^r ~=rf- - -jz -j (JO;
G Nog ^rn
yj -* ay
hoy -y
Remembering that dyldx-L/G, Eq.(lO) can be rear-
ranged into
(Vn ' dy fVn mFdy.

h*y*-y Koy*.-y

From Eqs.(9) and (ll) the following equation can be

derived by substituting the logarithmic mean of mFG/L
and unity for the arithmetic mean.
n _Hog^ (á"*G/L)_-1 , x
Nog ~ HP - "In(MfG/L) ' U;
Fig. 2 Definition of n\F
This equation gives the approximate relationship be-
tween Hog and Hp even when the equilibrium line is
considerably curved. The use of Eq.(l2) for the deter-
substituted in Eq. (4), one obtains mination of n does not seem practical, since it requires
, (mG/L) -1 dy ,_.
InKmG/L) y -y
evaluation of Noa and Nol to calculate the value of ttLf.
In practice the number of theoretical plates can be
(L/mG) - 1 <fo ,. counted by the usual stepwise construction, possibly with
slight errors due to the curvature of equilibrium line.
m\L/mG) x-:r
Integration of Eq.(5) gives the known relationship be- The following relationship is obtained from Eqs. (lO)
and (12).
tween H.T.U. and H.E.T.P., i.e. n = (Nog ~ Noi)/\n(NoG/NoL) (13)
Hog __ _rc_ __ (mG/L) ~ 1 ,_s In case the value of mFG/L liesbetween 0.5 to 2.0this
HP " Nog ""à" MmG/L) U; can be approximated, with an error less than 4%, by
In the general case where the equilibrium line is curved
(Fig. 2), the values of dn given by Eq.(5) and by Eq. n = -TjfiNoo + Nol) (14).
(6) are very slightly different, because the values of m Then,
at the points (x,y*) and Cr*, y)9 i.e. dy*/dx and Jy/
(ij:*, are not exactly equal. However, if ttif, the slope
of the cord joining the points Or, y*) and (^:*,3;), is
Hp 2 \Hog Hol /
substituted for both dy*Idx and dyldx*\ the values of Thus, Hp is approximately equal to the harmonic mean
dn by Eqs.(5) and (6) become identical. The error of Hog and Hol. This relationship is useful in under-
involved in this procedure can be shown to be insignifi- standing the characteristic variation of Hp values.
cant. Thus, integrating Eq.(5) with tuf in place of m
and combining it with the definition of Nog, one ob- Variations of H.E.T.P. and H.T.U. Values
It is a known fact that the value of Hog or Hol in a
Hog_ n _)yn In(mFG/L) y*-y /qn packed column varies greatly with mFG/L. The reason
is evident from the relationships :
Hog = Ho- + (jhFG/L)HL (16)
Since \_(mFG/L) - 1]/In(jnFG/L) is the logarithmic Hol = Hg/(MfG/L) + Hl (17)
meanof ttifG/L and unity, it can be approximated by Since the variation of (jnFG/L) affects Hog and Hol in
the arithmetic mean of mFG/Land unity with an error the opposite way, the variation of Hp, which nearly
less than 4% in case the value of mFG/L lies between equals the harmonic mean of Hog and Hol, is very
0.5 and 2.0, which is usually the case in practice. slight.
Thus Figs. 3-a, 3-b and 3-c show how the values of Hp
[Vn(mFG_ l\ dy and Hog vary with ttIfG/L, when two of the three
n Hog^J^0V2L +2/.y-;y variables i?, G, and L are kept constant. The curves
A^oo Hp "" [Vn dyå å å ""
in these figures are based on calculations by-.Eqs. (12) and
(16) with the arbitrary assumptions that Hg is propor-
tional to G°'4L~0-3 and HLis proportional to L0 3. Figs.
_^/^_J,0_yL-3L 1 3-a, 3-b, and 3-c, respectively, are for the cases where
" 2 [**_dy_+2 W
the ratio Hg/Hl is 1/2, 1, and 2 when mFG/L is equal
to unity. The values of HG° and HL°, i.e. the Hg and
The value of m^ varies considerably with composition, Hl values at mFG/L=l were taken as the bases for
if the curvature of the equilibrium line is large. Furnas comparison. For the variation of tufG/L from 0.5 to
VOL.1 NO,1 1968 43
Fig. 3-a Variations of HP and Hog with mpG/L when Fig. 3-b Variations of Hp and Hog with m^G/I. when
HG°/HL°= 1/2 at mF°G0/L°= \ HG°/HLQ= i at mF°G0/L0= i

might be more practical for the design of packed columns

than the use of Hog or Hol.


G = molal gas rate [kg-mole/m2-hr]

Hg = height of a gas phase transfer unit [m]
HL = height of a liquid phase transfer unit [m]
Hog - height of an over-all transfer unit based on gas
phase [m]
Hol = height of an over-all transfer unit based on
liquid phase [m]
HP = height equivalent to a theoretical plate [m]
L = molal liquid rate [kg-mole/m2-hr]
m = slope of equilibrium curve [-]
mF =slope of cord joining points (x,y*)-and (x*,y) [-]
mF = average slope of equilibrium curve denned by
Eq. (lO) [-]
n = number of theoretical plates [-]
Nog - number of over-all transfer units based on gas
phase [-]
Fig. 3-c Variations of Hp and Hog with mpG/L when Nol = number of over-all tranrfer units based on
liquid phase [-]
HG°/HLQ=2 at mF°G°/L°= I
x = mole fraction of more volatile component in
liquid [-]
x* = composition of liquid in equilibrium with
2.0 the variation of Hog is several times greater than vapor of composition y [-]
y =mole fraction of more volatile component in gas [-]
that of Hp. Similar calculations based on the same y* = composition of vapor in equilibrium with liquid
assumptions indicate that Hp varies muchless than Hol I .
of composition
x [-]
with mFG/L.
These calculations indicate that Hp is generally less Superscrip t
° ' '' = value at base conditions
sensitive than Hog or Hol to variations of operating or
design conditions and/or of compositions, except when
Literature Cited
either the gas or liquid phase resistance is controlling.
The use of Hp combined with the number of theoreti- 1) Furnas, C.C, and M.L. Taylor: Trans. Am. Inst. Chem.
cal plates counted by stepwise graphical construction Engrs., 36, 135 (1940)