Anda di halaman 1dari 16

PROTEIN

In this lecture, you will


learn:
• The protein structures
• The changes that occur in
protein during processing.
Warm Up Question (take 15 minutes
to discuss):

• Examples of food containing


protein
• The elements in protein and a bit
on structures.
The Protein Structures:
Importance?
Affect the texture of a
product.
Some Basic Chemical Structures..
Amino acids can be categorized into:
i. Hydrophobic @ non-polar
ii. Hydrophilic @ polar uncharged
iii. Positively charged
iv. Negatively charged
Reactions & Properties of Proteins
Amphoteric
Isoelectric points
Water-binding capacity
Salting-in & salting-out
Denaturation
Hydrolysis of peptides & proteins
Maillard browning
Denaturation of Protein
Denaturation – breaking of hydrogen bonds
and salt bridges.
The protein unfolds and the side chains are
exposed. Reacts with other chemical groups.
The proteins usually precipitate and this is
irreversible.
Denaturation of Protein
May occur as a result of:
Heat
pH change
Ionic strength change (changes in salt
concentration)
Freezing
Surface changes (occur while beating egg
whites)
Denaturation of Protein
Desirable Undesirable

Lipoprotein in
Blanching of thawed frozen
vegetables egg yolk -
aggregate

Beaten egg
Overheating of
whites for
food
meringue

Addition of acid
Deterioration due
for cottage
to food processor
cheese
Hydrolysis of Peptides & Proteins
☺Acid digestion or proteolytic enzymes.
☺Examples: use of meat tenderizer to
hydrolyse muscle protein or connective
tissue.
☺Too much hydrolysis would make the
texture of the meat soft and “mushy”.
☺Another example is rennet, use to make
cheese.
Denaturation of Protein
• Other applications?
Enzymes
• If enzyme is required in • If enzymes are not
processing, watch out if required, blanch or add
it denatures by heat or acids to denature the
acid. enzymes.
• Therefore, may want to • Enzymes may cause
add the enzyme after discolouration, off-
heat or acid. flavour or browning.
Functional Roles of Proteins in
Foods

Functional property is a characteristic of the


protein that enables it to perform a specific
role or function in a food.
Functional Roles of Proteins in Foods

Thickening
Solubility
agent

Emulsifiers/ Gelling agent


Foaming agent
Next Week
• Present group project on the denaturation of
protein that occurs in:
a) Eggs
b) Milk
c) Meat