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Hazardous Area and Explosive

Atmosphere Course
Hazardous Area and Explosive
Atmosphere Course
Macaé, RJ
ÍNDICE
1. HAZARDOUS AREA ............................................................................ 10
1.1. EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE ............................................................. 10
1.2. COMBUSTION OR FIRE ................................................................. 12
1.2.1. FIRE TETRAHEDRON ................................................................ 13
1.2.2. OXIDIZER .............................................................................. 13
1.2.3. FUEL ..................................................................................... 14
1.2.4. COMBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCES .................................................... 14
1.2.5. IGNITION .............................................................................. 17
1.2.6. CHAIN REACTION ................................................................... 29
1.2.7. PROPAGATION ........................................................................ 29
1.3. FLASH POINT .............................................................................. 32
1.4. POINT OF COMBUSTION ............................................................... 33
1.5. AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE ..................................................... 33
2. PROCESS EQUIPMENT ....................................................................... 35
2.1. TANKS ........................................................................................ 35
2.2. PRESSURE VESSELS ..................................................................... 36
2.3. REACTORS .................................................................................. 36
2.4. BOILERS ..................................................................................... 37
2.5. SILOS ......................................................................................... 37
3. RISK MANAGEMENT .......................................................................... 38
3.1. DANGER ..................................................................................... 39
3.2. RISK .......................................................................................... 39
3.2.1. ACCIDENT RISKS .................................................................... 40
3.2.2. ERGONOMIC RISKS ................................................................. 40
3.2.3. PHYSICAL RISKS .................................................................... 41
3.2.4. CHEMICAL RISKS .................................................................... 41
3.2.5. BIOLOGICAL RISKS ................................................................. 41
3.3. PREVENTIVE MEASURES ............................................................... 42
3.4. RISK ANALYSIS ........................................................................... 43
3.5. HANDLING OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS .............................................. 43
3.6. MINIMUM RECOMMENDED PREVENTIVE ACTIONS ............................ 44
3.7. HOW DO I MANAGE RISKS? .......................................................... 45
3.7.1. RISK OF EXPLOSION ............................................................... 46
4. STANDARDIZATION AND LEGISLATION ............................................... 50
4.1. PENATIES ................................................................................... 53
4.2. LIABILITIES ................................................................................ 53
5. AREA CLASSIFICATION ...................................................................... 56
5.1. AREA CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES............................................. 57
5.1.1. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCE (POINTS) ..................................... 57
5.2. FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS: CHARACTERISTICS,
PROPERTIES, DANGERS AND RISKS ......................................................... 58
5.3. FLAMMABILITY LIMIT.................................................................... 59
5.4. INERTING ................................................................................... 61
5.5. AIR DENSITY ............................................................................... 61
5.5.1. RELATIVE GAS OR VAPOR DENSITY........................................... 62
5.6. VOLATILITY ................................................................................. 63
5.7. MINIMUM IGNITION ENERGY (MIE) ................................................ 64
5.8. DUST AND FIBERS – PARAMETERS FOR CLASSIFICATION ................. 66
5.8.1. MAXIMUM SURFACE TEMPERATURE ........................................... 67
5.9. TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION .................................................... 68
5.10. MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE FOR DUST AND FIBERS ............................ 69
5.11. EXPLOSION GROUPS .................................................................... 70
5.12. CLASSIFICATION BY ZONES .......................................................... 71
5.12.1. CONTINUOUS RELEASE SOURCE ............................................... 72
5.12.2. PRIMARY RELEASE SOURCE ..................................................... 72
5.12.3. SECONDARY RELEASE SOURCE ................................................ 73
5.13. VENTILATION .............................................................................. 75
5.13.1. NATURAL VENTILATION ........................................................... 75
5.13.2. ARTIFITIAL VENTILATION ........................................................ 76
5.13.3. DEGREE OF VENTILATION ........................................................ 76
6. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR CLASSIFIED AREAS ................................ 78
6.1. TYPES OF PROTECTION EQUIPMENT ............................................... 80
6.1.1. INTRINSEC SAFETY – (EX-I) ..................................................... 80
6.1.2. EXPLOSION PROOF – (EX-D) .................................................... 84
6.1.3. NON-INCENDIVE – (EX-N) ....................................................... 92
6.1.4. TYPES OF PRESSURIZATION .................................................... 96
6.1.5. INCREASED SAFETY – (EX-E) ................................................... 98
6.1.6. IMMERSION IN OIL – (EX-O) ...................................................100
6.1.7. IMMERSION IN SAND – (EX-Q) ................................................102
6.1.8. ENCLOSED – (EX-M) ..............................................................104
6.1.9. PROTECTION BY CASING – (EX-T) ...........................................105
6.1.10. SPECIAL PROTECTION – (EX-S) ...............................................106
6.2. TABLES AS PER TYPE OF PROTECTION...........................................107
6.2.1. GASES AND VAPORS – NBR IEC 600.79-0 .................................107
6.2.2. DUST AND FIBERS – NBR IEC 600.79-0 ....................................107
6.3. CASINGS ...................................................................................108
6.4. SPECIFICATION ON CONVENTIONAL POWER EQUIPMENT ................108
6.5. SPECIFICATION ON EX EQUIPMENT...............................................108
6.6. LEVEL OF PROTECTION - EPL........................................................109
6.6.1. GROUP I – COAL MINES..........................................................110
6.6.2. GROUP II – GASES, VAPORS AND MISTS ..................................111
6.6.3. GROUP III – DUST AND FIBERS ...............................................112
6.7. IP PROTECTION LEVEL .................................................................114
6.7.1. DEFINITION OF ADDITIONAL LETTER FOR PROTECTION GRADES TO
AVOID THE ACCESS TO DANGEROUS PARTS ..........................................117
6.7.2. SUPPLEMENTARY LETTERS ......................................................117
6.8. IK PROTECTION GRADE ...............................................................118
7. POWER EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATE ......................................................119
8. INSPECTION ....................................................................................128
9. REPAIR OF EQUIPMENT .....................................................................130
10. MARKING ON EX EQUIPMENT ............................................................134
11. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ATMOSPHERES ............................................142
RULES
FALCK RULES

Respect all warning signs, safety warnings and instructions;

Loose clothes, jewelry, piercings, etc. must not be used during practical
exercises;

It is not allowed to wear sleeveless shirts, shorts or mini-skirts; wearing


trousers and shoes is mandatory;

Instructors and assistants will have priority in accessing the cafeteria;

Do not walk through training areas without permission. Use the Personal

Protective Equipment (PPE) in recommended areas;

The trainees are responsible for their belongings. Lockers with padlocks and
keys are available and they shall be used when instructed. Falck Safety Services
is not responsible for any loss or damage;

Smoking is harmful to health. It is allowed only in areas previously


identified; Individuals considered to be under the effect of alcohol or illegal drugs
will be cut off from the training and sent back to their employer; Cell phones
must be turned off during the briefing; We advise women not to wear high heels;

Discussions, discrimination and inconvenient behavior of any kind are not


tolerated;

The trainees must follow Falck’s employees instructions at all times;

Every trainee is responsible for ensuring the training safety under the best
possible conditions. Unsafe acts or conditions must be immediately reported to
the instructors;

Photographs, films or any image owned by the company can only be


obtained upon prior authorization;

Pregnant women cannot carry out training due to the practical exercises;
If an absence during the training period is inevitable, request the specific
form for a permission to leave. Your employer will be informed about it, and if it
exceeds 10% of the discipline hours you won't be able to continue the training;

Falck Safety Services ensures the trainee’s safe transport during their stay
in the Company in its selected vehicles. The Company is not responsible by
transport in private vehicles;

The Certificates / Training Cards will be sent to the contractor Company,


unless if authorized otherwise. Private students must wait for the assessment
results, and if approved, they will receive their Training Card;

The individuals who violate these rules or who intentionally subtract or


damage the equipment will be held accountable, and the measures required by
the situation will be taken.

COURSE GENERAL GUIDELINES

 Concerning the course structure

This course structure follows the Regulatory Standard 10 (NR-10) approved


by the Ministry of Labor ordinance, MTE n°598, from 07/12/2004 and issued on
the Union Public Journal from 08/12/2004.

 Regarding class attendance

The class and practical activities attendance is mandatory. The student


must obtain at least 90% of attendance.

According to the paragraphs outlined above, it will be considered as


skipping: failure in attending classes, delays exceeding 10 minutes from the start
of any scheduled activity, or unauthorized egress during the class development.
Regarding course approval

It will be considered approved the students who:

 Obtain a score equal or higher than 6.0 (six) on a 0 to 10 (zero to


ten) scale in the theoretical assessment, and achieve a
satisfactory concept in practical activities.

 Have the required minimum class attendance (90%).

If the student does not meet the conditions described in the paragraphs
above, he will fail the assessment.
Hazardous Areas and Explosive Atmosphere Course

1. HAZARDOUS AREA
A Hazardous Area is the area in which there is a probability of formation or
the existence of an explosive atmosphere. It can be understood as an open or
closed location, where there exists a possibility that an explosive atmosphere will
form. The Area is Classified by Zones, Explosion Groups and Temperature
Classifications.

1.1. EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE

An explosive atmosphere is a mixture with the air from combustible


substances in the form of gases, vapors, mist, dust or fibers in which, after
ignition, the combustion spreads through the remaining mixture.

The formation of the Explosive Atmosphere may occur in various types of


industrial plants, such as:

 Petrochemical industry;

 Chemical industry;

 Pharmaceutical industry;

 Food industry;

 Cosmetic industry;

 Steel industry;

 Coal mines;

 Refineries;

 Sugar cane plants;

 Gas stations;

 Textile industry;

 Cellulose and paper industry;

 Paint and varnish industry;

 Silos and grain storage;

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 Sewage treatment plants;

 Painting workshops, dry cleaners, etc.

In environments with the presence or probability of the formation of an


explosive atmosphere, the electrical equipment to be installed at these locations
must be correctly specified, since their purpose is to eliminate or isolate the
ignition source (Ex equipment), thus preventing the formation of an explosive
atmosphere.

A Potentially Explosive Atmosphere is an atmosphere that can convert itself


into an explosive one due to the circumstances of the location and operation of
the system.

Various factors may contribute to the formation of an explosive


atmosphere: the storage of combustible substances, handling of flammable
substances, operations for loading and unloading combustible substances,
accumulation of static electricity, sparks, short circuits, electrical arcs, heating up
of the equipment and the environment itself, operational failures, gas leaks or
leakage of flammable vapors, accumulation of combustible fibers or dust, etc.

At the petrochemical industries, various petroleum-derived hydrocarbons,


such as: gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, paraffins, naphtha, natural gas, asphalt
and others, may release flammable vapors or gases, and may therefore
contribute to the formation of an explosive atmosphere.

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In our day-to-day we also use a variety of products that, in their


composition, have petroleum derivatives:

 In the cosmetic industry, for production of oils, perfumes, waxes,


shampoos, conditioners and hair dye;

 In the production of synthetic rubbers, replacing the latex in various


products, such as sporting goods, sneakers and tires, also being used
to insulate cables;

 In the automobile industry, lubricating oil reduces friction between


engine parts;

 In the pharmaceutical industry, analgesics and homeopathic remedies


contain benzene, which is derived from petroleum;

 Petroleum can serve as the base for cleaning products;

 Asphalt is also used for paving roads. It is estimated that there are
around 18 million kilometers of paved roads worldwide;

 In the textile industry, synthetic fabrics, such as nylon, acrylic,


spandex (elastane) and polyester are used for clothing, curtains and
carpets;

 In the food industry they are used directly (in dyes, flavoring and
preservatives) or indirectly (in fertilizers and pesticides);

 In the production of plastics, in products such as water bottles, DVD


cases, plastic disposable plates and cups, etc.

 In the production of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel.

1.2. COMBUSTION OR FIRE

Combustion is the exothermal chemical reaction between oxygen and


combustible materials, in a process where light is presented and there is a rapid
production of heat, where the visible part is called the flame. During the
combustion reaction, a variety of resulting products are formed from the
combination of the atoms from the reagents.

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When hydrocarbons (methane, propane, gasoline, ethanol, diesel, etc.) are


burned in the air, sparks are formed from compounds, such as CO2, CO, H2O,
H2, CH4, NOx, SOx, soot, etc

1.2.1. FIRE TETRAHEDRON

The “Fire Tetrahedron” represents the


four elements that must occur
simultaneously so that there is combustion:
oxidizer, fuel, ignition and chain reaction.
After the start of the combustion, the
combustibles generate more heat, releasing
more combustible vapors or gases, and the
free atoms are responsible for the release of
all the energy needed for the chain reaction.

1.2.2. OXIDIZER

An Oxidizer is every element that,


when chemically associated with the fuel, is
able to cause combustion in the presence
of an initial ignition source (oxygen,
present in the air, is the main oxidizer).
Without the presence of an oxidizer, fuel
cannot be used during the chemical
reaction of combustion.

So that the full combustion happens, at least a 16% presence of oxygen in


the air is needed, if this happens, we observe the presence of flames. When the
percentage of oxygen in the air is between 8% and 15%, burning is slower, and
we note the presence of embers. When the concentration of oxygen in the air
drops below 8%, combustion does not take place. Other examples of oxidizers
are: chlorine, bromine, fluorine and sulfur.

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1.2.3. FUEL

Fuel is any substance that reacts to the oxygen (or other oxidizer),
releasing energy, in the form of heat, flames and gases. Examples: Diesel,
Biodiesel, Gasoline, Ethanol, etc.

1.2.4. COMBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCES

A combustible substance is the generic term used to describe substances


that may form explosive atmospheres, such as: flammable gases, flammable
liquids or fuels, combustible fibers and dust.

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 Flammable Gas

Flammable gas is that which, when


mixed with air in certain proportions, forms an
explosive atmosphere. Examples: Acetylene,
Hydrogen, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfuric Gas,
Ammonia, Methane, etc.

 Flammable Liquid or Fuel

Flammable liquid or fuel is that which emanates vapor at a certain


temperature, is capable, when mixed with air, in
certain proportions, of forming an explosive
atmosphere; or, when sprayed, its drops,
dispersed throughout the air in certain
proportions, form an explosive atmosphere.
Examples: Alcohol, Acetone, Gasoline, Hexane,
Benzene, Amyl methyl ketone, Bunker Fuel Oil (heavy fuel oil derived from
petroleum, with a low pour point), Phenol.

According to NR-20:

 Flammable liquid is any liquid with a flash point at or below 60ºC.

 Combustible liquid is any liquid that has a flash point between 60ºC
and 90ºC.

 Combustible Fiber or Dust

These are small particles that:

 Dispersed throughout air, in certain proportions, frm an explosive


atmosphere; or

 When they settle, under their own weight, may burn or glow in the
air.

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Examples: Aluminum, Magnesium, Coal, Sulfur, Barley, Wheat, Sugar,


Cocoa, Polystyrene, Cotton Fiber, Flax, Timber, Cocoa fibers, Seed fibers, Rice
powder, Powdered cork, Vitamin C, Vitamin B1, Cellulose.

We may find the presence of explosive atmospheres formed by dust and


fibers in coal mines where the processing of coal produces dust, in furniture
factories and joineries, saw mills where conductive dust such as aluminum, iron
and others are present and may contribute to the formation of an explosive
atmosphere and conduct electricity, in sugar cane plants, wheat flour and corn
meal industries, and textile and paper industries due to the processing of the
cotton or cellulose fibers. The thinner and drier the dust particle is, the greater
the risk of explosion is.

The standard measure for classifying dust is around 63 microns and for
fibers, above 500 microns. Most organic material powders and fibers have a
minimum explosive concentration, typically ranging from about 20 grams up to
several kilograms per cubic meter.

Operations for loading and unloading grains in silos and warehouses may
generate dust, and this may accumulate on the ground or remain suspended. The
contact of this dust cloud with the air and a simple spark from common sockets
and switches or with the heated surface of a piece of equipment, could produce a
risk of explosion.

On February 7, 2008, there


was an explosion at the Imperial
Sugar Company, in Port
Wentworth, in Georgia, which
killed 13 people and wounded
40. This 91-year-old plant
produced granulated and
powdered sugar.

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1.2.5. IGNITION

Ignition is the minimum amount of energy that must be supplied by a


flame, electrical spark or source of heat to a combustible mixture so that it can
begin the spread of combustion.

The ignition sources may be generated by:

 Sparks generated by electrical equipment, such as switches, sockets,


push buttons, electrical panels, etc.;

 The hot surfaces of electrical and electronic equipment, such as


lamps, engines, sensors, transmitters, etc.;

 Eddy currents;

 Portable electronic devices, such as cell phones, cameras;

 Open flames;

 Atmospheric discharges;

 Hot surfaces, such as heaters and steam or thermal fluid pipes;

 Radiant heat;

 Lit cigarettes;

 Cutting and welding;

 Spontaneous ignition;

 Heat from friction or sparks;

 Static electricity;

 Ovens, chimneys and heating equipment (furnaces).

In the industries we are able to find various types of ignition sources:

 Electrical;

 Electronic;

 Atmospheric discharges;

 Electrostatic;

 Thermal;

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 Mechanical;

 Chemical;

 Cathodic protection;

 Radiant energy;

 Electrical

Electrical equipment may generate sparks, short circuits, electrical arcs and
static electricity. The occurrence of fires and explosions due to the formation of
electrical arcs and short circuits is common in electrical installations. In
hazardous areas it is very important to have the correct sizing, installation and
maintenance of the grounding, since it is one of the main pieces of protective
equipment. The grounding is a low resistance connection to the ground,
discharging faults, short circuits and static electricity to earth. The hot surface of
electrical equipment may contribute to the ignition of combustible substances.
The sparks from outlets, switches and other electrical equipment can activate the
ignition of combustible gases, vapors,
dust and fibers.

Examples: Open wiring, electrical


panels, contactors, push buttons,
lamps, switches, sockets, circuit
breakers, fuses, motors, etc.

Explosion of a 17500-Volt
breaker at the Urgezes Power Plant, in
Guimarães.

 Electronic

Today, most portable electronics us Li-ion (Lithium Ion) batteries. The


Lithium Ions store double the amount of energy, when compared with other
types of batteries, they are lighter and more ecological.

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These batteries require careful handling, since they explode easily.


Exposing them to temperatures above 50ºC or to sunlight must be avoided.

Examples: sensors, transmitters, electronic circuits.

 Atmospheric Discharges

Atmospheric discharges are electrical discharges that occur due to the


accumulation of electrical charges between clouds, a cloud to the ground or, in
very rare cases, the ground to a cloud. When the electrical field produced by
these electrical charges exceeds the dielectric strength of the air (insulating
capacity), at a certain place in the atmosphere, within the clouds or near the
ground, the rapid movement of electrons from a region of negative charges to a
region of positive charges begins, this phenomenon is known as Lightning. The
intensity of a lightning bolt can reach values upwards of 20 KA.

Lightning rods are pieces of protective equipment used for protecting


buildings against atmospheric discharges. In accordance with ABNT standard NBR
5419, at least once a year the LPS (Lightning Protection System) must be
measured. The lightning rod may be a Franklin Rod or a Faraday Cage type.
Sensors are installed on the top of the structures connected to a ground
conductor cable that will lead the atmospheric discharge to a grounding rod. For
its efficacy, this grounding set must be appropriately sized and installed, offering
good ground resistance.

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 Electrostatic

This is the physical phenomenon related to stationary electrical charges


(stopped). A concentration of electrical charges (electrons) occurs on the surface
of a material. This electrical charge produces an electrical field that can be
measured and may affect other objects at a distance.

Our body is able to accumulate static electricity though various activities


that we perform throughout the day, such as walking on a carpeted floor, sitting
on and standing up from sofas and chairs, putting on and taking off wool
clothing, combing our hair, etc. Therefore, a body or location may be positively
charged (due to a lack of electrons) or negatively charged (due to an excess of
electrons).

To protect against static electricity, the main protection equipment is


grounding. In industrial plants with Hazardous Areas, grounding should be well-
sized, installed, connected and have good maintenance to guarantee protection
against the risks of explosions due to the build up of static electricity from
friction, the transfer of flammable liquids, grain friction in silos and warehouses,
bearings, etc.

 Thermal

Equipment in normal operating conditions heats up, which causes loss of


thermal energy. The heating of process equipment may contribute to the
formation of explosives atmospheres in environments where gases and
flammable vapors, combustible fibers and dust etc are present.

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The contact of flammable gas with the heated surface of a piece of


equipment may contribute to the formation of an explosive atmosphere. For this
reason, the Ex equipment has a surface temperature control, thus preventing it
from reaching the Auto Ignition temperature of a gas. Any internal failure in the
equipment causing the heating of internal components and parts may contribute
to the increase of its surface temperature.

Examples: heaters (gas or electric), heat exchangers, electrical equipment


(Joule Effect), ovens, welders, internal combustion engines, hot work, etc.

 Mechanical

In industrial plants where products are process in the form of grains, during
the processing, dust may form due to the friction between them. If the grains
have combustible properties, this dust can remain suspended or settle on
structures or locations that are difficult to access, and, when it mixes with the air
in the presence of an ignition source, this may contribute to the formation of an
explosive atmosphere. For fires to occur, it is necessary that the amount of
combustible material is significant and the particles have a small amount of space
between them, hindering direct and abundant contact with the oxygen in the air.

The particles must, however, be spaced so that, despite the existence of an


ignition source and the consequent site combustion, the instantaneous spread of
the combustion heat to the particles located on the most internal layers is not
permitted, due to the lack of air.

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Therefore, the burning takes place in layers, in locations where the dust
settles throughout the workday, or in one of the following ways:

 Piled up;

 Stored in a granary;

 Deposits;

 Others.

The ignition that occurs in layers must be carefully controlled, to prevent


the material settled on structures, pipes and locations that are hard to see and
clean from being put in suspension, forming a cloud of dust, which will evolve
into an explosion.

Explosions frequently occur at processing units, where the dust has


combustible properties, however, it is necessary that they are dispersed in the air
and in suitable concentrations. This takes place at spots at the facilities where
there is grinding, unloading, handling, transport, etc., provided that there is no
exhaust control and that there are triggering factors.

They generally occur in facilities where flour is processed: wheat, corn,


soybean, cereals and a wide variety of agricultural products, as well as
particulate matter: sugar, rice, tea, cocoa, leather, coal, wood, sulfur,
magnesium and metal alloys.

Examples: Belts, Bucket Elevators, Mills, Separators, Sparks caused by


tools, overheating due to mechanical friction, etc.

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 Chemical

Chemical products may react violently with another chemical substance,


including with oxygen in the air or with water, producing physical phenomena
such as heat, combustion or explosion, or even producing a toxic substance.

Dangerous chemical reactions may occur not only exothermically, but may
also cause the release of dangerous products, phenomena that often occur
simultaneously. To prevent risks due to the chemical nature of products, we must
understand the list of chemical substances that are incompatible and used
frequently in laboratories in order to use special care when stocking, handling
and discarding them.

SUBSTANCE INCOMPATIBILITY REACTION


Strong bases Exothermic neutralization
Strong mineral acids Cyanides Release of cyanide gas
Sodium hypochlorite Release of chlorine
Nitric acid Organic material Violent oxidation
Organic material Oxidation
Hydrogen peroxide
Metals Decomposition

Exothermic chemical reactions are ones that have a negative balance of


energy when compared to the total enthalpy of the reagents with the products.
Thus, the final change in enthalpy is negative and indicates that there was more
energy released, in the form of heat, to the external medium absorption – also in
the form of heat.

The final temperature of the


products is higher than the initial
temperature of the reagents.

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 Cathodic Protection

With industrial development, the use of underground or submerged metal


installations, such as oil and gas pipelines, water mains, ships, petroleum
platforms, storage tanks, and many others, has become increasingly frequent. As
a result, corrosion problems increased significantly, and the development and
improvement of new techniques to combat and control them became necessary.

Among the different methods used to control corrosion, cathodic protection


is one of the most widely used. Cathodically protecting a structure means
eliminating, through an artificial process, the anodic areas of the metal surface,
making it so that the entire structure acquires cathodic behavior. Has a result,
the anode/cathode electrical current flow ceases to exist and the corrosion is
eliminated.

This method is especially attractive in marine environments where the


conductivity of the water, because of its salinity, is high enough to allow the
current to be distributed throughout the entire surface of the structure to be
protected. Currently, in Brazil, most oil and gas pipelines in operation, as well as
offshore petroleum prospecting and production platforms, and the other
submerged structures, are also cathodically protected.

Most of the aforementioned equipment and installations are built out of


carbon steel, a relatively inexpensive material that features a wide variety of
properties, which is why it has been used extensively. However, carbon steel
features an overall low resistivity to corrosion, being commonly associated with
cathodic protection systems when used in underground, submerged or, less
frequently, concrete structures.

For obtaining cathodic protection, two methods may be employed:

 Galvanic Cathodic Protection;

 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection.

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 Galvanic Cathodic Protection

Also called cathodic protection through sacrificial anodes. In this process,


the electrical current flow supplied comes from the difference in existing potential
between the metal to protect and another chosen as an anode, which must
present a more negative potential in accordance with the potential table.

These metals, used in appropriate alloys, are electronegative in relation to


steel, and may easily protect it. For use on land, magnesium and zinc are very
effective. For sea water, zinc and aluminum are the most indicated.

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Galvanic anodes, when used underground, must be enveloped in a mixture


of gypsum, bentonite and sodium sulfate, conductive filler. This filling allows for a
decrease in the anode/ground electrical resistivity, reducing the polarization
effects of the anode and uniformly distributing its wear.

The amount of current supplied to the structure is limited by the very low
difference in potential, between the anodes and the structure. Furthermore, the
protection will be must easier if the electrical resistivity of the medium at the
location is not low enough.

 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection

In this process, the current flow provided comes from the electromotive
force from a source that generates a continuous electrical current, and the
rectifiers that, fed by an alternating current, are widely used in the process to
provide the continuous electrical current necessary to protect the metallic
structure. For the dispersion of this electrical current in the electrolyte, special,
inert anodes are used, i.e., anodes that have very low wear. The biggest
advantage of the impressed current method consists of the fact that a generator
source (current rectifier) can have the necessary power and output voltage.

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And therefore, be applied to any medium, even those whose electrolyte has
a high electrical resistivity, Furthermore, this method may be applied,
economically, for the protection of large metal installations.

 Radiating Energy

It is the pure energy spreading through the space in the form of


electromagnetic waves. It is the energy associated with electromagnetic
radiation: light, radio waves, infrared rays, X-rays and others.

Electromagnetic radiation may be explained as a harmonic and sine wave.


According to Maxwell’s formulations, an electrically charged particle generates an
electrical field around itself and the movement of this particle generates, in turn,
a magnetic field The two fields, electrical and magnetic, work by vibrating
orthogonally between each other and have the same amplitude, i.e., reach their
maximums at the same time. The variations of the field are caused by the
vibrations of the particles. When this particle is accelerated, the disturbances
between the two fields spread repetitively in the vacuum in a direction orthogonal
to the direction of the electrical and magnetic fields. An electromagnetic wave is
defined as the oscillation of the E (electrical) and M (magnetic) fields, following a
harmonic pattern of waves, i.e., waves spaced repetitively in time.

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These dynamic fields always occur together, so that neither a pure


electrical field, nor a pure magnetic field of radiated waves will occur separately
from one another.

Electromagnetic waves spread in the vacuum at the speed of light (c =


299,292.46 Km/s or approximately 300,000 Km/s).

The radiant energy is able to cross the vacuum perfectly. Almost all the
energy that we get from the sun, reaches our plane in the form of radiant
energy, distributed in a wide range of frequencies. This range includes the visible
range in the region with the highest energy density, with the various colors
(violet, blue, green, yellow, orange and red) that we are able to see, being
particularly intense on the SOLAR SPECTRUM. However, scientists use radio
telescopes to observe the cosmos in wavelengths that we cannot see, from radio
waves to X-rays, and even cosmic rays.

Gamma rays have frequencies that are much higher than visible light.
Radio waves have a frequency that is much lower than the lowest frequency that
our eyes are able to see. Among the other forms of irradiation that we are unable
to see, we have infrared radiation and ultraviolet radiation.

It should be emphasized that static charges and charges moving at a


constant speed (vector) do not radiate. Accelerated charges irradiate.

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All radiant energy transported by infrared, ultraviolet, visible light, X-ray,


gamma ray, radio waves, etc., can be converted into thermal energy by
absorption.

Systems or equipment that uses electromagnetic radiations, ionizing


radiations and ultra-sonic systems must be monitored so that they can safely
operate in a hazardous area

1.2.6. CHAIN REACTION

This is the process of sustaining combustion, through the presence of free


radicals, which are formed during the fuel burning process. The heat that radiates
from the flames reaches the fuel and this is decomposed into smaller particles,
which combine with oxygen and burn, again radiating heat to the fuel, forming a
continuous cycle.

1.2.7. PROPAGATION

A shock wave is a wave characterized by being a disruption in the spread


where factors such as speed, pressure, temperature or density vary abruptly and
almost discontinuously. This wave may occur both physically, spreading
mechanically, and in fields such as the electric field and the magnetic field.

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Whenever the speed of a gas is greater than the speed of sound, a shock
wave forms in it. When an airplane reaches the speed of sound, the sound waves
emitted by it condense in front of it because they are spreading at the same
speed.

The speed of sound is much higher in liquids and solids where the
molecules are closer to each other than they are in a gas. In water, the speed of
sound is around 4 times its speed in air; at a temperature of 25ºC, it is
approximately 1500 m/s. In steel, the speed is around 5 times greater, able to
reach 5000 m/s.

According to the speed that pressure waves spread (waves that spread due
to a variation of the pressure), the explosions are classified as:

 Deflagration;

 Explosion;

 Detonation.

 Speed of Propagation

This occurs as a result of fuel gas, the composition of the mixture of


air/fuel, temperature, pressure, characteristics of the combustion chamber and
the heat absorption rate of the mixture.

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 Deflagration

Explosions that cause subsonic pressure waves, meaning, below the speed
of sound. The speed of propagation is cm/s. The pressure waves have a slight
increase and cause a faint sound.

 Explosion

A process characterized by a sudden increase in volume and great release


of energy, generally accompanied by high temperatures and the production of
gases. The speed of propagation is m/s. The pressure waves can reach from 3 to
10 bar, causing a loud noise.

Industries that process products in the form of powders present a high


potential for risk of fires and explosions. Explosions occur frequently in
installations where flour is processed: wheat, corn, soybean, cereals etc.,
particulate matter: sugar, rice, tea, cocoa, leather, coal, wood, sulfur,
magnesium and electrical metal (alloys). The dust that settles over time at
various locations at the industrial plant, when stirred up or put into suspension
and in the presence of an ignition source, with enough energy to cause the first
deflagration, may explode, causing subsequent vibrations by the shock wave.
This may contribute to more settled dust entering into a state of suspension and
more explosions, each one more devastating than the last, causing irreversible
damages to the property.

 Detonation

A type of explosion where a chemical transformation happens very quickly,


and the expansion speed of the gases is much higher than the speed of sound in
that environment. Detonation is characterized by presenting elevated pressure
peaks during an extremely short period of time. The speed of propagation is
Km/s. The pressure waves may reach values upwards of 20 bar and cause an
extremely loud noise.

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1.3. FLASH POINT

A temperature that is lower than that in which a liquid releases vapors in


quantities that are sufficient for forming a flammable mixture and, in the
presence of an ignition source, the vapors do not hold the flame. To obtain a
flash point, it is understood that a quantity of gas or vapor mixed with enough
atmospheric air to start an inflammation in contact with a source of heat, without
burning the eminent fuel. Another characteristic is that when removing the heat
source, the inflammation (burning) of the mixture ends, due to the insufficiency
of detached gases and vapors.

The flash point is not applicable to flammable gases. The lower the flash
point of a combustible substance is, the greater the extent of the Hazardous Area
may be.

Example: Isopropyl alcohol has a flash point of 11ºC and the temperature
of the liquid is 5ºC. When the temperature of the liquid reaches a temperature
equal to its flash point, in the presence of a lit match, we have a combustion that
does not sustain itself, since the vapors do not hold the flame.

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The storage and use conditions allowed are different for products with a
flash point lower than 23ºC, between 23ºC and 66ºC and above 66ºC.

Fuels with a flash point that is lower than 23ºC are considered, for
transport and storage purposes, as DANGEROUS and HIGHLY FLAMMABLE.

Fuel oils that typically have a flash point that is above 66ºC are considered
safe.

FLASH POINT
SUBSTANCE
(°C)

GASOLINE -48
CYCLOHEXANE -18
ANHYDROUS ETHANOL 12
STYRENE 30
ACETIC ACID 40
AMYL METHYL KETONE 49
BUNKER FUEL OIL 66

THERMAL FLUID 120

1.4. POINT OF COMBUSTION

The lowest temperature at which the mixture of vapor with the air ignited
by an external ignition source continues to burn continuously above the surface
of the liquid, even if the heat source is removed.

1.5. AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE

The lowest temperature at which the explosive atmosphere formed by a


certain product ignites without the need for a flicker, spark, arc or flame, but only
entering in contact with a surface heated from that value.

Auto-ignition can be defined as spontaneous combustion under certain


thermal dynamic conditions of any mixture of a fuel with an oxidizer.

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Auto-ignition consists of sequences of complex chemical and physical


processes, dependent on the environmental conditions, the properties of the fuel
and the history of the formation of the air-fuel mixture.

Auto-ignition occurs when the energy released in the form of heat is


greater than heat lost to the surrounding area, resulting in an increase in the
temperature of the mixture, which, in turn, exponentially increases the speeds of
the chemical reactions.

AUTO-IGNITION
SUBSTANCE
TEMPERATURE

ACETIC ACID 464°C

ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL 400°C

ACETONE 535°C

CARBON DISULFIDE 100°C

GASOLINE 280°C

PENTANE 285°C

KEROSENE 210°C

XYLENE 464°C

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2. PROCESS EQUIPMENT
Some process equipment such as tanks, pressure vessels, reactors, boilers
and silos may contribute to the formation of explosive atmospheres, since they
are pieces of equipment that operate at high temperatures, pressures and may
contribute to the accumulation of electric charges (static energy), such as silos
during the operations for loading and unloading grains in the agricultural area.

When there are explosions in the process equipment, such as tanks,


pressure vessels, reactors and boilers, depending on the amount of fuel stored
inside a tank, or temperature and pressure inside a boiler, reactor or pressure
vessels, the explosive atmosphere may have catastrophic consequences for the
industrial plant and the workers. The damages may be incalculable, in addition to
the loss of human lives.

During the preparation of an Area Classification Project, an industrial plant’s


process equipment is evaluated, and the operational characteristics of this
equipment will be analyzed, since these types of equipment may contribute to
explosions with characteristics of a detonation, and may cause effects that go
beyond the industrial plant to the entire area around the plant, even affecting
neighboring communities. There are already records of these types of explosions.

2.1. TANKS

Tanks are pieces of equipment that have a ratio of maximum operating


pressure and geometric volume ≤ 8.

The principal types of existing tanks are:

 Storage Tank – Stock of raw materials and finished products at


atmospheric pressure.

 Receiving Tanks – Stock of intermediary products.

 Waste Tanks – Store products outside the specifications or resulting


from improper operations, awaiting reprocessing.

 Mixture tanks – Used to obtain mixtures of products, aiming at


complying with a specification.

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The Venezuelan refinery of El Palito, in the


state of Carabobo, in the northern region of the
country, had two of its naphtha tanks hit by
lightning. The fire started after an intense
lightning storm. The refinery has a processing
capacity of 135 thousand barrels per day.

2.2. PRESSURE VESSELS

Tanks, of any type, size or purpose, not subject to flame, fundamental in


the industrial processes, which contain fluids and are designed to safely resist
internal pressures that are different than the atmospheric pressure, or submitted
to external pressure, thus fulfilling the basic storage function.

Pressure vessels may be built with


various types of materials and geometric
formats, depending on the type of use that
they are intended for. Thus, there are pressure
vessels that are spherical, cylindrical, conical,
etc., built with carbon steel, stainless steel,
aluminum, fiberglass and other materials.

The pressure vessels may contain liquids, gases or a mixture thereof. Some
applications are: final or intermediary storage, pulsation dampening, heat
exchange, containment of reactions, filtration, distillation, fluid separation,
cryogenics, etc.

2.3. REACTORS

Devices in which the transfer of mass,


quantity of movement and energy occurs
together with a chemical reaction, which
should follow a safe and controllable manner.

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2.4. BOILERS

Equipment intended to produce and


accumulate vapor under pressure that is
greater than atmospheric pressure, using
any source of energy, running the
reboilers and similar equipment used at
processing units.

Boilers produce steam to supply


thermal machines, autoclaves used for sterilizing various materials, cooking food
and other organic products, heating the environment and other applications that
use steam for heat.

2.5. SILOS

Silos are structures used for the storage of heavy materials. Silos are used
in agriculture for storing grains and fermented foodstuffs. They are most
commonly used to store grains such as: coal, cement, black carbon, food
products and wood fibers.

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3. RISK MANAGEMENT
According to the definition from HOPE (2002), being able to manage risk
means “trying to prevent losses, trying to decrease the frequency or severity of
losses or paying for the losses of all efforts to the contrary.” Frequency of losses
is a reference to the number of times that the loss occurs, while severity would
be the total damage caused by the loss and how much this damage will cost.

Risk Management or Managing Risks is done with the adoption of best


practices for infrastructure, policies and methodology, allowing better
management of the acceptable risk limits, capital, pricing and portfolio
management.

In industrial plants with Hazardous Areas, risk management is a constant


practice, since it deals with environments with the presence of potentially
explosive atmospheres. Risk management includes the use of equipment with
suitable protection for the environment where it will be installed, suitable
maintenance of the equipment, choice of adequate procedures for work, control
of possible ignition sources, special care when handling and storing combustible
substances, use of portable instruments and equipment appropriate for the area’s
classification, electrical installation that is suitable for the area’s classification,
etc.

Some preventative measures, such as the pressurization of rooms


containing electrical panels, air conditioning of environments, adoption of artificial
ventilation using fans, exhaust of environments, etc., are resources that are
necessary to prevent the activation of an explosive atmosphere. Explosions,
when they occur, can contribute to incalculable property losses, in addition to the
loss of human lives

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3.1. DANGER

The potential that a magnitude has to cause property damage (material,


equipment, labor practices or methods) and worker injuries.

3.2. RISK

The elevated or reduced possibility of someone suffering harm caused by


danger. Risks can be eliminated or controlled, adopting suitable measures of
control.

According to their nature, risks can be classified as:

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3.2.1. ACCIDENT RISKS

Any factor that puts the worker in a vulnerable situation and may affect his
or her integrity and physical or mental well-being.

3.2.2. ERGONOMIC RISKS

Any factor that may interfere with the worker’s psychophysiological


characteristics, causing discomfort or affecting his or her health.

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3.2.3. PHYSICAL RISKS

These are considered the various forms of energy to which the workers
may be exposed, such as: noise, heat, cold, pressure, humidity, and non-ionizing
ionizing radiation, vibration, etc.

3.2.4. CHEMICAL RISKS

Chemical risks are considered substances,


compounds or products that can enter the worker’s
body through the respiratory system, in the form of
dust, fumes, gases, mist or vapors, or that, given
the nature of the activity, may come into contact or
be absorbed by the organism through the skin or by
being ingested.

3.2.5. BIOLOGICAL RISKS

Considered bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites and others.

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3.3. PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Preventative measures are actions that must be taken for the purpose of
preventing unwanted events (accidents) from occurring.

Flammable liquids and their vapors must be confined to closed and


channeled equipment, in order to prevent contact with the air and any ignition
sources. The purpose of the confinement is:

 To hinder the escape of liquids and their vapors;

 To allow quick closing and drainage in the event of accidental escape;

 To limit the area across which the liquid released can spread.

In the figure on the right, the black arrow


indicates a safety pump. The blue arrow indicates
a funnel that is suitable for handling flammable
liquids. With all liquid transfers, the set must be
grounded.

In the figure below, the black arrow indicates the safety valve (relief). The
yellow arrow indicates grounding between the drum and the security container.

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 Security Container For Transporting Flammable Liquids

Necessary precautions for handling and


transporting flammable liquids:

 Designate a person who has been


trained as responsible for handling
flammable liquids;

 The operations must be assessed


for predictable leaks and possible
ignition sources.

3.4. RISK ANALYSIS

A systematic method for examining and evaluating all the steps and
elements to identify:

 Hypothetic scenarios of unwanted occurrences (accidents);

 Possibilities for damages, effects and consequences;

 Correct operational problems, adopting preventative and corrective


measures, aiming at the safe execution of each step.

3.5. HANDLING OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS

Some precautions are essential when handling flammable liquids:

 Make sure the clothing is appropriate. Never remove pieces of


clothing during the operation;

 Inspect to see that there are no visible leaks in the area;

 Check that recipients, equipment and drains are closed;

 Make sure that tools, if needed, are suitable and are available;

 Inspect the integrity of the grounding for the processing equipment;

 Inspect the integrity of the bonding grips (oxidation and painting);

 Ground all the equipment, containers, pots, ladles, accessories, etc.;

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 Check the firmness of the fixation of the grips to avoid disconnection;

 Inspect whether electrical equipment is in a perfect state (closed and


grounded);

 Certify that there is no inappropriate mobile or portable equipment at


the location;

 Inspect plugs and extension cords of equipment that will be used;

 Connect the equipment’s plugs, verifying their correct fitting into the
socket;

3.6. MINIMUM RECOMMENDED PREVENTIVE ACTIONS

 Verify that the system is completely drained, purged and clean;

 Verify that the pipelines with flammable material on upper/lower


flooring or 20 m around are not having maintenance work done;

 Verify that the openings on floors, walls, doors and drains were
closed, covered or protected;

 Verify that combustible structures (floors, walls or ceilings) were


protected by a fireproof blanket and/or wet;

 Verify that packages with flammable/combustible materials have


been removed to a minimum distance of 10 m or protected by a
fireproof blanket;

 ALWAYS verify the absence of an explosive atmosphere through


gases, vapors, dust or fibers.

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3.7. HOW DO I MANAGE RISKS?

According to NBR 15662, preventative measures must be considered to


reduce or eliminate risks for explosion, and must be applied in the following
order:

I. IDENTIFICATION OF THE RISK OF EXPLOSION

The goal is to identify equipment and areas where there exists the
possibility that explosive atmospheres may occur, which should be represented in
the Area Classification Design.

II. ATMOSPHERE CONTROL

Adopt measures that can reduce or eliminate the possibility that an


explosive atmosphere will occur. Application of appropriate procedures, such as,
for example, keeping all containers closed until there is a change in the
processing situations, such as blanketing tanks and vessels.

III. IGNITION CONTROL

If it is not possible to eliminate the possibility of the occurrence of an


explosive atmosphere, take control measures to prevent the occurrence of
Ignition sources, simultaneously with the occurrence of this explosive
atmosphere. Use appropriate equipment, work procedures, grounding, etc.

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IV. DAMAGE CONTROL

The aforementioned measures are preventative, but they may fail and an
accident may occur. Therefore, it is important to plan measures for mitigation
(reduction) of the damages that may occur, such as, for example, emergency
plans of action, separation of buildings, explosion relief windows, etc.

NOTE: The pressure relief windows are used in facilities for storing grains,
where a bucket elevator or pneumatic conveyer is used to transport grains from a
lower level and deposit them into a storage structure or silo. Large elevators with
quick conveyer belts generally produce a lot of vibration, which may stress the
relief windows, causing premature faults.

Since the dust that comes from grains


is highly flammable, it represents a high risk
for explosion, and the adoption of safety
measures to reduce the pressure and remove
ignition sources is necessary. When the dust
from grains combusts due to the presence of an ignition source, there is an
exponential increase of the pressure within the bucket elevator.

3.7.1. RISK OF EXPLOSION

We can see the risk of explosions in various types of industrial plants,


during the execution of certain activities, such as:

 Industries that process food products and grain storage units;

 Activities for storing, transporting and unloading grains;

 Accumulation of dust at the work


site, settled on the floor,
elevators, tunnels and
conveyors;

 The decomposition of grains may


generate flammable vapors such
as methanol propanol or butyl alcohol.

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To prevent explosions, the following must be done:

 Frequent cleaning of the location;

 Prevent ignition sources (fumes, welding, etc.);

 Periodic maintenance of the equipment;

 Rotating parts must work without powder (sparks);

 Install a grounding system (static electricity);

 Never sweep the location, use a vacuum cleaner;

 Equip elevators, scales and relief collectors against pressures;

 Use a fire-break system in transportation ducts and others;

 Be careful with fans;

 Keep the humidity of the location above 50% (a dry environment is


explosive).

Below are some examples of explosions that occurred in the oil sector.

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VENEZUELA’S AMUAY REFINERY

The explosion at Venezuela’s Amuay Refinery, the largest in the country,


and the second largest in the world, was caused by a cloud of gas that formed
due to a leak in the storage tank zone. The refinery is responsible for processing
645 thousand barrels of petroleum per day.

A gas leak would have produced a fire in two of the facility’s tanks. 26
workers were killed and 80 were wounded. The accident occurred on August 25,
2012.

P-36 PLATFORM

The accident occurred on March 15, 2001, in the Campos Basin, 130 Km off

the coast of Rio de Janeiro. There were two explosions in one of the platform’s
pillars, destabilizing the structure, which became titled. 11 workers died in the
accident.

The P-36 platform was the largest production platform in the world,
producing 84.1 thousand barrels of oil
per day. After investigations, the National
Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuel
Agency (ANP) (Agência Nacional de
Petróleo e Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis)
concluded that the accident occurred due
to “non-compliance with the operating
procedures, maintenance and design.”

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DEEPWATER HORIZON

The accident occurred on April 20, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico. The
platform suffered a massive explosion in one of its two support towers. The tower
was in the final stages of drilling a well. This process is delicate, because there is
a possibility that the fluids in the well will be uncontrollably released. In this
accident, 17 workers were wounded and 11 were killed.

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4. STANDARDIZATION AND LEGISLATION


The history of facilities with explosive atmospheres began in Brazil in the
1950s with the establishment of the Petrochemical Poles. In the 50s, the designs
for every facility was done in accordance with foreign standards, the API
(American Petroleum Institute) and NEC (National Electrical Code). Due to a
lack of knowledge and understanding of the foreign standards, there were failures
with their interpretation and application. Therefore, many industrial plants had
failures with the Area Classification, reaching the conclusion that all the plants
that had flammable combustible liquids must have “explosion proof” equipment,
therefore elevating the cost of the industrial plant.

Initially, most of the equipment manufactured in Brazil was copied and did
not go through evaluations that ensured the effectiveness of its protection.

Certification was based on type testing (model 3), however, the only
laboratory available was the IEE-USP, which operated on a limited scale, due to a
lack of structure.

Throughout the decades, significant changes occurred on the Explosive


Atmospheres scene in Brazil, under the Government and Society, through
Associations. Some historical facts contribute to these changes.

The COBEI (Comitê Brasileiro de Eletricidade e Iluminação – Brazilian


Electricity and Lighting Committee) is the ABNT’s (Associação Brasileira de
Normas Técnicas – Brazilian Technical Standards Association) committee that
deals with standardization in Brazil’s electrical sector. In 1981, the CT-31
Technical Commission, which deals exclusively with Hazardous Areas, was
reactivated within COBEI. This Commission adopted the international standards
of the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) as a base for national
standardization. The Ministry of Justice, in the Consumer Defense Code,
published in 1991, began to require that the products and services offered to the
Brazilian market could not be marketed and executed without meeting the
current standards, which elevated these standards to the status of laws.

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INMETRO’s efforts for compulsory certification started with Ordinance 164,


in 1994. Ordinance 176, of 2000, is the “Turning Point,” making certification in
Brazil mandatory.

In 2004 there was a publication of the revision of NR-10 – Safety in


facilities and electrical services, by the Ministry of Labor and Employment.
According to NR-10, the materials, parts, devices, equipment and systems
intended for application in electrical installations of environments with potentially
explosive atmospheres must be assessed for their compliance, under the
Brazilian Certification System (item 10.9.2).

Item 10.9.3 The processes or pieces of equipment that are susceptible to


generating or accumulating static electricity must provide for specific protection
and electrical discharge devices.

Item 10.9.4 In the electrical installations of the hazardous areas or those


subject to increased risk of fire or explosions, protective devices must be
adopted, such as an alarm and automatic sectioning to prevent overvoltage,
overcurrent, failures in insulation, heating or other abnormal operating
conditions.

Item 10.9.5 Services on electrical installations in the hazardous areas may


only be performed with permission for the work with a formalized release, as
item 10.5 establishes or suppression of the risk agent that determines the area’s
classification.

According to NR-10/2004, the professional that works in Hazardous Areas


must have appropriate qualification for his or her activity, as well as specific
training that informs said professional of the risks.

NR-33 – Safety and health in works in confined spaces, published in 2006,


also deals with the risks of explosive atmospheres.

In 2009, Brazil became a member country of the IECEx.

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In 2012 a revision of NR-20 – Safety and health in work with flammable


and combustible liquids, which requires comprehensive risk management and
trainings according to the risk and activity of each worker, was published.

The SC.31 subcommittee, which succeeded the CT-31, constantly updates


the Brazilian standards for Hazardous Areas, based on the IEC international
standards.

In Brazil we have the NBR IEC 600.79 series for Hazardous Areas due to
gases and vapors.

Area Classification, done according to standardization based on the IEC,


involves the knowledge of products and technical assessment of the process.

The certification for Ex equipment, now mandatory in Brazil, is based on


type testing with assessment of the quality system (model 5) or on batch testing
(model 7), by the OCP (Organismos Certificadores de Produtos – Product
Certification Bodies) accredited by INMETRO.

INMETRO Ordinance No. 89, from February 23, 2012, in force, altered
INMETRO) Ordinance No. 179, from May 18, 2010, regarding electrical equipment
for explosive atmospheres, in the conditions of flammable vapors and gases and
combustible dust.

Insurance companies now recognize Risk Management and have Auditors


that are qualified and trained on how to evaluate whether the accident that
occurred was inevitable or due to negligence, and may, in the second case,
reserve the right for NON-PAYMENT. (Supplementary Law 126, from 2007).

Environmental organizations believe that the lack of safety in Ex industries


may be the cause for environmental disasters (leaks, explosions, spills, etc.).
Federal Law No. 9605, from 1998.

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4.1. PENATIES

1) Application of Fines – NR-28

2) Embargo and interdiction – NR-3

3) Civil and criminal liabilities - All the standards are considered laws

RIGHT OCCURS WHEN


LABOR AND SOCIAL SECURITY WORK ACCIDENT
CIVIL LAW ACCIDENT WITHOUT VICTIMS
CRIMINAL LAW ACCIDENT WITH VICTIMS
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER

4.2. LIABILITIES

 Shareholders / owners of the company;

 Process;

 Operation;

 Area Classification;

 Designs;

 Installation;

 Maintenance;

 Inspection and/or evaluation;

 Ex equipment manufacturing;

 Repair, review or modification of Ex equipment;

 Trainings;

 Designated authorities;

 Insurance companies.

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ABNT – SC-31 Subcommittee – Explosive Atmospheres

ABNT NBR 14639 Vehicle resale station – electrical installations


Systems to prevent and protect against explosion –
ABNT NBR 15662 Explosion risk management
ABNT NBR 17505 Storage of flammable liquids and fuels
ABNT NBR IEC Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres
Part 10-1: Area classification – Explosive gas atmospheres
60079-10-1
60079-14 Part 14: Design, selection and assembly of electrical installations
60079-17 Part 17: Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations
60079-19 Part 19: Repair, review and recovery of equipment
Part 20: Flammable vapors or gases data referent to the use of
60079-20 TR electrical equipment

STANDARD STATUS IN EFFECT


ABNT NBR IEC 60079-0:2006
ABNT NBR 9518:1997 CANCELLED Electrical equipment for explosive
atmospheres
ABNT NBR IEC 66079-1:2009 Explosive
ABNT NBR 5363:1998 CANCELLED atmospheres
ABNT NBR IEC 60079-14:2006
ABNT NBR 5418:1995 CANCELLED Electrical equipment for explosive
atmospheres
ABNT NBR IEC 60079-2:2007
ABNT NBR 5420:1992 CANCELLED Electrical equipment for explosive
atmospheres
ABNT NBR IEC 60079-11:2009 “i”
ANBT NBR 8447:1989 CANCELLED Intrinsic safety equipment protection

ABNT NBR IEC 60079-7:2008 “e”


ABNT NBR 9883:1995 CANCELLED Increased safety equipment protection

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IEC TC-31 Member countries: 32 Participating Members

PARTICIPANT PARTICIPANT PARTICIPANT PARTICIPANT


AUSTRALIA SLOVENIA IRELAND UNITED KINGDOM
CZECH
GERMANY SPAIN ITALY
REPUBLIC
BRAZIL UNITED STATES JAPAN ROMANIA
CANADA FINLAND MALAYSIA RUSSIA
SERBIA AND
CHINA FRANCE NORWAY
MONTENEGRO
CROATIA THE NETHERLANDS NEW ZEALAND SWEDEN
KOREA HUNGARY POLAND SWITZERLAND
DENMARK INDIA PORTUGAL UKRAINE

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5. AREA CLASSIFICATION
In various types of industrial plants we can find the presence of flammable
substances such as gases, vapors, dusts and fibers in sufficient quantities to form
an explosive atmosphere, as in the petrochemical, chemical, pharmaceutical,
textile, pulp and paper, paints and varnishes industries and sugarcane mills, etc.
In these facilities the Area Classification is a very important activity for the
identification of sources of release of explosive atmospheres, the frequency at
which they occur, the identification of the presence of oxidization and ignition
sources, so that the equipment can be specified and installed in such
environments so as not to cause possible sources of ignition.

Area Classification is an activity performed during the preparation of the


plant, in which a multidisciplinary team of professionals collects information about
the product, process, operation and safety. The final quality of this work depends
on the quality of the information provided by the customer.

Area Classification is the calculation of the degree of risk, undertaken in


order to map the areas where flammable mixtures may occur. The project should
be undertaken so that the areas have the lowest extension possible. Various
factors are analyzed during Area Classification, such as:

 Presence of inflammable substances such as gases, vapors, dusts and


fibers;

 Chemical characteristics of the substances, such as flash point, fire


point, auto-ignition temperature, flammability limit, volatility, relative
density of gases and minimum ignition energy;

 Possible sources of ignition that will be present at the plant;

 Equipment relating to processes and facilities

The Area Classification may be undertaken in accordance with ABNT NBR


IEC 60079-10 Explosive Atmosphere - Part 10.1: Area Classification - Explosive
gas atmospheres. The locations where there is a risk of explosion through ignition
of an explosive atmosphere are identified.

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This classification aims to avoid contact between ignition sources and the
explosive atmosphere and serves as a reference for the choice of electrical
equipment, such as motors, lamps, sockets, switches, panels, speakers, etc.

The main purpose of the standards is to define the good practices to be


adopted and thus ensure the safety and health of workers and the environment.
Meeting the standards complying with the requirements of current legislation
prevents heavy fines, possible embargoes and prohibition and penalties at civil
and criminal level.

Good work (design) within area classification is the most powerful tool of
economy, bringing the following benefits:

 Optimization of investments;

 Optimization of maintenance;

 Optimization of procedures;

 Optimization of insurance.

5.1. AREA CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES

5.1.1. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCE (POINTS)

 Source Of Release

This is a point from which the product can be released into the atmosphere
so that an explosive atmosphere can be formed.

 Risk Levels (Zoning)

Frequency of the presence and formation of the explosive atmosphere.

 Permanent;

 Normal;

 Abnormal.

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 Delimitation Of Areas (Extent)

 Volatility of the product;

 Amount of the product;

 Pressure of the process;

 Ventilation of the location

 Documentation

Area classification design:

 In plans;

 In cross-sections.

5.2. FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS:


CHARACTERISTICS, PROPERTIES, DANGERS AND RISKS

MSDS: The material safety data sheet, also known as MSDS, is the main
source of information about the explosiveness of the combustible substance. The
values determined by the MSDS related to the following atmospheric conditions:

 Pressure of 0.8 bar to 1.1 bar;

 Temperature of -20º C to 60º C.

The ignition properties are affected by temperature, oxygen concentration


and atmospheric pressure.

The following can also be consulted:

 ABNT NBR IEC 60079 – Part 20 – Data on inflammable gases and


vapors relating to the us of electrical equipment.

 The GESTIS database of hazardous substances maintained by the IFA


(Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social

 Accident Insurance).

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5.3. FLAMMABILITY LIMIT

There is a large amount of gases and vapors that are capable of reacting
with the oxygen present in the air. Gases that do not burn are called inert gases,
such as nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, water vapor and carbon tetrachloride.

All gases, flammable liquids and fuels may enter ignition when heat above
their flash point. For combustion to occur, it is necessary for there to be a
minimum and maximum concentration of substances that are combustible with
air (oxygen) or another type of oxidant. The minimum concentration at which the
mixture becomes flammable is called the LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT and the
maximum concentration at which the mixture becomes flammable is called the
UPPER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT.

The Flammable Range covers the lower limit to the upper limit. The
substances with very broad flammability ranges present a higher level of risk
when compared to substances with lower flammability ranges.

The explosive limits are normally indicated in percentage by volume. There


is no combustion when the gas is pure (concentration equal to 100%) or when
there is no gas (0%). A gas mixture only provokes propagation of the flame if the
gas concentration is within the flammable range. All combustible and flammable
gases, vapors and powder suspensions have defined air concentration levels
within which propagation is possible after ignition.

The flammability limits depend on the following factors:

 Combustible gas type;

 Ambient pressure and temperature conditions;

 Oxygen concentration;

 Energy level to ignite the mixture.

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One of the methods used for the purpose of reducing and eliminating the
ability of gases to cause an explosion or combustion is dilution of the gas with an
inert gas. This may be obtained using the following procedures:

 Reducing the amount of oxygen and;

 Increasing the amount of inert gas introduced.

The percentage of inert gas required to produce a safe atmosphere


depends on the nature of the combustible gas and the inert gas to be used.
Example: hydrogen does not become flammable when the mixture with air has
62% CO2 or 75% N2. Mixtures with methane and air are not inflammable
when there is 38% N2.

Substances such as acetylene, hydrazine and n-propyl nitrate has an upper


limit of 100%. These substances burn without an oxidant (air, oxygen), such as
rocket fuels and the so-called monopropellants.

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5.4. INERTING

Inerting is a popular, traditional method that can be used as primary


protection, i.e. reducing the amount of oxygen in the air. Examples of inert
gases: nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, halogenated hydrocarbons or
powdered substances are generally employed in inerting processes.

An atmosphere containing less than 10% in volume of oxygen does not


become explosive. When the volume ratio between the inert gas and the
combustible gas is at least 25, there is no possibility of forming a flammable
atmosphere, independent of the amount of air that is mixed with the flammable
gas or vapor.

SUBSTANCE LIE (%VOLUME) LSE (% VOLUME)

METHAN 5.0 15.0


E
BENZENE 1.2 8.0

ETHYL ETHER 1.7 36.0

ETHANOL 3.5 15.0

CARBON DISULFIDE 1.0 60.0

5.5. AIR DENSITY

This is the ratio of the mass per unit of volume of the Earth's atmosphere.
The density and air pressure reduce with increases in altitude. This also changes
with temperature variations, composition of dry air or humidity. The air density
may change depending on your heating and cooling when heated the air density
decreases and this tends to rise when cold air increases density and this
downward trend.

At industrial plants the air density may influence the performance of


equipment and processes.

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TEMPERATURE T (ºC) AIR DENSITY ρ (Kg/m3))


+35 1.1455
+30 1.1644
+25 1.1839
+20 1.2041
+15 1.2250
+10 1.2466
+5 1.2690
0 1.2922
-5 1.3163
-10 1.3413
-15 1.3673
-20 1.3943
-25 1.4224

5.5.1. RELATIVE GAS OR VAPOR DENSITY

The relative density of a substance is the ratio of the density of the


substance and the density of a substance used as standard.

The relative density of a gas or vapor is the ratio between the gas density
in relation to air, based on an air density equal to 1. The IEC standard considers
that if the density of the product is between 0.8 and 1.2 it should be dealt with as
if it had the same density as air. The molecular mass of air is approximately 29g,
corresponding to a relative density of 1. The gases with molecular masses lower
than 29 have relative density less than 1 and are lighter than air.

Hydrogen, methane, ammonia, acetylene and ethylene are gases with a


density lighter than air. Gases with approximately the same density as air:
carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, ethane, ethylene and
acetylene. Gases that have heavier density than air: chlorine, carbon dioxide,
sulfur dioxide, LPG, propane, propylene and butane. Gases having the same
density as air have the ability to spread in all directions.

The density of the substance may vary depending on the temperature and
pressure, thus to specify the density of a gas or vapor it is necessary to specify
the temperature and pressure at which the density was determined.

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Generally the measurement of the relative density of the gas is made


relative to dry air at a temperature of 20 °C and a pressure of 101.325 kPa
absolute, which has a density of 1.205 Kg/m3. We can calculate the relative
density of gases using the formula below:

PRODUCT DENSITY
HYDROGEN 0.07
METHAN 0.55
E
ETHYL 0.97
ENE
ETHANO 1.59
L
CYCLOHEXANE 2.90

5.6. VOLATILITY

The volatility of a liquid substance is related to the kinetic energy of its


molecules in the liquid phase, some substances have more kinetic energy
accumulated in their molecules, meaning these molecules are able to break the
intermolecular bonds that keep them attached to the liquid, thus reaching the
surface of the liquid and escaping into the atmosphere. If the substance is in an
open container the phenomenon will occur until the entire substance disappears,
thus beginning the process known as evaporation.

In a closed container the phenomenon also occurs, which increases as the


quantity of these vapor molecules collide with each other or with the liquid. As a
consequence of these impacts, energy is transferred between the molecules.
Molecules with lower degree of agitation are captured again by intermolecular
forces and return to a liquid state, suffering condensation.

After a while the system achieves dynamic equilibrium, where the


molecules continually shift from liquid to vapor and vapor to liquid.

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Fuels can be classified as volatile and non-volatile:

VOLATILE FUELS: are those whose molecules become detached from its
natural form (solid or liquid) without the need of temperature or pressure
variations, such as gasoline, naphtha, ether, hexane, toluene, benzene, etc. All
products emitting vapors at room temperature are called light products.

Example: If we leave a glass of acetone open in an environment, it starts


evaporating naturally, without needing to be heated or
ambient temperature variations.

NON-VOLATILE FUELS: are those whose


molecules do not naturally break free to become
flammable vapor.

They require heat for this to occur, such as wood,


paper, fuel oil, lubricant, diesel, kerosene etc.

5.7. MINIMUM IGNITION ENERGY (MIE)

This is the lowest electrical energy value sufficient for the ignition of an
explosive atmosphere of the substance concerned, for certain specified test
conditions. At this point the maximum power is developed, that is, the explosion
is greater. Gases, vapors and dusts are usually classified according to their
minimum ignition energy (MIE). These values are obtained through a spark gap,
supplying a parameter of how the substance may ignite easily due to sparks.

Depending on the specific application, there are several standardized


procedures for determining the minimum ignition energy (MIE) of dust clouds,
solvent gases and vapors.

The common element in all procedures is the energy generated by the


discharge of an electrostatic spark released by the capacitive electric circuit.

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The circuit components and the location of the electrodes between the
generated sparks are the main differences between the methods.

The presence of gas / flammable vapor in an air / fuel combustible dust


mixture (hybrid mixture) may lead to ignition energies lower than the minimum
for dust / air alone, even though the concentration of gas / vapor is well below
the lower flammability limit.

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SUBSTANCES MIE (mJ)


ACETONE 1.15
ACETYLENE 0.017
AMMONIA 680
BENZENE 0.20
BUTANE 0.25
CARBON MONOXIDE 0.3
CELLULOSE 35
CHARCO 40
AL
CYCLOHEXANE 0.22
ETHYLE 0.07
NE
GASOLINE 0.8
ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL 0.65

5.8. DUST AND FIBERS – PARAMETERS FOR CLASSIFICATION

Parameters depend on the particle size, humidity and oxygen.

CONDUCTIVE DUST: Dust, fibers or particles in suspension with electrical


resistivity equal to or lower than103 ohm x m.

FIBERS: Particles larger than 500 µm in rated size.

CME (g/m3): Minimum Explosive Concentration: Minimum amount of


dust/fiber, which mixed with air, forms a potentially explosive mixture.

MIT (ºC): Minimum ignition temperature of the dust cloud.

SIT “e” (ºC): Minimum spontaneous ignition temperature of the dust


layer with the thickness "e" in mm.

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EXPLOSIVENESS CLASS (St): Using tests, this defines if a flam


propagates after ignition of a dust/air mixture, causing an increase in pressure in
a closed recipient. It varies from 0 (no flame) to 3 (strong explosion).

EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE RISK CLASSIFICATION

MINIMUM IGNITION TEMPERATU


TEMPERATURE RE CLASS
PRODUCT
MINIMUM IGNITION
GROUP
ENERGY

FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE ZONE

5.8.1. MAXIMUM SURFACE TEMPERATURE

This is the highest temperature is reached in service under the most


adverse conditions (but within the tolerances specified by the standard for its
type of protection) by any part or surface of a piece of equipment in contact with
an explosive atmosphere capable of causing a spark. To avoid the risk of
explosion, the maximum surface temperature of the equipment must always be
below the ignition temperature of any gas, vapor or mist.

If the markings of electrical equipment does not include an ambient


temperature range, the equipment will be designed to be used between

20ºC and +40ºC. If the ambient temperature range is outside this range,
or if any influence due to other factors, such as process temperature and
exposure to solar radiation, the effect on the equipment should be considered
and the measures taken should be documented. In this case, the equipment
manufacturer must be informed of the ambient temperature conditions to which
the equipment will be submitted.The indication of the maximum surface
temperature classification of the electric equipment, determined during
certification tests and indicated on the certificate of conformity should be
indicated in the markings on the electrical equipment.

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5.9. TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION

Equipment classification system based on the maximum surface


temperature related to the specific explosive atmosphere where it will be
installed.

This is information provided by the manufacturer (and ratified by the


laboratory) through which it ensures that the equipment supplied will not reach a
surface temperature above the classification in question, even under fault
conditions.

This temperature must not exceed the ignition temperature of the


flammable product present in the hazardous area. If contact occurs between a
given flammable product with hot parts of electrical equipment such as lamps,
electric panels, cables, enclosure etc., which are heated at a temperature higher
than the ignition temperature of the flammable product, then an explosive
atmosphere may be activated in the area.

The appropriate choice of the maximum surface temperature of the


equipment can be made after finding out the auto ignition temperature of
flammable products in the area where the equipment will be installed.

Safety margin: T1 and T2 = 10ºC; T3 to T6 = 5ºC.

This should always be less than the auto ignition temperature of the
flammable products.

Example: The equipment is designed for use in a normal ambient


temperature range between -20°C and +40°C.

When specifying the temperature classification, check the maximum


process temperature of use.

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TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM IGNITION TEMPERATURE of TEMPERATURE


CLASSIFICATION SURFACE the flammable vapor or gas CLASSIFICATION
S required by the TEMPERATURE existing in the hazardous of the equipment
AREA OF THE area where the equipment will permitted for
CLASSIFICATION EQUIPMENT (°C) be installed (°C) installation

T1 450 Gas ignition T˃ 450 T1 – T6


T2 300 Gas ignition T˃ 300 T2 – T6
T3 200 Gas ignition T˃ 200 T3 – T6
T4 135 Gas ignition T˃ 135 T4 – T6
T5 100 Gas ignition T˃ 100 T5 – T6
T6 85 Gas ignition T˃ 85 T6

5.10. MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE FOR DUST AND FIBERS

For electrical equipment and instrumentation to be installed in areas


classified as Group III (combustible dust or fibers), the maximum surface
temperature determined without a dust layer (ABNT NBR IEC 60079-0) must not
exceed the maximum temperature attributed or ignition temperature of the
specific dust layer or cloud for which this equipment is designed.
For electrical equipment and instrumentation that will be installed in areas
classified as Group III (combustible dust or fibers) the maximum surface
temperature with a layer of dust may be determined by a given thickness of the
layer "e" of combustible dust around the equipment.

The standard ABNT NBR IEC 60079-14 defines the calculations to be used
to define the maximum surface temperature of the equipment enclosure that will
be installed in areas classified as Group III (combustible dust or fibers) in the
form layers or clouds of combustible dust

Equipment enclosures with a deposited dust layer from 5 mm to 50 mm in


thickness, the maximum allowable surface temperature should be reduced. For
enclosures with deposited dust layers over 50 mm thick, the temperature limit
should be in accordance with the requirements specified in ABNT NBR IEC 60079-
14.

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The maximum surface temperature is the lowest of the values obtained for
dust clouds or dust layers, determining the maximum surface temperature for the
equipment to be used. In locations where the dust thickness cannot be controlled
to a maximum of 5mm, considerations should be made with the manufacturer. If
there is a lack of product information, the Tmax may be obtained in a
conservative form using the NEC standard.

Maximum surface Limit according to the ignition


temperature limit of the temperature of the
equipment (°C) area (°C)
Tmax < 2/3 MIT
Where MIT is the minimum ignition temperature
of the dust cloud in °C
“Tmax” ºC Tmax < SIT “e” – 75ºC
Where "SIT" is the minimum ignition temperature
of the dust layer with a thickness "e" in mm at °C.

5.11. EXPLOSION GROUPS

The International Electrotechnical Commission Standards and the ABNT


Brazilian Standard classify the environment into explosion groups.

Flammable substances in the form of gas and vapor are classified into 03
groups according to the IEC: IIA, IIB and IIC according to their dangerousness.
This classification is made according to experimental procedures and based on
the MIC (Minimum Ignition Current) and MESG (Maximum Experimental Safe
Gap).

Example: the electrical equipment and instrumentation should be selected


and specified according to the group of the hazardous area in which they will be
used. When electrical equipment is marked indicating its suitability for a
particular gas or vapor, it cannot be used with other types of gases or vapors
without a full assessment carried out by a competent body, with the results
showing that this equipment is suitable for such use.

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Electrical equipment for use in environments with explosive dust


atmospheres are divided into:

 IIIA: Combustible fibers

 IIIB: Non-conductive dust

 IIIC: Conductive dust

Note: The electrical equipment certified as group IIC is adequate for IIB
and IIC. The electrical equipment certified as group IIC is adequate for groups
IIIA and IIIB.

GROUP DESCRIPTION MIE (mJ)


GRISU (mixture of gases with a predominance
I of methane found in underground coal mines) 0.52

Propane, butane, gasoline, acetone, hexane,


IIA ≥ 0.20
natural gas, benzene, methane, etc.
Ethylene, Ethanol, Formaldehyde,
IIB < 0.20
Carbon Monoxide
Sulfide gas, etc.
IIC Acetylene, Hydrogen and Carbon disulfide < 0.04
Fibers: Rayon, Sisal, Jute, Wood fibers,
IIIA
Cotton, Linen, Cocoa, Seeds, etc.
Non-conductive dust: sugar, wheat
IIIB flour, corn, cocoa, barley, rice powder, milk ˃ 0.10
powder, Vitamin C, Vitamin B1, cellulose, etc.
Conductive dust: aluminum, iron, manganese,
IIIC
charcoal, graphite, coke.

5.12. CLASSIFICATION BY ZONES

The zones classification considers the various hazards of explosive


atmospheres allowing the adoption of control measures against explosion
hazards.

The identification of hazards and frequency of explosive atmospheres in


industrial environments enables the selection and specification of electrical
equipment suitable for such environments.

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According to the degree of risk of the hazardous area, electrical devices


become more robust and resistant, and consequently more expensive when
compared to conventional equipment.

Classification by risk zone may be undertaken in accordance with ABNT


NBR IEC

5.12.1. CONTINUOUS RELEASE SOURCE

This is a point from which release occurs continuously laid for long periods
of time or frequently.

 Examples for gases and vapors: inner tanks, vessels, etc..

 Examples for dust and fibers: inside silos, bag filters, etc.

 ZONE 0

Location where the formation of an explosive atmosphere by gases, vapors


and mists is present continuously, for long periods or frequently.

 ZONE 20

Location where the formation of an explosive atmosphere by dust and


fibers is present continuously, for long periods or frequently.

5.12.2. PRIMARY RELEASE SOURCE

This is a point from which release will possibly occur during normal
operation.

 Examples of gases, vapors and mists: covers, drains, vents, samples


taken, etc.

 Examples for dust and fibers: transfer points, open sacks, etc.

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 ZONE 1

Location where the formation of an explosive atmosphere by gases, vapors


and mists may possible be present under normal operating conditions.

 ZONE 21

Location where the formation of an explosive atmosphere by dust and


fibers may possible be present under normal operating conditions.

5.12.3. SECONDARY RELEASE SOURCE

This is a point from which the release during normal operation is not
predicted and, if it occurs, is likely to be only occasionally, and only for short
periods of time.

 Examples of gases, vapors and mists: flanges, pump seals,


compressor joints, etc.

 Examples for dust and fibers: joints, sleeves, covers, etc.

 ZONE 2

Location where the formation of an explosive atmosphere due to gases,


vapors and mists is not expected to occur in normal operations, but if so, it only
remains active for a short period of time.

 ZONE 22

Location where the formation of an explosive atmosphere due to dust and


fibers is not expected to occur in normal operations, but if so, it only remains
active for a short period of time.

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The delimitation of Hazardous Areas depends on:

 Amount of the product;

 Volatility of the product;

 Pressure of the process;

 Ventilation of the location

Statistical frequency of a presence of an explosive mixture for classification


of zones. API RP 505

Time of presence of
% time of
ZONE Explosive Atmosphere per
presence per year
year (about 10,000 hours)
Zone 0 1000 hours or more per year ˃ 10%
Zone 1 10 < hours per year < 1000 0.1% to 10%
Zone 2 1 < hours per year < 10 0.01% to 0.1%
Non-
Less than 1 hours per year < 0.01%
hazardous
areas

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5.13. VENTILATION

This is one of the methods capable of minimizing or preventing the


formation of an explosive atmosphere. Gas or vapor released into the
atmosphere can be diluted by dispersion or diffusion in the air until its
concentration is below the lower explosive limit. Ventilation can be obtained
through the movement of air due to wind and/or by temperature gradients or by
artificial means such as fans. This type of protection should ensure that there will
be no formation of a flammable substance at any point of the environment
concerned at any time.

To obtain good ventilation of the area, the conditions of the facilities should
be assessed, and the maximum amount of flammable vapor or gas that could be
released.

5.13.1. NATURAL VENTILATION

When the facility is in the open air, i.e. there are no obstacles that
characterize a confined environment. This type of ventilation is obtained through
the movement of air caused by wind and/or temperature gradients. In open
environments, the air speed is generally higher than 2 m/s and rarely below 0.5
m/s.

Examples of natural ventilation;

 Outdoor situations, typical of the chemical and oil industries, such as:
open structures, pipe supports, pumping stations and suchlike;

 An open building, considering the relative density of gases and or


vapors involved, with open walls and/or ceiling, dimensioned and
located in such a way that the ventilation inside the building can be
considered as equivalent to the outdoor situation for the purpose of
area classification.

 A building that is not open, but that has a natural ventilation provided
with permanent openings, built with the objective of ventilation.

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5.13.2. ARTIFITIAL VENTILATION

This is a type of ventilation that makes it possible to employ large amounts


of air with the objective of promoting air circulation. It is important to ensure that
the devices responsible for artificial ventilation, such as fans, dusts, diffusers and
openings do not become inoperative. It is mainly applied in indoor environments,
but can also be applied outdoors in order to compensate for restricted or impeded
natural ventilation caused by the presence of obstacles.

With the use of artificial ventilation it is possible to obtain:

 Reduction of the type and/or extent of the zones;

 Reduction in the duration of an explosive gas atmosphere;

 Prevention of the formation of an explosive gas atmosphere.

An artificial ventilation system for protection against explosion needs to


comply with the following requirements:

 Its effectiveness needs to be controlled and monitored;

 For ventilation of a hazardous area, the air normally needs to be


captured from a non-hazardous area;

 The area classification inside the exhaust system should be taken into
consideration, immediately to the external side of its point of
discharge, and other openings in this exhaust system.

5.13.3. DEGREE OF VENTILATION

Another important factor to be considered for the assessment of ventilation


of a room, regardless of the type of ventilation (natural or artificial), is the
Degree of Ventilation.

This is a qualitative method that expresses if the intensity of the ventilation


at the location is sufficient to lower the risk of the area or not.

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The Degree of Ventilation depends on the wind speed and number of air
changes per unit of time.

Ventilation may be divided into three levels: low, medium and high.

 High Ventilation

The concentration at the source of risk can be lowered, resulting in a


concentration below the lower explosive limit. Results in a negligible zone
extension. At locations where ventilation is not good, another type of zone may
occur around the negligible zone extension.

 Average Ventilation

The concentration can be controlled, resulting in a stable condition zone


extension, while the release is occurring and the non-explosive gas atmosphere
remains unnecessarily after the leak stops.

 Low Ventilation

The concentration cannot be controlled while the leak occurs and/or the
unsuitable persistence of an explosive gas atmosphere, after the leak stops.

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6. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR CLASSIFIED AREAS


In Hazardous Areas the installation of electrical equipment should be
avoided, as they may produce ignition sources such as sparks, sparks, short
circuit, electric arcs, overheating of internal components and the equipment
surface. However, it is not always possible to avoid the installation of this
equipment in hazardous areas, in these situations appropriate equipment is
installed to operate in these environments.

The standard ABNT NBR IEC 60079-0/13 defines two types of certification:

 Example: component, part of electrical equipment or module, marked


with the symbol "U", which is not designed to be used alone and
requires additional consideration when incorporated into the electrical
equipment or system for use in an explosive atmosphere.

This condition is indicated using the symbol "U" as a suffix for the number
of the certificate.

 Example: Equipment: with a certificate prepared for the complete


equipment. There is no "U" symbol and, in some cases, there may be
an "X" as the suffix on the certificate number. The "X" symbol is
used to indicate specific conditions for use.

To prevent electrical equipment from producing ignition sources (sparks,


heat, etc.) that are capable of initiating an explosion, different construction
techniques are used. The main methods used in electrical equipment are:

 Confinement;

 Isolation or;

 Suppression of the ignition source

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 Confinement

The components that could cause ignition are installed in enclosures that
can withstand the pressure developed during an internal explosion of an
explosive mixture and prevent the transmission of this to the atmosphere around
the enclosure.

 Isolation

The components that could cause ignition are isolated from the surrounding
explosive atmosphere through an insulating medium, which may be protective
gas, oil, sand, or resin.

 Dilution

Continuous supply of a protective gas, at a rate so that the concentration of


the flammable substance is maintained at a value outside the explosive limits.

 Limitation

Power restriction including equipment and interconnection wiring exposed


to the explosive atmosphere at a level below that capable of causing ignition.

 Suppression

Applying additional constructive measures in order to eliminate the


possibility of ignition sources under normal conditions or under specified
abnormal conditions.

The specification of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres is


based on three factors:

 Type of protection: this depends on the zone, which in turn depends


on the frequency at which an explosive atmosphere in this area may
occur.

 Group: this depends on the difference of the behavior of the


substances in relation to explosiveness, such as minimum ignition
power, speed of propagation of the flame etc.

 Temperature Classification: which should be determined from the


auto ignition temperature of the most critical product.

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6.1. TYPES OF PROTECTION EQUIPMENT

6.1.1. INTRINSEC SAFETY – (EX-I)

Type of protection based on power restriction including equipment and


interconnection wiring exposed to the explosive atmosphere at a level below that
capable of causing ignition, caused by sparks or heating.

All mixtures have a minimum ignition energy (MIE), and below this value it
is impossible to cause detonation, depending on the concentration of the mixture,
i.e. the amount of fuel in relation to the amount of air.

The basic principle of Intrinsic Safety is to manipulate and store low


energy, so that the circuit installed in the hazardous area never has enough
power (manipulated and stored) capable of igniting the explosive atmosphere.
Within this principle, the total energy that the intrinsically safe circuit may
contain must be less than the MIE - minimum ignition energy .

The intrinsic safety circuits always manipulate and store energy, below the
minimum explosive limits of gases representative of each family, considering the
most dangerous concentrations. Thus even in abnormal operating conditions in
the equipment, Intrinsic Safety circuits do not cause ignition, as they do not have
enough energy for such, making the installation safe and allowing assemblies
even in Zone 0.

This method can be applied to various equipment and instrumentation


systems, since power can only be controlled at low levels in instruments such as:
electronic current transmitters, electro pneumatic converters, limit switches, light
signalers, valve sensors, communications equipment, etc.

Below are some of the terms of most importance for understanding intrinsic
safety:

 Associated equipment - electrical equipment that has two types of


circuits, those which are intrinsically safe and those which are not,
however, there is no impairment in overall safety;

 Fault – defect in any component, separation, isolation or connection


between components;

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 Infallible Component - component that can be considered as not


being subject to some failure modes, the probability of failure is so
small that it is negligible in some cases;

 Minimum Ignition Voltage - minimum voltage in a capacitive circuit


capable of causing ignition of an explosive mixture;

 Maximum Input Voltage (Vi) – maximum voltage that can be applied


to the input terminals in intrinsically safe circuits without damaging
the type of protection “Ex-i”;

 Maximum Output Voltage (V0) – maximum output voltage in a safe


circuit, seen in an open circuit in the terminals of the equipment for
any voltage applied up to the maximum value, including Vm
(maximum voltage that can be applied to the input) and Vi;

 Maximum Input Current (Ii) – maximum current (AC or DC peak) that


can be applied to the input terminals of an intrinsically safe circuit
without invalidating this type of protection;

 Maximum Output Current (I0) - maximum current (AC or DC peak) in


an intrinsically safe circuit that can be provided by the equipment;

 Diode Security Barrier - assembly that incorporates diodes in parallel,


protected by fuses, resistors or a combination thereof.

 Zener Barrier

This is a way to ensure the limitation of electrical parameters in the


intrinsically safe equipment and devices.

Components incorporating parallel diodes or diode chains (including Zener


diodes) protected by fuses or resistors or a combination thereof manufactured as
an individual unit instead of part of a larger equipment.

The function of the energy barrier is to limit the power delivered to the
hazardous area through the safe area, by limiting the current and voltage.

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Considerations about the use of the energy barrier for protection of


hazardous areas:

 The focus is simple and practical;

 The system is flexible, as the only requirement is to limit the voltage


of the safe side;

 The certificate is only required for energy storing equipment


connected after the barrier, mounted in the hazardous area. Simple
equipment that does not store energy does not need certification,
and;

 The barrier should be grounded, generally at the single grounding


point, at the equipotential point of the plant.

 Protection category “Ex-ia”

The equipment shall have an Ex-ia denomination when analyzing and


considering voltages Vm and Vi applied to intrinsically safe circuits in electrical
equipment with the protection category "ia, and should not cause ignition of the
surrounding explosive atmosphere in the following situations:

 Normal operation and the occurrence of faults that leads to more


sever conditions;

 Normal operation with the application of a containable fault, as well


as uncontainable faults that lead to the most critical condition, and;

 Normal operation and occurrence of two unpredicted faults with the


possibility of leading to more critical conditions.

 Protection Category “Ex-ib”

For equipment classified as "Ex-ib", the Voltage Vm and Vi applied to the


intrinsically safe circuits of electrical equipment should not be capable of causing
ignition of the explosive mixture present at the location where they are installed
and operating, in accordance with the following situations:

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 Normal operation with the occurrence of unpredicted faults and


aggravation for more critical conditions, and;

 In normal operations with the occurrence of only one unpredicted


fault and aggravation for more critical situations.

 Protection Category “Ex-ic”

The equipment with "Ex-ic" denomination in the voltage condition Vm and


Vi applied to the intrinsically safe equipment should not result in ignition of the
atmosphere during normal operating conditions.

Example: Junction boxes with plastic enclosures and IP 65 with Ex-i


intrinsically safe circuits.

Solenoid valve connected to the valve


sensor. The body of the valve does not require
fastening elements, as it is assembled directly to
the pneumatic actuator.

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6.1.2. EXPLOSION PROOF – (EX-D)

So-called "Explosion Proof" or "Flame Proof" protection is possibly the most


common protection method applied to the electrical equipment used in locations
with explosive atmospheres. The concept developed at the start of the 20th
century approximately in 1908, with controversy over invention of the enclosure
between the English and the Germans.

The German term "druckfeste kapselung" means that which withstands


internal pressure, where the letter used with the symbol "d" originates
from. Dr. Ing Carl Beyling produced a document at the time describing the
application of what was later known as “druckfeste kapselung” (flame proof in
English, for Americans and Europeans), which related to electrical motors, and
awarded with a medal in 1938 by the United Kingdom Institution of Mining
Engineers.

In the United States, this type of protection is called "Explosion Proof",


while in Europe it is known as "Flame Proof". The choice of name initially implies
some differences in the basic concepts, although the final result is the same, as
in both cases there is effective protection through confinement of the explosion
inside the equipment or cooling the flame when it escapes outside.

The type of protection in which the parts that could cause ignition are
installed in enclosures that can withstand the pressure developed during an
internal explosion of an explosive mixture and prevent the transmission of this to
the atmosphere around the enclosure.

Thus an explosion proof enclosure must be constructed with a very durable


material, usually aluminum or cast iron, and must have a long, narrow interstices
so that the hot gases developed during a possible explosion can be cooled,
ensuring the integrity of the surrounding atmosphere.

Explosion proof enclosures are not used in high risk zones (zone 0) as the
integrity of this level of protection depends on correct installation and
maintenance. This protection method is confinement, and may be used in zone 1.

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Main characteristics of these types of protection:

 The safety of explosion proof enclosures depends on the mechanical


integrity, with inspection and periodic control necessary;

 It is not possible to adjust or replace components with energized


equipment, hindering maintenance processes;

 Generally, there are difficulties in removing the front cover, as a


special tool is required to remove and replace several screws, also
considering the risks to the integrity of the joint (interstitial);

 Atmospheric humidity and condensation can cause corrosion to


conduits and their enclosure, in special situations it is necessary to
construct the enclosure of noble metals such as stainless steel, brass,
etc. thereby increasing the cost of the enclosure due to its weight.

This type of protection is mainly used in power equipment, such as engine


control panels, light fixtures, control switches etc.

 Joints

Generally, explosion proof enclosure has joints for reducing the high
pressure gas that is generated due to possible ignition in the enclosure. These
joints have tow main functions: reducing the pressure generated and reducing
the temperature of the gas from the explosion released through the joint,
preventing the exterior atmosphere from suffering the ignition process.

 Sealing Units

Sealing units are forecast to be installed in electrical conduits and cable


systems with the intention of minimizing the passage of gases or vapors and
prevent the passage of the flame from one part of the electrical installation to the
other via the electrical conduit. Communication via an MI type cable is inherently
avoided, given the actual construction of the cable.

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The figure below shows a cross-section of a sealing unit, enabling us to


identify that the conduit is threaded into the sealing unit to be filled with the
sealing mass and how the conductor is arranged inside.

This system using the sealing unit has the disadvantage of being a
physically rigid and sealed system, with a loss of material due to impregnation in
the event of maintenance. The passage of gas or vapor and propagation of
flames may occur through interstices between the wires of which the flexible
cables with a gauge of more than 35 mm2 are composed. In these cases, special
constructions for these conductors become necessary, with the use of individual
sealing units or cable fittings.

The mixture used in the sealing is relatively porous, so that some gases,
particularly under pressure and with very small molecules, such as hydrogen, can
very slowly pass through the sealer mixture. Furthermore, sealing is undertaken
around the external insulating layer of the conductor, leaving minimum spaces
inside the conductor (interstices) without the due protection.

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The figure below shows a cross-section of a cable fitting, with a quick and
easy installation system, however attention is required on the use of suitable
cable fittings appropriate to the cable size, avoiding gaps that could compromise
the set as a whole, in the same way as a very large cable would not allow it to
grip to body, which can compromise the system with protection type Ex.

CCM “Ex” with “traditional" flat joint metal enclosure and sealing units Ex d.

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Explosion proof cable fittings and Increased Safety for unshielded cables

Cable fitting for shielded cables

Example faults already found in equipment and facility inspections Ex:

 Lack of fastening screws on the flanges of the explosion proof


enclosure covers;

 Lack of sealing units on the openings of electrical conduits in


explosion proof enclosures;

 Sealing units installed with an excessive distance in relation to the


explosion proof enclosure;

 Existence of uncertified electrical conduit accessories between the


sealing units and explosion proof enclosure (male/female joints and
nipples Ex d);

 Sealing units without sealing material inside (empty);

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 Installation of flexible conduits between the explosion proof enclosure


and the sealing unit unduly increasing the volume of gas submitted to
a possible explosion within the enclosure;

 Lack of closure elements (plugs) in the conduit openings not used in


explosion-proof enclosures;

 Installation cork , rubber or silicon gaskets in the flat joints of


explosion proof enclosures in an attempt to prevent the ingress of
water into the enclosure through the metal/metal joint;

 Engine enclosures, panels, light fixtures, junction boxes, plugs and


pass boxes with weaknesses in their seals against ingress of water
and dust, invalidating the degree of protection (IP) required;

 Faults in cable fittings installation, with a cable diameter smaller than


that required in the project, invalidating the protection of the cable
entry device;

 Installation of uncertified cable fittings at the entry of cables into Ex d


enclosures;

 Installation of Ex d cable fittings that are not appropriate for the


internal volume of the enclosure or for the group of equipment (IIC);

 Installation of equipment not suitable for the temperature group or


class indicated by the area classification study.

Example fault in the assembly of an


explosion proof sealing unit with "Ex"
certification: absence of the sealing compound
for sealing the cables.

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Example fault in the assembly of a


three phase induction motor with "Ex"
certification: lack of closure of the cable
entry on the power connection terminal.

Example fault in the assembly of a


cable fitting with "Ex" certification:
inappropriate use of sealing material.

Example assembly fault in the cable intake


of the hosing with protection level IP 55: lack of
cable fitting and inappropriate use of sealing
material.

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Example fault in the assembly of an


explosion proof sealing unit with "Ex"
certification: lack of fastening screws for the
flanged cover.

Example fault in the assembly of a


connection terminal with "Ex"
certification: mistakes in the cable intakes
and closure of the cover.

Recommendations in the design, assembly, maintenance and repair stages


of "Ex" facilities.

In order to facilitate the assembly, inspection, maintenance and repair


services, when possible equipment with Ex "n", Ex "m", Ex "p", Ex "e" or Ex "de"
protection should be specified, dispensing with the need of installing Ex "d"
sealing units and cable fittings and a large amount of screws for fastening flanged
covers.

In the design and technical specification phases for the "E" electrical
equipment and instrumentation, for cases in which the specification of metal
explosion proof enclosure is inevitable, preference should always be given to
equipment with threaded covers and indirect cable intakes to inside the Ex "d"
enclosure.

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Wherever possible for instrumentation projects, preference should be given


to the specification of intrinsically safe circuits that dispense with the need for
explosion proof enclosures. So the Ex "i" instrumentation systems do not need to
depend on an effective grounding system, they should be based on galvanic
isolators, whose circuits are floating with respect to ground.

In the design phase it is also recommended to specify pressurized panels


with Ex "pz", Ex "px" or Ex "py" protection, instead of panels with Ex "d" metal
enclosure with flat joints.

6.1.3. NON-INCENDIVE – (EX-N)

Type of protection applied to electrical equipment which in normal


operation is not able to ignite an explosive atmosphere as well as in certain
specified abnormal conditions.

In this method the equipment does not have enough energy to cause
detonation of the explosive atmosphere, like Intrinsic Safety, but does not
forecast any fault or defect condition .

Its use is restricted to zone 2, where there is little likelihood of the


formation of potentially explosive atmospheres, which may seem a limiting
factor, but if most of the electrical equipment is located in this area it may
become an option of interest.

An important example of the non-incendive equipment are the MultiFlex


systems, installed in zone 2, which handle signals from zone 1 and transmits
them to the control room, with a perfect combination for Intrinsic Safety, making
it a more simple and economical solution.

This type of protection is based on suppression.

 Non-Sparking – (Ex-nA)

Built to minimize the risk of arcs or sparks capable of causing dangerous


ignition during conditions of use.

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Normal use excludes the removal or insertion of components with the


circuit energized.

Distribution board with the markings Ex of IIc T6 EPL Gc and Light Fixture
Ex nA EPL Gc.

Dry type transformer for areas classified with the markings BR-Ex nA II T4
IP55.

 Restricted breathing enclosure – (Ex-nR)

Housing designed to restrict the entry of


gases, vapors and mist inside the equipment or
systems with this type of protection.

Symmetrical Projector with Restricted


Breathing Ex nR II BR marking.

 Energy Limitation – (Ex-nL)

Constructed so that no spark or thermal effect produced under the test


conditions is capable of causing ignition of a given explosive gas or vapor
atmosphere.

These are electrical devices which contain both circuits with limited energy
and parts with the presence of unlimited energy.

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These should not interference with the operation of each other. Equipment
with associated energy limitation may be:

 Electrical equipment that has an alternative protection system;

 Electrical equipment without protection systems, which therefore


should not be used in an explosive atmosphere. An example is a
thermocouple located in an area where the atmosphere is explosive
and where only the recorder input circuit has "Ex nL" energy
limitation.

To be replaced by Ex-ic (IEC 60079-11).

 Protected Contacts (Ex-nC)

The contact mechanism is built so the component is not capable of igniting


an explosive atmosphere of a specific gas, using one of the following methods:

 Shielded interruption device;

 Sealed device (cannot be open in service);

 Hermetically sealed device - the device that prevents contact with the
explosive mixture present outside the enclosure (welding, brazing, or
glass-metal fusion);

 Encapsulated device.

To be replaced by Ex-mc (IEC 60079-18)

 Pressurization – (Ex-p)

Technique for preventing the external atmosphere from entering the


interior of an enclosure, by maintaining an internal protective gas (air or inert
gas) at a pressure above the external atmosphere.

Thus, the inert gas must be maintained at an amount in which the


concentration of the mixture never reaches 25% of the lower explosive limit of
the gas generated.

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In this case, the alarm system should be based on the relative amount of
protective gas in the atmosphere, also acting in the de-energizing of the power
supply.

This protection method is isolation, and may be used in zone 1 and zone 2.
This technique is also known as "Continuous Dilution" and can be applied to
electrical boards and especially as a solution for control rooms, which can be
mounted near risk areas.

The electrical devices inside pressurized equipment are normally of


common use, and can reach high temperatures. The design may include
enormous volumes, unlike other types of protection. These volumes can reach
the dimensions of an electric panel room in a substation, but in these cases the
ventilation systems should be designed to meet the demand of the volume to
protect and assure the pressure values required for protection.

The source of air or inert gas used should be free of flammable gases and
should be reliable. It may be necessary to clean or dry the air or gas before use
in pressurization, with the most common inert gas being nitrogen.

The equipment and enclosures with Ex-p protection must have an


externally visible warning attached, alerting that the equipment can be opened
only after two conditions are met:

 The electrical power source has been turned off;

 The neighboring atmosphere around the panel is safe, guaranteed


using gas analyzers.

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6.1.4. TYPES OF PRESSURIZATION

Ex p – NBR IEC 600.79-2 – Different types of pressurization

EXTERNAL INTERNAL
EPL TYPE
CLASSIFICAT CLASSIFICATION WITH
ION PRESSURIZATION

Gb pbx Zone 1 Not ex


Gb pby Zone 1 Zone 2
Gc pcz Zone 2 Not ex
Db pb Zone 21 Not ex
Dc pc Zone 22 Not ex

 px Type Protection

Pressurization that reduces the equipment protection level within a


pressurized zone 1 enclosure to an unclassified area. In this type of
pressurization, as the pressurization is the only protection method, another
external device turns off the electricity of the equipment in the case of
pressurization faults. In this case, ignition of the external atmosphere can only
occur due to two failures.

 py Type Protection

Pressurization that reduces the equipment protection level within a


pressurized enclosure from zone 1 to zone 2. With the use of this type of
protection it is possible to use different types of protection in the same enclosure,
that is, it is possible to use an Ex-e device and another Ex-e system within the
same enclosure, for example. It is important to state that these two types of
protection have different use and failure conditions, but with an enclosure using
py pressurization it is possible to limit the restriction with the enclosure and
pressurization.

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 pz Type Protection

Pressurization that reduces the equipment protection level within a


pressurized zone 2 enclosure to an unclassified area. As such, common devices
may be used inside. For an explosion to occur two faults will be necessary, one
with pressurization, which has a very remote likelihood due to the reliability of
the pressurization system, and the other through the formation of an explosive
atmosphere outside of the protected system.

Advantages of Ex-P pressurization:

 For some cases it is the only solution;

 Large volumes can be guaranteed, for example, panels, control


rooms and substations;

 It enables a high margin of error before resulting in danger.

 Disadvantages of Ex-p pressurization:

 The air used must be clean and dry;

 The control system required is complex, including other alternative


forms of protection

 It is not possible to access or carry out maintenance while the


equipment is in operation.

Pressurized Panels with protection


type Ex pz II T6 EPL Gc as per ABNT NBR
IEC 60079-2.

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6.1.5. INCREASED SAFETY – (EX-E)

Type of protection applied to electrical equipment in which additional


measures are applied in order to provide increased safety against the possibility
of excessive temperatures and the occurrence of arcs, sparks or flames under
normal conditions or in specific abnormal conditions.

"Ex-e" type protection requires equipment to have an operating voltage of


less than 11 KKVms and to not have any type of component that produces a
voltage above this value.

This technique is based on special construction equipment (wiring,


terminals, insulation, cable fittings etc.), the type of materials used in the
manufacture, design and assembly.

To guarantee that the temperature of the equipment remains within


acceptable and safe limits, the equipment has power dissipation attributes. An
increase in temperature mainly depends on the following factors:

 Terminals and conductors used may produce internal local heating


and;

 Heating of individual terminals.

 Below are some concepts applied to this type of protection:

 Insulation distance - lowest distance in the air between the two


conducting parts;

 Creepage distance - the shortest distance between two conductive


parts along the surface of an insulating material;

 Inrush current Ia – Inrush current IA – effective highest value of the


current absorbed by an alternate current motor when at rest when
supplied with the rated voltage and frequency. Transient phenomena
are disregarded.

 Rated voltage – value of the voltage specified by the manufacturer


for a component, device or equipment and for which all operating and
performance characteristics are effectively scaled;

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 Working voltage – highest effective value of the voltage in alternating


or direct current, which may occur through any insulation when the
device is powered at the rated voltage. Transient phenomena are
disregarded.

 Time te – time in seconds, required for the rotor or stator to start,


supplied with alternating current to reach the temperature limit from
the rated operating temperature, considering the locked rotor
condition.

This technique may be applied to;

 Induction motors;

 Light fixtures (provided the power and the type of lamp does not
generate a high temperature), for example, fluorescent lamps;

 Valves, solenoids,

 Control buttons;

 Terminals and connection blocks;

 Measurement and control transformers;

 Measurement instruments;

 Especially in conjunction with other types of protection.

This protection method is based on suppression,


and technical standards provide for great flexibility for
increased safety equipment, allowing installation in
zones 1 and 2 where all cables can be connected to
equipment through cable fittings, with more metallic
conduits and sealing units not required.

Increased Safety type distribution


panel: Ex of IIC T6 EPL Gb

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6.1.6. IMMERSION IN OIL – (EX-O)

A type of protection in which the equipment or electrical parts are


immersed in a protective liquid in a way that an explosive atmosphere that can
be above the liquid or outside of the casing cannot be ignited.

It is generally used in large transformers, breakers and similar pieces of


equipment with mobile parts, recommended for equipment that does not require
frequent maintenance.

In this type of protection, the oil used must be of a mineral origin, in the
event that another liquid is used, it should meet the following requirements:

 Combustion point of 300ºC (minimum), determined using the IEC


testing method;

 Flash point of 200ºC (minimum);

 Kinematic viscosity of 100 cSt (maximum) at 25ºC;

 Dielectric strength of rupture of 27 KV (minimum);

 Volumetric resistivity at 25ºC of 1 x 1012 Ω.m (minimum);

 Pour point should be at 30ºC (maximum);

 Acidity (neutralization value) must be 0.03 mg KOH/g


(maximum);

 The protective liquid cannot have an adverse effect on the properties


of the materials with which it is already in contact, and;

 For equipment from group I, mineral oils are not acceptable.

Equipment with oil protection must be built so that deterioration of the


protective liquid by dust or humidity of the environment is prevented. Two types
of equipment may be built:

 Sealed Equipment – equipment that is designed and built in order to


prevent the external atmosphere from entering during the expansion
and contraction of the oil during normal operation, such as, for
example, though an expansion chamber;

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 Non-Sealed Equipment – equipment that is designed and built in


order to allow the entry and exit of certain, limited amounts of the
external atmosphere during the expansion of the oil inside, in normal
operating conditions.

Some of the most important measures for maintaining an adequate level of


protection, are the following:

 Sealed equipment must be equipped with a pressure release device,


which should be assembled and sealed by the equipment
manufacturer;

 Pressure relief device outlet, in the case of sealed equipment, must


have a minimum degree of protection level IP23;

 The sealed equipment must have a degree of protection of at least


IP66, and;

 Non-sealed equipment, the vent outlet must have a minimum degree


of protection of IP23.

The principal guidelines that must be met when the Ex-o type protection
equipment is designed, are:

 Metal casing box;

 The level of the oil must be indicated by a display, with graduations


that indicate the level;

 The level of the oil must be monitored, aiming to identify possible


leaks;

 A drain, when it exists, must be equipped with a cap;

 Fuses may not be used inside the boxes;

 It is important that the following data is marked on the outside:

 Identification of the manufacturer and model of the equipment;

 Class, group and zone of the use permitted;

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 Maximum operating temperature, and;

 Warning to turn off the feed equipment before opening the box.

The type of protection is the segregation and can be used in zone 1.

6.1.7. IMMERSION IN SAND – (EX-Q)

Type of protection in which the parts that are capable of igniting an


explosive atmosphere are fixed in positions and completely surrounded by a
filling material (normally quartz powder or sand) to prevent the ignition of an
external explosive atmosphere. Found as a form of protection for cable trays on
the floor.

This type of protection only applies to equipment with a nominal current


that is less than or equal to 16 A, which uses power that is less than or equal to
1000 VA, whose supply voltage does not exceed 1000 V.

This type of protection may prevent a possible external explosion from


entering the equipment or the internal area with this type of protection, since,
due to the small free volume in the material used to fill the transition zone and
cooling of the flame when spreading through the filling material, which, due to
the chemical composition, can absorb large amounts of heat, it therefore
prevents the spread of the flame. In the design and specification phase, some
maintenance requirements include:

 Drainage distance under the coating – smallest distance measured


between two conductors through the surface of an isolating medium,
covered by an isolating coating;

 Distance through the filler material – smallest distance through the


filler material between two conductive parts, and;

 Nominal fuse characteristic (In) – nominal current of the fuse, in


compliance with the valid standards or the specifications of the
manufacturer.

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The casing, or the parts of it that are filled with material, must have an
IP54 minimum degree of protection, in the event that the degree of protection is
greater than or equal to IP55, the casing must be equipped with a vent, and in
this case, the equipment must be IP54. In the event that the casing is designed
and specified for installation in a sheltered, clean and dry environment only, it
should have a an IP43 minimum degree of protection, since various factors are
limited, the protection may have a lesser degree.

The largest opening (interstice) in the casing, intended to be filled with a


material (normally with sand), shall be at least 0.1 mm smaller than the smaller
dimension of the filling material, which cannot exceed the 0.9 mm diameter in
order to avoid the loss of filling material.

The casing of equipment filled with sand or another material with similar
characteristics or EX components filled shall be sealed during the manufacture
phase, and it shall not permit to open the casing without destroying the closing
seal, thus ensuring the original sealing.

Recommendations that you must be aware during the project or


specification of EX-q-type equipment or protections:

 Filling with sand or little balls of glass shall comply with the minimal
size specification for the particles;

 The filling material cannot be withdrawn off of the box during the
normal operation or occurrence of any event (short circuit);

 The casing shall be preferentially metal-made; other materials are


allowed since they comply with the mechanical and thermal
conditions;

 Electrical devices shall be insulated, even if it is considered as an


insulating material; and

 The filling material shall be compressed, so the immersed devices


shall support mechanical conditions for such effort and pressure.

This type of protection is the segregation, and it can be used in zone 1.

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Electronic reactor for tubular


fluorescent light bulbs with marking: BR-
Ex q II T6

6.1.8. ENCLOSED – (EX-M)

Type of protection where the parts that might ignite inside an explosive
atmosphere, by spark or heat, are enclosed in a compound in such way the
explosive atmosphere cannot be ignited in operation conditions.

This type of protection commonly complements other methods, and it is


intended to avoid an accidental short circuit. This protection method is called
segregation, and it can be used in all zones.

The compound (resin) used to enclose shall have the full description of
composition aiming to assess the temperature conditions and the temperature
rate, which shall be defined together with the maximum operation temperature.
The casing shall be tested in a way to ensure the insulation, mechanical
resistance and the resistance for water absorption conditions, being the last one
specific for devices exposed to humid environments.

The casing shall be performed without any voids; voids are allowed only in
cases of compounds that need to move, as relays, but in these cases, the free
volume shall be 100 cm3 maximum for "ma"-type protection, and 10 cm3
maximum for "mb"-type. In case there is devices with contacts, it shall be
predicted an additional casing that allows the mechanical movement of the
component.

During the project and specification phase regarding protection of the


power equipment, some important considerations shall be taken into account:

 Open spaces smaller than 100 cm3 for "ma" protection, and 10 cm3
for "mb" protection;

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 The material used for filling it shall be mechanically resistant to


shocks and temperature changes during the normal operation;

 Material used for filling the casing shall not react with possible
chemicals that may arise from the local where the equipment or
device shall be installed;

 The casing temperature shall be much lower than the ignition


temperature of the explosive mix at the site; and

 The casing shall have a minimum thickness.

 This technique can be used for the following equipment:

 Relays and limited power circuit breakers (with movable parts inside
the casing volume);

 Break-glass push buttons;

 Proximity sensors;

 Static coils in engines, solenoid valves, TCs and TPs;

 On Zener barriers;

 Power components like resistor, inductor and transistor.

6.1.9. PROTECTION BY CASING – (EX-T)

Type of protection where all power components are protected by a casing


to prevent the ignition of a dust layer or cloud.

It is used at zones 20, 21 and 22.

Three-phase engine for use in areas


rated as zone 21 and 22, Groups IIIA,
IIIB and IIIC, Temperature class T125ºC.

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6.1.10. SPECIAL PROTECTION – (EX-S)

Type of a German protection in which the equipment is manufactured


without complying with any technical standards for equipment installed in rated
areas.

It allows the equipment accreditation that did not contribute with the
formation of any explosive atmosphere when tested and experimented. This
rating is an open door for standards aiming the manufacturer's technological
innovation.

When a new type of protection is created, it can be sold after being


assessed by an accredited entity to provide an "EQUIVALENCE CERTIFICATE".
This certificate indicates that the equipment has a safety level equivalent to some
safety level predicted by the standardization in force.

Example: a fluorescent lamp with increased safety shall be manufactured


with single-pin light bulbs. A German man developed a device that changes a
conventional bi-pin light bulb in a single-pin light bulb. This lamp was submitted
to a German inspector that certified it as special and equivalent to Ex e
protection-type (increased safety).

Special-type equipment can be used in zones 0, 1 and 2, depending on the


equivalence it received for the certificate.

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6.2. TABLES AS PER TYPE OF PROTECTION

The tables that list the type of protection as per area rating per zones are
as follows.

6.2.1. GASES AND VAPORS – NBR IEC 600.79-0

ZONE Ex CODE TYPE OF PROTECTION


ia Intrinsic safety
0
ma Encapsulation
ib Intrinsic safety
mb Encapsulation
px or py Pressurization
1 o Oil immersion
q Sand immersion
e Increased safety
d Explosion-proof
ic Intrinsic safety
mc Encapsulation
2
pz Pressurization
nA, nR, nC or nL Non-flammable

6.2.2. DUST AND FIBERS – NBR IEC 600.79-0

ZONE Ex CODE TYPE OF PROTECTION


ia Intrinsic safety
20 ma Encapsulation
ta Per casing
ib Intrinsic safety
21 mb Encapsulation
tb Per casing
pb Pressurization
ic Intrinsic safety
22 mc Encapsulation
tc Per casing
pc Pressurization

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6.3. CASINGS

The casing of a power equipment is the set of walls that involve the living
parts of a power equipment, including doors, lids and cable inlets, axles, rods and
support.

 Casing Mechanical Rating

The mechanical rating of both power and non-power equipment is the


protection rating that ensures the correct operation of the equipment in the site it
is installed, depending on the rating, even in cases of explosive atmospheres.

The mechanical rating as per International Standard IEC is the Protection


Level IP that has two digits. The first digit ranges from 0 to 6, indicating the
protection against accidental contact and preventing solid foreign bodies from
entering in it. The second digit ranges from 0 to 8, indicating to be water-proof
(waterfalls, water jets and water submersion). The highest the IP number, the
highest will be the protection grade granted by the casing.

6.4. SPECIFICATION ON CONVENTIONAL POWER EQUIPMENT

Conventional power equipment is specified pursuant to the following


factors:

 Nominal features;

 IP protection grade (due to external influences).

6.5. SPECIFICATION ON EX EQUIPMENT

Power equipment to be used inside environments with an atmosphere


potentially explosive is specified in accordance with the area rating in which the
equipment shall be installed.

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Power equipment is specified pursuant to the following features:

 Explosivity Group:Due to the most critical product regarding the


Minimal Ignition Energy (MIE);

 Temperature Class: Due to the most critical product regarding the


self-ignition temperature;

 Level and Type of Protection:Due to zoning.

6.6. LEVEL OF PROTECTION - EPL

It consists of a complimentary method for assessing the actual risk for Ex


protection equipment, which intends to perform an additional rating for
equipment under operation in explosive atmospheres.

On historical basis, we know that not all types of protection provide the
same level of protection against the possibility of an ignition condition to occur.
ABNT, IEC and NFPA standards establish specific types of protection for specific
zones, considering the more likely or frequent is the occurrence of an explosive
atmosphere, the higher the required protection level for the equipment shall be.

Rated areas (except coal mines – due to firedamp) are divided in zones.
The equipment is measured for a certain type of zone according to the type of
protection it has. In certain situations, this type of protection can be divided in
different levels of more specific protections, which are related to zones. Example:
the protection of equipment by Ex-i intrinsic safety is divided by "ia", "ib" and "ic"
protection levels.

First Letter: Place where the power equipment is going to be installed

M Mining (coal mines) Group I

G Gases and Vapors Group II (IIA, IIB, IIC)

D Dust (explosive dust) Group III (IIIA, IIIB, IIIC)

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Second Letter: Protection level provided by the power equipment

a Very High Two independent means of Zone 0 or 20


protection or safety, even when
occurring two failures, regardless one
from the other

b High Suitable for normal operation and Zone 1 or 21


frequent occurrence of disorders, or
equipment where failures are normally
considered

c Elevated Suitable for normal operation Zone 2 or 22

6.6.1. GROUP I – COAL MINES

It is an equipment to be installed in coal mines, having a "very high" level


of protection, which means the equipment shall have a safety level during and
after the normal operation in order to ensure that it is impossible to become an
ignition source in an explosive atmosphere.

In case of communication equipment and gas detection equipment (to


protect against the formation of an explosive atmosphere), they shall be
manufactured to comply with Ma requirements, like Ex-ia telephone circuits.

 EPL Ma

It is an equipment to be installed in coal mines, having a "very high" level


of protection, which means the equipment shall have a safety level during and
after the normal operation in order to ensure that it is impossible to become an
ignition source in an explosive atmosphere.

In case of communication equipment and gas detection equipment (to


protect against the formation of an explosive atmosphere), they shall be
manufactured to comply with Ma requirements, like Ex-ia telephone circuits.

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 EPL Mb

It is an equipment to be installed in coal mines, having a "high" level of


protection, which means it is not too likely the equipment becomes an ignition
source within the period of time between equipment shutdown and the formation
of any type of flammable gas in the environment where it is installed.

The coal mining equipment normally is manufactured to comply with these


Mb requirements. Example of equipment with this type of protection: engines
and set of maneuver devices with an Ex-d protection level.

6.6.2. GROUP II – GASES, VAPORS AND MISTS

 EPL Ga

It is equipment for gas explosive atmospheres with a "very high" level

of protection, which means the power equipment is not an ignition source


under the following conditions: normal operation, expected or rare (not
expected-type of) possible failures.

 EPL Gb

It is equipment for explosive atmospheres, having a "high" level of


protection, which means the power equipment shall not become an ignition
source during normal operation of the process or in case of failures that can be
predicted, but it can interfere in the type of failure normally expected.

 EPL Gc

It is equipment for explosive atmospheres, having an "elevated" level of


protection, which means the power equipment or device does not represent an
ignition risk under normal conditions of operation, besides, it is necessary that
the device stays in idle position (OFF) after the event.

Example: in case a light bulb fails; in this case, the device is required to
have an Ex-n type of protection.

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6.6.3. GROUP III – DUST AND FIBERS

 EPL Da

It is an equipment for dust explosive atmospheres, having a "very high"


level of protection, which means the power equipment with this type of protection
shall not become an ignition source during normal operation or in case of rare
failures.

 EPL Db

It is equipment for dust explosive atmospheres, having a "high" level of


protection, which means the power equipment shall not be considered an ignition
source during normal operation or in case of failures that can be predicted, but
different from failures that normally occur.

 EPL Dc

It is an equipment for dust explosive atmospheres, having an "elevated"


level of protection, which means the power equipment shall not be considered as
an ignition source under normal conditions of operation, and it shall have and
additional protection to ensure the idle condition of the system as a whole, which
ensures the equipment shall be shutdown, and being in this condition in order to
not represent a risk (ignition source).

 EPL according to the Zone

Local rate regarding Equipment Level of


the zone Protection (EPL)
0 Ga
1 Ga or Gb
2 Ga, Gb or Gc
20 Da
21 Da or Db
22 Da, Db or Dc

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 Types of Protection as per EPL – Gases and Vapors

EPL TYPE OF PROTECTION CODE STANDARD


Intrinsically Safe ia NBR IEC 600.79-11
Ga
Enclosed ma NBR IEC 600.79-18
Intrinsically Safe ib NBR IEC 600.79-11
Enclosed mb NBR IEC 600.79-18
Pressurized px or py NBR IEC 600.79-2
Gb Sand immersion q NBR IEC 600.79-5
Oil immersion o NBR IEC 600.79-6
Increased safety e NBR IEC 600.79-7
Explosion-proof d NBR IEC 600.79-1
Intrinsically Safe ic NBR IEC 600.79-11
Enclosed mc NBR IEC 600.79-18
Gc
Pressurized pz NBR IEC 600.79-2
Non-flammable nA, nR, nC or nL NBR IEC 600.79-15

 Types of Protection as per EPL - Dust and Fibers

EPL TYPE OF PROTECTION CODE STANDARD


Intrinsically Safe ia NBR IEC 600.79-11
Da Enclosed ma NBR IEC 600.79-18
Protection by casing ta NBR IEC 600.79-1
Intrinsically Safe ib NBR IEC 600.79-11
Enclosed mb NBR IEC 600.79-18
Db
Protection by casing tb NBR IEC 600.79-1
Pressurized pb NBR IEC 600.79-4
Intrinsically Safe ic NBR IEC 600.79-11
Enclosed mc NBR IEC 600.79-18
Dc
Protection by casing tc NBR IEC 600.79-1
Pressurized pc NBR IEC 600.79-4

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6.7. IP PROTECTION LEVEL

Each power equipment has a certain level of protection able to prevent


physical harm to people, as wounds, electric shock, etc. mad damages to the
equipment itself due to penetration of solid foreign bodies as much as water
penetration, regardless of being suitable for operation in an environment with
explosive atmospheres or not, to perform the operation. The symbology used to
rate the protection level of casings shall comprise the IP (Ingress Protection)
acronym, followed by two characteristic digits of the specified grade.

For equipment that does not have any type of protection, the specified
marking related to a characteristic numbering shall be replaced by "X" letter,
which means "XX" shall indicate that both numbers were omitted.

After the IP code composed by "IP" acronym and two numbers, it is


possible that there is an additional letter and/or a supplementary letter, but it is
also possible they are omitted without the need of being replaced by any other
symbol, which does not occur with numbers, though. In cases more than one
supplementary letter was used, the alphabetic sequence shall be applied.

If a casing has different grades of protection for different arrangements for


assemblies, the related protection grades shall be indicated by the manufacturer
in the instructions of the related arrangements for assemblies.

If the industry requires any special conditions for the equipment casing
where it is installed and needs a special protection, different from dust or water,
the user shall include the "W" letter before the two numbers or after the
supplementary letter when specifying the IP protection grade, besides the normal
conditions (solid objects and water); such additional measures are resulted from
the agreement between the equipment and the final client.

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This protection is defined by two Brazilian standards:

 ABNT NBR IEC 60529:2005 – Protection Grades for Power equipment


Casing (IP Code).

 ABNT NBR IEC 60034-5:2009 – Protection Grades provided by the full


project of Rotating Electrical Machines.

 The protection grades are measures applied to the casing of a power


equipment aiming at:

 Protecting people against the contact with non-insulated live parts,


against the contact with movable parts inside the casing and
protection against the solid foreign bodies.

 Protection of the equipment against water inside it.

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First characteristic Summarized description Bodies that shall not enter


number

0 Not protected No special protection.

1 Protected against solid objects larger than 50 A large surface of the body, like the hand.
mm Solid objects whose lower dimension is above 50 mm.

2 Protected against solid objects larger than 12 Fingers or objects with a similar length below 80 mm. solid object whose
mm lower dimension is above 12 mm.

3 Protected against solid objects larger than 2,5 Tools, wires, etc. with a diameter or thickness above 2.5 mm. Solid
mm objects whose lower dimension is above 2.5 mm.

4 Protected against solid objects larger than 1,0 Wires or tapes with length above 1.0 mm. Solid objects whose lower
mm dimension is above 1.0 mm.

5 Protected against dust It is not totally sealed against dust entry; the dust, however, shall not enter
in a quantity able to impair the equipment’s operation.

6 Totally protected against dust No entrance of dust.

First characteristic Summarized description Bodies that shall not enter


number

0 Not protected No special protection.

1 Protected against vertical raindrops (Vertical) water falls shall not have harmful effects.

2 Protected against water drops that fall with a Vertical water falls shall not have harmful effects when the casing has a
maximum slope of 15º 15º slope for any side from their normal position.

3 Protected against water sprinklers Water sprinkled from a 60º vertical angle shall not have harmful effects.

4 Protected against water projections Water projected from any direction against the casing shall not have
harmful effects.

5 Protected against water jet Water projected from any direction by a nozzle against the casing shall not
have harmful effects.

6 Protected against sea waves Water from sea waves or projected via powerful jets shall not enter the
casing in harmful quantities.

7 Protected against immersion It shall not be possible the water entry in harmful quantities inside the
casing immersed in water under conditions specified – from time to
pressure.

8 Protected against submersion The equipment is suitable for continuous submersion in water under
conditions specified by the manufacturer.

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6.7.1. DEFINITION OF ADDITIONAL LETTER FOR PROTECTION


GRADES TO AVOID THE ACCESS TO DANGEROUS PARTS

Additional letters are used in the following cases:

 If the actual protection to avoid the access to dangerous parts is


higher than that indicated by the first characteristic number; or

 If only the protection to avoid the contact with dangerous parts is


indicated, then the first characteristic number is replaced by an X.

6.7.2. SUPPLEMENTARY LETTERS

The supplementary information of the related standard can be indicated by


a supplementary letter after the second characteristic number or additional letter.

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6.8. IK PROTECTION GRADE

 Protection Against Mechanical Impacts

ABNT NBR IEC 62262 standard defines the protection grade against
mechanical impacts indicated by the IK letters and followed by a number.

IK CODE IMPACT ENERGY


00 No protection
01 0.15 Joule
02 0.2 Joule
03 0.35 Joule
04 0.5 Joule
05 0.7 Joule
06 1 Joule
07 2 Joule
08 5 Joule
09 10 Joule
10 20 Joule

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7. POWER EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATE


OCP – Product Certification Body (Organismo Certificador de Produto)

INMETRO, by means of INMETRO Ordinance No. 164/1991, required the


certification of equipment for explosive atmosphere.

Currently, INMETRO Ordinance No. 179, of May 18, 2010 requires the
identification of certificate as per Brazilian System on Conformity Assessment
(SBAC – Sistema Brasileiro de Avaliação da Conformidade).

This Ordinance comprises all power, electronic, associated equipment,


accessories and components to be used in potentially explosive atmospheres, sell
and used in Brazil, except conditions foreseen by the Conformity Assessment
Regulation.

Ordinance No. 89, of February 23, 2012.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF METROLOGY,


STANDARDIZATION AND

INDUSTRIAL QUALITY – INMETRO, exercising the powers conferred upon


him by § 3 of article 4, Law No. 5.966, of December 11, 1973, subsections I and
IV of article 3, Law No. 9.933, of December 20, 1999, and subsection V of article
18 of regimental structure of the autarchy, approved by Decree No. 6.275, of
November 28, 2007;

Whereas the paragraph f of sub item 4.2 of Brazilian System on Conformity


Assessment's Term of Reference, approved by Conmetro Resolution No. 04, of
December 2, 2002, which grants to Inmetro the powers to establish guidances
and criteria for the conformity assessment activity;

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Whereas the products certified by Inmetro Ordinance No. 179, of May 18,
2010, published by the Federal Official Gazette on May 20, 2010, section 01,
page 76, intended to explosive atmospheres under conditions of flammable gases
and vapors and combustible dust are subjects regulated by the Ministry of Labor
as per item 10.9.2 of NR-10 - Power Installation and Services, approved by
Ordinance No. 598, of December 7, 2004, published by the Federal Official
Gazette on September 8, 2004;

Whereas Inmetro Ordinance No. 270 of June 21, 2011, published by the
Federal Official Gazette of June 24, 2011, section 01, pages 98 and 99, which
emends the articles of Inmetro Ordinance No. 179/2010, Power Equipment to
Explosive Atmospheres;

Whereas the necessity of amendments in Inmetro Ordinance No. 179/2010


hereby decides to enact the following provisions:

Art. 1 To be aware that article 7 of Inmetro Ordinance No. 179/2010 shall


be in force under the following wording:

“Art. 7 To establish that up to thirty six (36) months from the publication
date of this Ordinance, the Power Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres, under
conditions of Combustible Dust shall be sold by the local market only in
compliance with the Requirements previously approved.” (N.R.)

Art. 2 To be aware that article 8 of Inmetro Ordinance No. 179/2010 shall


be in force under the following wording:

“Art. 8 To establish that up to twenty four (24) months from the publication
date of this Ordinance, the Power Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres, under
conditions of Combustible Dust shall be manufactured and imported only in
compliance with the Requirements previously approved.” (NR)

Art. 3 To be aware that article 9 of Inmetro Ordinance No. 179/2010 shall


be in force under the following wording:

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“Art. 7 To establish that up to thirty six (36) months from the publication
date of this Ordinance, the Power Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres, under
conditions of Flammable Gases and Vapors shall be sold by the local market only
in compliance with the Requirements previously approved.” (NR)

Fl. 2 of Ordinance No. 89 /Presi, of 02/23/2012

Art. 4 To be aware that article 11 of Inmetro Ordinance No. 179/2010 shall


be in force under the following wording:

"Art. 8 To establish that up to thirty six (36) months after the effective
dates established by articles 6 and 8, the Power Equipment for Explosive
Atmospheres, under conditions of Flammable Gases and Vapors and Combustible
Dust shall be manufactured and imported in accordance with the publication of
the current version of the Standards related to Requirements previously
approved.”

§1 In cases the update of Standards related to Requirements previously


approved occur by immediate risk, which can impact the citizen safety, the
caption of this article shall be complied with within twelve (12) months.

§2 The due date established by the caption shall enable the manufacture
process of this equipment in compliance with the updated Standards." (NR)

Art. 5 To be aware that article 12 of Inmetro Ordinance No. 179/2010 shall


be in force under the following wording:

"Art. 12 To establish that up to forty eight (48) months after the effective
dates established by articles 7 and 9, the Power Equipment for Explosive
Atmospheres, under conditions of Flammable Gases and Vapors and Combustible
Dust shall be sold on the local market in accordance with the publication of the
new version in force of the Standards related to Requirements previously
approved.” (NR)

Art. 6 To be aware that article 15 of Inmetro Ordinance No. 179/2010 shall


be in force under the following wording:

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“Art. 15 To revoke Inmetro Ordinance No. 83 of April 3, 2006, published by


the Federal Official Gazette on April 6, 2006, section 01, page 62, which approves
the Conformity Assessment Regulation of Power Equipment for Potentially
Explosive Atmospheres, under conditions of flammable gases and vapors twenty
four (24) months after the publication of this Ordinance.”

§1 During the due date established by the caption, new certificate


processes shall comply with the Requirements previously approved only.

§2 During the due date established by the caption, certificate processes


based on Inmetro Ordinance No. 83/2006 shall comply with the Requirements
previously approved only as long as they are assessed for maintenance or
renewal.” (NR)

Art. 7 To be aware that sub items 6.1.2.3 and 6.3.2.1, paragraph “d” of sub
item 6.3.2.2.1 and paragraphs “d”, “l” and “g” of sub item 6.3.4.5 of Conformity
Assessment Requirements for Power Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres,
under conditions of Flammable Gases and Vapors and Combustible Dust,
approved by Inmetro Ordinance No. 179/2010, shall be in force with the following
wording:

“6.1.2.3 SGQ Assessment of the solicitant (manufacturer) shall be


scheduled and performed by OCP in common agreement with the solicitant,
complying with the requirements established in this RAC.” (NR)

"6.3.2.1 The solicitant shall forward a formal request to OCP, which shall
have the denomination, product's characteristics together with the related
descriptive brief, installation manual and instructions for safe use of the
equipment attached, in (Brazilian) Portuguese, and other complimentary
documents that OCP deems necessary. If the solicitant is the user him/herself,
the presentation of instructions for safe use of the equipment in (Brazilian)
Portuguese is not necessary." (NR)

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Fl. 3 of Ordinance No. 89/Presi, of 02/23/2012

“6.3.2.2.1

(...)

d) To be presented a purchasing invoice of imported products.” (NR)

“6.3.4.5

(...)

d) basic description of the products and types of protection applied or


marking of origin;"(NR)

“6.3.4.5

(...)

l) full marking as per certificate of origin;” (NR)

“6.3.4.5

(...)

g) issue date;" (NR)

Art. 8 To include sub item 6.1.1.4.2.1 in the Conformity Assessment


Requirements for Power Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres, under conditions
of Flammable Gases and Vapors and Combustible Dust with the following
wording:

"The first audit shall be performed by OCP, which shall grant the conformity
certificate to verify, besides the technical requirements, the following
requirements:

a)conformity marking,

b)handling the complaint,

c)procedures to control the non-compliant products and control of


documents to assess if any non-compliance regarding the safety of products and
any changes on documents that arose the certification shall be informed to OCP.

OCP is able to delegate this activity to another body or professional, since


the technical skills of the auditor is ensured."

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Art. 9 To include sub item 6.1.1.5.5, 6.2.1.4.5 and 6.3.4.5 of Conformity


Assessment Requirements for Power Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres,
under conditions of Flammable Gases and Vapors and Combustible Dust with the
following wording:

“6.1.1.5.5

(...)

o) the formatting of certificate no. shall be in compliance with paragraph


“d” of item 29.2, of NBR IEC 60079-0 – General Requirements, including the
point use.” (NR)

“6.2.1.4.5

(...)

q) the formatting of certificate no. shall be in compliance with paragraph


“d” of item 29.2, of NBR IEC 60079-0 – General Requirements, including the
point use.” (NR)

“6.3.4.5

(...)

q) the formatting of certificate no. shall be in compliance with paragraph


“d” of item 29.2, of NBR IEC 60079-0 – General Requirements, adopting "SE"
symbol instead of the point as foreseen by this standard. (NR)

Fl. 4 of Ordinance No. 89/Presi, of 02/23/2012

Sole Paragraph The requirements of paragraphs previously included shall


be required by OCP within three (3) months as from the publication date of this
Ordinance.

Art. 10 To include sub item 12.1 of Conformity Assessment Requirements


for Power Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres, under conditions of Flammable
Gases and Vapors and Combustible Dust a note with the following wording:

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"Note: Tests performed by a 1st level accredited laboratory shall be


followed up by a OCP expert."

Art. 11 To determine that Attachment C of the Conformity Assessment


Requirements for Power Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres, under conditions
of Flammable Gases and Vapors and Combustible Dust shall be in force as the
Attachment of this Ordinance:

Art. 12 To establish that the other provisions from Ordinance 179/2010


shall remain the same.

Art. 13 To revoke Inmetro Ordinance No. 270/2011 and Inmetro Ordinance


No. 103 of June 16, 1998, published by the Federal Official Gazette on June 22,
1998, section 01, page 36.

Art. 14 This Ordinance shall be in force as of the date of its publication by


the Federal Official Gazette. JOÃO ALZIRO HERZ DA JORNADA

ATTACHMENT OF INMETRO ORDINANCE No. 89/2012

“ATTACHMENT C – CERTIFICATE IDENTIFICATION REGARDING SBAC

The identification of a certified product shall have the information


established by the technical standard of the general requirements.

When there are no conditions to identify minor components as indicated by


the graphical representation, it is allowed the indication of both Inmetro and OCP
logos without their respective names. The identification shall present at least the
fields 1 (symbols) and 2 (certificate number).

For single packages of products, it shall use the full template of seal. But
when there is no space to apply the full seal or the application is via direct
printing on the package, the use of a "compact" seal that complies with the
minimal dimension of the seal with 11 mm of width shall be accepted.

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Legend:

1. Symbols: Ex, type of protection in alphabetical order, power equipment


group, temperature class and/or maximum surface temperature, and
additional identification required by the specific standard for the specific
type of protection;

2. Number of certificate, including the letters "X" or "U", whenever


applicable.

Note: The position of fields 1 and 2 is just a suggestion.

ATTACHMENT OF INMETRO ORDINANCE No. 89/2012

The marking of assessed products according to Special Situations Template


for Imported Products, item 6. 3 of this RAC, it shall have the following legend:

1. Number of the certificate issued by the Brazilian OCP.

2. Additional information, in Brazilian Portuguese, as per OCP, especially


when there is a special requirement for installing the original certificate.
Example: "ATTENTION: This equipment has an special requirement for
installation. Refer to Certificate of Conformity and Origin."

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Note: The languages of warnings on tags shall be in Portuguese (Brazil).


(N.R.)

IECEx operates three separate certificate programs:

 For Ex equipment;

 For structure of services, including shops for repair and revision;

 For personal competencies related to works in Ex equipment.

The certification of shops for repair and revision services aims to ensure the
product reliability that continues to comply with the certificate requirements after
repair and revision.

Accredited shops comprise the services of:

 Repair;

 Revision;

 Restored and revised products.

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8. INSPECTION
ABNT NBR IEC 60079-17 standard – Inspection and maintenance of power
installations is about factors directly related to inspection and maintenance of
power installations in rated areas only, where the risk can be caused by
flammable gas, vapors, mists, dust or particulate matter.

The inspection purpose is deal in details of non-conformities and equipment


used inside rated areas. By means of this document, it is possible to check if the
installation was properly executed, and each equipment is properly specified by
the rating area it was installed. It is also possible to check the integrity of
installation of power equipment, and operation and maintenance procedures
inside these environments.

Example: Power equipment shall have a type of protection, group,


maximum surface temperature and EPL properly specified regarding the rating of
an area per zone, group and temperature class.

Minimal documentation required to perform an inspection in rated areas:

 "Updated" drawing of rating of areas.

The inspection aims to check:

 The equipment suitability to rating of areas;

 Suitability of power installation;

 Integrity of equipment and installation throughout its useful life;

 Safety of equipment without certificate (installation before 2000).

A "non-compliance" report specifies details on irregularities found, as well


as the related solutions. The most found irregularities are:

 Lack of motor, panels and light sealing;

 Sealing at the wrong distance as required by the standard;

 Type of inadequate mass and sealing;

 Equipment not suitable for rating of areas, specification of the types


of zones, group of gases, self-ignition temperature for panels,
instruments, engines, etc., which can be reallocated or replaced;

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 Lack of screws on panels and terminal boxes of engines;

 Painting and silicone in the interstice of boxes;

 Inadequate cable glands for the casing;

 Lack of a sealing unit for borders between zones 1 and 2, as well as


zone 2 and the non-specified area.

There are three types of inspection:

 Visual inspection: Non-conformities are detected without using


special tools, which means that visible defects (lack of screws, open
equipment, cracked casing, etc.)

 Accurate inspection: Besides the visual check, access equipment like


stairs or tools are used to a better identification of defects. During
the accurate inspection, it is not necessary to shut down the
equipment or open it.

 Detailed inspection: Besides the accurate inspection, it identifies


internal defects of the equipment (opening of casing) and uses tools
and test equipment. This inspection requires shutting down the
equipment.

USE OF TOOLS OPENING OF CASING


INSPECTION GRADE

VISUAL NO NO
ACCURATE YES NO
DETAILED YES YES

It is important to highlight that the persons in charge (designer, contractor,


installer, engineer, manufacturer of materials and equipment, persons in charge
and supervisors for operation and maintenance), plus directors and
administrators and owners or partners are co-responsible for the integrity of
installations, which means they can be prosecuted for civil and criminal liability.

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9. REPAIR OF EQUIPMENT
After repairing, the power engine shall, on a mandatory basis, receive a
marking indicating it was repaired. In 2008 a ABNT NBR IEC 60079-19 standard
was published: Repair, revision and recovery of equipment; this standard
provides information on repair, revision, and recovery and change on equipment
designed to be used inside explosive atmospheres. This standard was regulated
by INMETRO via Ordinance 179 of May, 2010. This ordinance states that repair
services on Ex equipment shall be mandatorily rendered by companies that are in
compliance with the standard as from May, 2013.

There are two types of marking indicated by ABNT NBR IEC 60079-19
standard:

 R inside the square: It indicates the engine is in compliance with


certification documents.

 R inside an upside down triangle: It indicates the engine is in


compliance with repair standards and standards regarding the type of
protection, but they do not comply with the certification documents
anymore.

If the repaired engine does not meet the requirements of ABNT NBR IEC
60079-19 standard and the standards regarding the types of protection, it is not
suitable to operate in an explosion risk area; in this case, the engine shall not
receive the expected marking of repair. The user is responsible for keeping filed
all documents regarding the engine, such as: copy of certificates, drawings and
history of reports from previous repairs.

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 Requirements On Competencies Presented By ABNT NBR IEC


60079-19 - Repair, Revision And Recovery Of Equipment

Normative requirements regarding competencies, indicated by ABNT NBR


IEC 60079-19 standard: repair, revision and recovery of equipment used inside
explosive atmospheres, published by ABNT in January, 2008, are presented as
follows.

Attachment B of ABNT NBR IEC 60079 (Normative) Knowledge,

skills and competencies of "Responsible people" and "Performer".

B.1 – Scope

This Attachment specifies the knowledge, skills and competencies of people


referred to in this standard.

B.2 – Knowledge and skills

B.2.1 – Responsible persons

Responsible persons for the process involved with revision, repair and
recovery of specific types of protection of equipment for explosive atmospheres,
which shall have at least the following knowledge:

 General technical knowledge applicable on electricity and mechanics


on the execution level or higher;

 Practical knowledge on fundamentals and techniques of the types of


protection;

 To be familiar with measurement functions, including practical


metrology skills for measuring quantities known;

 To know the operation and scope of the applicable standards on the


field of types of protection;

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 To have basic knowledge on quality assessment, including the


fundamentals of measurement traceability and calibration
instruments. These people shall restrict their knowledge via revisions,
repairs and recovery on indicated competency areas, and they shall
not be directly involved by themselves with changes on equipment for
explosive atmospheres without the guidance of an expert.

B.2.2 – Performers

Performers shall have, up to the required level for performing their tasks,
the following knowledge:

a) To be aware of the general principles of type of protection and


markings;

b) To be aware of the aspects related to equipment project that affect


the protection concept;

c) To be aware of the certification and applicable parts of ABNT NBR IEC


60079-19;

d) Skills to identify the spare parts and components authorized by the


manufacturers;

e) To be familiar with specific techniques to be employed on repairs,


listed by ABNT NBR IEC 60079-19 standard.

B.3 – Competencies

B.3.1 - General

Competencies shall be applicable to each technique of the type of


protection to which the person is involved with. E.g.: it is possible that a person
is competent just in one repair and revision field of Ex engines, and s/he is not
totally competent in Ex "d" switchboard repair or Ex "e" engines. In such cases,
the fixer shall define these competencies in his/her documentation system.

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B.3.2 – Responsible persons

Responsible persons shall be able to show their competence and present


evidences that they fulfilled the knowledge requirements and specified skills in
B.2.1, relevant to types of protection and/or involved equipment.

B.3.3 – Performers

Responsible persons shall be able to show their competence and present


evidences that they fulfilled the knowledge requirements and specified skills in
B.2.2 of this ABNT NBR IEC 60079-19 standard applicable for all types of
protection and/or types of involved equipment.

This performers shall be able to show their competence as well in the


following activities:

 Use and availability of documentation specified in 4.41.5.1 of ABNT


NBR IEC 60079-19;

 Production of services report for the user as specified in 4.4.1.5.2 of


ABNT NBR IEC 60079-19;

 Use and production of repair records as specified in 4.4.1.5.3 of ABNT


NBR IEC 60079-19;

B.4 – Assessment of competency

The competency of responsible persons and performers shall be verified


and attributed in intervals as per 4.4.1.3 and 4.4.2.3 of ABNT NBR IEC 60079-19
standard, based on enough evidences that the person:

 Has the necessary skills required for the service scope;

 Can work in total compliance with the specified rate of activities; and

 Has the applicable knowledge and understanding to be the base for


competency.

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10. MARKING ON EX EQUIPMENT


The requirement for marking power equipment and instrumentation for
explosive atmospheres, typically and used abroad, were revised and updated to
include the identification of EPLs provided by “Ex” equipment as per NBC IEC
standards.

 General requirements for "Ex" equipment, published in November


2008 by ABNT.

In Section 29 (Marking) of ABNT NBR IEC 60079-0 are presented the new
requirements and marking examples, including the equipment protection levels.
The marking system indicated shall be applied in power equipment or "Ex"
components in compliance with the applicable standards for the types of
protection presented by the standard.

Location of marking data and EPL on equipment certified as "Ex"

Power or instrumentation equipment shall be legibly marked on the most


part outside of the equipment. Marking shall be on a local easily visible after
installing the equipment.

When the marking is located over a removable part of the equipment, a


duplicate marking inside the equipment can be useful during the execution of
installation and maintenance services, thus collaborating to avoid disturbance
among similar equipment.

Miscellaneous on the marking of "Ex" equipment, including EPL

The marking shall include the following information:

a) Manufacturer's name or its trademark;

b) Identification of the type of manufacturer;

c) A serial number, except for:

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d) Connection accessories (inlet for cables and conduits, closing plates,


adaptation plates and bushings);

e) Very small power equipment where there is a limited space;

f) Name or brand of the certificate issuer and references to the


certificate as follows: the last two digits of the certificate year
followed by a ".", followed by a single reference with four characters
for the certificate on that year;

g) If necessary, indicate specific conditions of use; the "X" symbol shall


be placed after the certificate reference. A warning marking can be
placed on the equipment as an alternative to the requirement for "X"
marking;

h) "Ex" markings for gas explosive atmospheres and dust explosive


atmospheres shall be separate and not placed together;

i) Any additional marking prescribed by specific standards for the types


of protection related, as per ABNT NBR IEC 60079-0.

"Ex" marking including EPL for equipment for explosive


atmospheres of gas

The marking shall include the following information:

a) The symbol EX, that indicates the electric equipment corresponds to


one or more of the protection types object of the specific standards
indicated in the NBR IEC 60079-0 Standard Ed. 2008;

b) The symbol for each type of protection used:

 “d”: explosion-proof casing (for EPL Gb or Mb);

 “e”: increased safety (for EPL Gb or Mb);

 “ia”: intrinsic safety (for EPL Ga or Ma);

 “ib”: intrinsic safety (for EPL Gb or Mb);

 “ic”: intrinsic safety (for EPL Gc);

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 “ma”: casing (for EPL Ga or Ma);

 “mb”: casing (for EPL Gb or Mb);

 “nA”: non-flammable (for EPL Gc);

 “nC”: protected against sparkle (for EPL Gc);

 “nR”: restrict breathing (for EPL Gc);

 “nL”: limited energy (for EPL Gc);

 “o”: oil immersion (for EPL Gb);

 “px”: pressurization (for EPL Gb or Mb);

 “py”: pressurization (for EPL Gb);

 “pz”: pressurization (for EPL Gc);

 “q”: filling with sand (for EPL Gb or Mb).

c) The group symbol

 I of power equipment for coal mines subject to the presence of


methane gas.

 IIA, IIB or IIC for power equipment or instrumentation for gas


explosive atmospheres or other coal mines subject to the
presence of methane gas.

 The chemical formula or the name of this gas in parenthesis


when the equipment is intended to be used only with a
particular gas.

 The chemical formula, following the group and separated by the


"+", e.g. "IIB + H2", when the equipment is intended to be
used in a particular gas, in addition of being suitable for using
in an specific group of the power equipment.

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d) For power equipment or instrumentation for Group II, the symbol


indicating the temperature class. When the manufacturer wants to
specify a maximum surface temperature between two temperature
classes, it can do that by the unique marking of that maximum
surface temperature in Celsius or by the marking of both
temperatures of the maximum surface in Celsius, and in parenthesis,
the next class of the highest temperature. Example: T1 or 350ºC
(T1).

 Power equipment for Group II, with a maximum surface


temperature above 450ºC shall be marked only with the
maximum surface temperature in Celsius, e.g. 600ºC.

 Power equipment for Group II, market to be used with a


particular gas; it does not require a temperature class or a
maximum surface temperature.

 According to 5.1.1 of ABNT NBR IEC 60079-0, when the


marking shall include both Ta or Tamb, together with the room
temperature rate or the "X" symbol to indicate this specific
condition of use, as per item e) of Section 29.2 of NBR IEC
60079-0.

 Cable glands do not need to be marked with a temperature


class or a maximum surface temperature in Celsius.

e) Protection level of the equipment, “Ga”, “Gb”, “Gc”, “Ma” or “Mb” as


suitable.

 The markings indicated in paragraphs a) to e) of Section 29.3,


NBR IEC 60079-0 shall be located by the order they are
presented in this section, and shall be separated one from
another by a tiny space.

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 For associated equipment proper for installation in rated areas,


with energy limitation provided inside the equipment in the
classified area, the protection symbols must be involved in
brackets, example, Ex d [ia] IIC T4 Gb. When the equipment
group of the associated equipment is different from the one of
the equipment, the associated equipment group must be
involved in brackets, example, Ex d [ia IIC Ga] IIB T4 Gb.

 For associated equipment proper for installation in rated areas,


with energy limitation provided outside the equipment in the
rated area, the protection symbols must be involved in
brackets, e.g. Ex d [ia] IIC T4 Gb.

 For associated equipment improper for installation in classified


areas, both symbols "Ex" and the symbol for the protection
type must be involved inside the same brackets, example, [Ex
ia Ga] IIC.

 For equipment including associated equipment and intrinsically


safe equipment, without need of making fittings in the
intrinsically safe part of the equipment by the user, the
"associated equipment" marking should not appear, unless the
protection levels of the equipment are different (EPL). Example:
Ex d ib IIC T4 Gb and not Ex d ib [ib Gb] IIC T4 Gb, although
Ex d ia [ia Ga] IIC T4 Gb is not correct for different equipment
protection levels (EPL).

Marking "Ex" including EPL for equipment for explosive atmospheres of


inflammable dust;

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The marking shall include the following information:

a) The symbol EX, that indicates the electric equipment corresponds to


one or more of the protection types object of the specific standards
indicated in the NBR IEC 60079-0 Standard;

b) The symbol for each type of protection used:

 "ta": ignition protection of equipment for dust by casing "t" (for


EPL Da, Db or Dc);

 "tb": ignition protection of equipment for dust by casing

 "t" (for EPL Db or Dc);;

 "tc": ignition protection of equipment for dust by casing "t" (for


EPL Dc);

 “ia”: intrinsic safety (for EPL Da);

 “ib”: intrinsic safety (for EPL Db);

 “ma”: casing (for EPL Ga or Ma);

 “mb”: casing (for EPL Db);

 “p”: pressurization (for EPL Db or Dc);

c) The Group symbol:

 IIIA, IIIB or IIIC for electrical equipment for places with


explosive dust atmosphere.

d) The maximum temperature in Celsius degrees and the °C measure


unity preceded by "T" letter (example, T90°C).

 When appropriated, the maximum TL surface temperature must


be shown with the temperature value in Celsius degrees and
the °C measure unity, with the L layer thickness indicated
according to subscribed, in mm (example, T500 320°C) or the
marking must include the "X" symbol to indicate that utilization
condition.

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 When appropriated, the marking must include the Ta symbol or


T amb with the environment temperature range or the symbol
"X" to indicate this specific utilization condition.

 Cable-gland does not need to be marked with a maximum


surface temperature.

e) The equipment protection level, "Da", "Db" or "Dc", as relevant;

f) The protection degree (example IP 54).

To associated equipment proper for installation in classified areas, with


energy limitation provided inside the equipment in the classified area, the
protection symbols must be involved in brackets, example, Ex t [ia Da] IIIC
T100ºC Db. When the equipment group of the associated equipment is different
from the one of the equipment, the associated equipment group must be involved
in brackets, example, Ex t [ia IIIC Da] IIIB T100ºC Db.

For associated equipment improper for installation in classified areas, both


symbols "Ex" and the symbol for the protection type must be involved inside the
same brackets, example, [Ex ia Da] IIIC.

For equipment that includes both equipment - associated and intrinsically


safe – without related connection to be made by the user in the intrinsically safe
part of the equipment (EPL), the associated equipment marking must not appear,
unless the equipment protection levels are different. Example, Ex t ib IIIC
T100ºC Db and not Ex t ib [ib Db] IIIC T100ºC Db, but Ex t ia [ia Da] IIIC
T100ºC Db is correct, for protection levels of different equipment.

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Following are some personal file photos:

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11. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ATMOSPHERES


ABNT NBR IEC 60079-14: Electrical installation in classified areas (except
mines).

This part of the ABNT NBR IEC 60079 Standard contains the specific
requirements for the electrical installations project, selection and building in gas
explosive atmosphere.

Following are some items from the ABNT NBR IEC 60079-14 standard.

Item 5.7 – Portable and test equipment

Portable equipment must be used in classified areas only when such use
cannot be avoided.

This item still makes some references to portable equipment, such as:

 Portable equipment must include a proper protection type for the


utilization zone(s). During utilization, such equipment must not be
transferred from a low risk zone to a high risk one, unless they are
properly protected to higher risk. In practice, however, such
limitation may not be easily applied, for that reason, it is
recommended that all portable equipment complies with the higher
risk requirements. Similarly, the equipment group and temperature
must be proper to all gas and vapors in which the equipment may be
used.

 Portable equipment of regular industrial use must not be used in


classified areas, unless the specific place has been inspected to
ensure that potentially inflammable gas and vapors are inexistent
during the utilization period ("gas free" situation). If there are plugs
and jacks in a classified area, it must be proper for use in the related
zone and must have mechanical and/or electrical interlocks to avoid
that an ignition source occurs during the plug insertion or removal.
Alternatively, they only may be powered in a "gas free" situation.

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Item 6 Protection against dangerous sparkling (flammable)

Item 6.2.1 TN Type Systems

If a TN type power system is used, it must be of the TN-S type(with a N


neutral separated and PE protection conductor) in classified area, i.e., neutral
and protection conductors must not be connected together, or combined in a sole
conductor, in classified area. In any transition point of TN-C system to TN-S
system, the protection conductor must be connected to the equipotential bonding
system in non-classified area.

Item 6.2.2 TT Type System

If a TT type power system (individual groundings for a power system and


for exposed conducting parts) for use in zone 1, it must be protected by residual
current devices.

Note: Where the ground resistivity is high, such systems may not be acceptable.

Item 6.2.3 IT Type System

If an IT type power system (neutral ground insulated or grounded through


an impedance) is used, an insulation monitoring device must be provided to
indicate the first ground fault.

Note: Local connections, known as supplementary equipotential connections, may be


necessary (see IEC 60364-4-41).

Item 6.4 Statics electricity

In the electrical installation project, measures must be taken to reduce the


static electricity effects to a safe level

Note: In the absence of Statics Electricity Protection IEC Standards, national standards or
other must be followed.

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Item 6.5 Lightning protection

In the electrical installation project, measures must be taken to reduce the


lightning effects to a safe level (see IEC 61024-1 e 61024-1-1).

The subsection 12.3 of ABNT NBR IEC 60079-14 gives details of lightning
protection for equipment Ex "ia" installed in zone 0.

Item 6.6 Electromagnetic radiation

In the electrical installation project, measures must be taken to reduce the


electromagnetic radiation effects to a safe level.

Note: In the absence of Electromagnetic Radiation Protection IEC Standards, national


standards or other must be followed.

Item 6.7 Cathodically-protected metallic parts

Cathodically-protected metallic parts, located in classified parts, are


external conductive parts that must be considered potentially dangerous
(especially if equipped with impressed current methods), despite its low negative
potential No cathodic protection must be installed for metallic parts in 0 zone,
unless it is specially designed for that application.

Item 9 Wiring system

Item 9.1.1 Aluminum conductors

Where aluminum is used as conductor, it must only be used with proper


connections, except with intrinsically safe installations, it must have a 16 mm2
conducting section at least.

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Item 9.1.2 Prevention of Damages

The cabling and accessory systems must be installed, as much as possible,


in places to avoid exposition to mechanical damages, corrosion or chemical
influence (example, solvents), and effects of the heat (see also 12.2.2.5 for
intrinsically safe circuits). Where exposition to effects of that nature is inevitable,
protection measures, such as installation in conduits, must be taken or special
cables must be specified (example, to minimize the mechanical damage risks,
armed cables must be used, with metallic protection, with seamless aluminum
cover, with metal cover and mineral insulation or semi rigid cover cables).

Where cabling systems or conduits are subjected to vibration, it must be


designed to support vibration with no damage.

Note: Precautions must be taken to avoid damages to the cover or PVC cable insulation
materials, when they were installed in temperatures under -5ºC.

Item 9.1.3 Uncovered unipolar cables

Uncovered unipolar cables must not be used as powered conductors, unless


they are installed inside panels, casings or conduit systems.

Item 9.1.6 Flammable material passage and intake

Where tube bundles, ducts, piping or pipeway are used to accommodate


cables, precautions must be taken to avoid the passage of inflammable gas,
vapors and liquid from an area to another, and to avoid the inflammable gas,
vapors or liquids in pipeways.

Such precautions must involve sealing of tube bundles, ducts or piping. For
piping, the proper ventilation or filling with sand may be done. Conduits and, in
special cases, cables (example, where differential pressure exists), must be
sealed, if necessary, in order to avoid the passage of liquid or gases.

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Item 9.1.11 Conductor terminations protection

If multiwire conductors and, in particular, conductors composed by wires


too thin, the terminations must be protected against separation of wires,
example, by cable connectors or termination bushing, or by terminal, but not
only by wielding.

The outlet and insulation distances, according to the equipment protection


type, must not be reduced by the method in which the conductors are connected
to the terminals.

Item 9.1.12 Unused conductors

The unused termination of each conductor in installed multicables in


classified areas must be connected to the ground or be properly insulated
through adequate termination. Insulation only by insulating tape is not
recommended.

Item 9.1.14 Cable surface temperature

The cable surface temperature must not exceed the installation


temperature class.

Note: When cables, not selected for high temperature, are selected and installed
according to the manufacturer recommendations, the cable surface temperature must not
normally exceed the T4 temperature class, and in practice is uncommon to exceed the T6
temperature class.

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Item 9.3.3 Flexible Cables

 Flexible cables in classified areas may be specified among the


following:

 Flexible cables with regular rubber cover;

 Flexible cables with regular polychloroprene cover;

 Flexible cables with reinforced rubber cover;

 Flexible cables with reinforced polychloroprene cover;

 Cables with plastic insulation with construction equally robust, such


as reinforced rubber cover cables.

Note: In the absence of IEC standards for cables, references must be made to the
national standard or others.

Item 10 Additional requirements for "d" type protection Explosion-


proof casings

Item 10.1 General

Empty explosion-proof casings, which are certified as components, may


only be used if the certificate for the complete equipment makes reference to the
items or components mounted inside the casing certified as component.

Alterations in the internal component provisions of an already certified part


of an equipment are not admitted without inspection, because conditions may be
unwittingly created resulting in pre-compression.

Note: Equipment compliant with IEC 60079-1 shall be marked as group IIA, IIB, IIB + H2
or IIC. Equipment marked with "IIB + H2" must be installed with IIC equipment.

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Item 10.2 Solid Barriers

In the equipment installation, cautions must be taken to avoid that the


flanged joints explosion-proof are closest than the distances specified on table 3
related to any solid barrier that makes no part of the equipment, such as:
metallic structures, walls, protection against weather, assembly support, tubes
and other electrical equipment, unless the equipment are certified for a minor
separation distance.

Minimal distance between the barrier and the explosion-proof flanged


joints related to gas/vapor subgroup of the rated area.

Gas/vapor subgroup Minimal distance


mm

IIA 10
IIB 30
IIC 40

Item 10.4 Cable input system

Item 10.4.1 General

It is essential that cable inputs are in compliance with all the requirements
of the proper equipment standards, maintaining the respective protection type,
which the input are adequate to the cable type used, and are in compliance with
section 9.

When the cables are inserted in explosion-proof equipment, through


explosion-proof passage bushings mounted on the casing walls, that are part of
the equipment (indirect input), the explosion-proof passage bushing parts
external to the explosion-proof casings must be protected according to one of the
listed protection types of ABNT NBR IEC 60079-10. Normally, passage bushings
the exposed parts must be inside a terminals compartment. that must be
explosion-proof or "e" protection type When the terminals compartment is Ex "d",
the cabling system must be according to 11.3

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When the cables get directly inside explosion-proof equipment, the cabling
system must be according to 10.4.2.

Note: Until the additional information are available , it is appropriate that


the aluminum conductors utilization in casings Ex "d" are avoided in these cases
where a fault that causes an potentially severe arch involving conductors may
occur in the plain flanged joint surroundings Proper protection may be provided
by insulation of the terminal and conductor, that avoids occurrence of faults by
the casing utilization with threaded or coupler joints.

Cable input devices for explosion-proof equipment may be assembled with


a seal washer between the input device and the explosion-proof casing wall,
provided that after the assembly of the washer, the proper fixture of the thread is
still reached. For parallel threads, the coupler of the thread is normally of thread
wires completely coupled or 8 mm. which is bigger.

Item 10.4.2 Selection

The cable input system must be according to one of the following criteria:

The cable input device in compliance with IEC 60079-1 and certified as part
of the equipment when tested with a sample of the specific cable type.

Cable with thermoplastic insulation, thermofix, or elastomeric that is


substantially compact or circular, has solid extrusion and the filling, if exists, are
not hygroscopic, may use cable input devices for explosion-proof equipment,
incorporating an O-ring selected according to the figure!

Note: If it is noticed that the use of a certain type of cable with a cable inlet
as per IEC 60079-1, by aggregating an O-ring does not cause an ignition due to
an external damage to the cable (caused by flame erosion) when subject to
repeated ignitions of flammable gas inside the casing, so the full compliance with
figure 1 may not be necessary.

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A - Internal ignition sources include sparks or temperatures in the


equipment in normal operation, which can be ignited. A casing that has only
terminals or a casing for indirect inlet of cables (refer to 10.4.1) does not form an
internal ignition source.

B - The term 'volume' is defined by IEC 60079-1.

Figure 1 – Selection diagram for inlet devices for cables in explosion-proof


casings for cables that comply with item b) of 10.4.2

a) Mineral insulation cable provided with plastic finishing, having an inlet


device for cables suitable for the explosion-proof;

b) Explosion-proof sealing device (e.g. sealing unit or sealing chamber)


specified on the equipment documentation or via certification of
components and using inlet devices for cables, suitable for the cables
to be used. Sealing devices, as sealing units or sealing chambers,

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shall be filled with a sealing component or other suitable sealing that


allow the individual sealing around each conductor. Sealing devices
shall be installed in the inlet point of the cables in the equipment.

c) Inlet devices for explosion-proof cables that have a sealing compound


filling the gaps between individual conductors or other similar sealing
arrangements;

d) Other means that keep the integrity of the explosion-proof casing.

Note: Where a manufactured casing-type termination is used, we warn you


that no attempts shall be done due to the risk it can interfere in the equipment
connection or the cable replacement.

Item 10.6 Conduit systems

Conduits shall be specified as follows:

a) Iron, heavy class, threaded, with seam or without seam; or

b) Flexible metallic conduit or another composed material for


construction (e.g. metallic conduit with plastic or elastomeric cover),
with heavy or very heavy mechanic resistance rating according to ISO
10807.

Note 1: Conduits in accordance with IEC 60614-2-1 or IEC 60614-2-5 are


not suitable for protecting power cables connected to explosion-proof casing.

Note 2: In case there is no specific IEC standards on threaded conduits


made with heavy steel, seam or seamless conduits, local or other equivalent
standards shall be complied with.

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The conduit shall have at least five threaded wires to allow the connection
of five threaded wires between the conduit and the explosion-proof casing, or the
conduit and the coupling. The tolerance class of the conduit thread shall be 6q.

Sealing units shall be installed in the casing, on the casing wall or up to 50


mm from the explosion-proof casing wall, in order to limit the pre-compression
effects and avoid the entrance of hot gas in the conduit system from an casing
containing an ignition source.

In places where the casing is specifically designed to be connected via


conduits, but it needs to be connected by cables, a full explosion-proof adaptor
with bushings and terminal box can be connected to the input of the casing
conduits, with the conduit length as short as possible with 50 mm maximum.
Then, the cable shall be connected to the terminal box (e.g. explosion-proof or
increased safety-type) as per requirements of the protection type for terminal
boxes.

It is better that closing elements (explosion-proof plugs) are directly


connected to the inlet of casing conduits.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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http://educador.brasilescola.com/estrategias-ensino/evidencias-ocorrencia-
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http://www.osetoreletrico.com.br/web/documentos/fasciculos/ed.40_instal
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abencoados-antes-de-
lancamento.bf0805c32935b310VgnCLD200000bbcceb0aRDRD.html

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QUESTIONS

a) What is an explosive atmosphere?

b) Define the rated area.

c) How we can rate an area where there are flammable substances in


both gas or vapor forms?

d) How the zoning are defined in an area rating (gas and vapor)

e) What is drawing of the rating of areas?

f) What the functions of the sealing units (seals)?

g) What type of experts are skilled to rate an area?

h) What is the standard regarding the electric installations inside


explosive atmospheres?

i) What is the standard related to rating of areas?

j) Which Inmetro's administrative rule compulsoriness of power


equipment certificate for rated areas?

k) What type(s) of proper protection for equipment to be installed in a


zone 0?

l) How is defined a risk source for rating areas?

m) Give an example of risk sources of continuous release.

n) Give an example of risk sources of primary release.

o) Give an example of risk sources of secondary release.

p) What is artificial vent?

q) What are the vent grades?

r) What is minimal ignition energy (MIE)?

s) What is boiling point?

t) What is flash point?

u) What is Self-Ignition temperature?

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v) Please explain the explosion threshold.

w) What is the purpose of rating an area in temperature classes?

x) Which are the factors that can influence the delimitation of an Rated
Area?

y) What is the importance of Risk Management at Rated Areas?

z) How an explosion is characterized?

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