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A. Engineering Work Phase

B. Definition

Engineering is an application of the scientific principle, theoretical knowledge, and

analysing and developing the design economically with technologies and experiences.
Engineering outputs (deliverables) are generated and developed based on the agreed
design basis including specifications, codes and standards, and regulations to support
to the manufacturing goods and constructing facilities. Engineering disciplines of energy
and chemical industries are process, mechanical, piping and pipeline, electrical, control
system and instrumentation (CSI) and civil, Structural and architecture (CSA).

Design is a creation of the detailed plans from concept basis on the specifications, code
and standards, and procedures for manufacturing and construction.

Design and Engineering is the process of developing a component, system, process,

or plant by the methodical series of steps that engineers use in creating functional
products and processes and follow to come up with the solutions to problems to meet
the project specifications, code and standards, regulations, etc. The Design and
Engineering is the basic science, mathematics and engineering practices are applied to
convert resources optimally to meet the project requirements as well as the variety of
realistic constraints, such as economic factors, safety, environment, reliability, and
social impacts.

Conceptual Design is an initial design document for the feasibility study including
operation capacities (feeds and products), screening of the process technologies, site
(plant location) selection studies, high level process and basic documentations (BFD or
PFD and overall plant layout), initial project schedule (Level 1) and budgetary cost
estimate (-50 ~ +100%). The Conceptual Design result is the basis of FEED or Basic

Feasibility Study is an assessment and evaluation of a new project or system viability

that focuses the technical feasibility and commercial profitability. The Feasibility Study
involves the legal, economic, technology, cost and schedule, environmental and other
factors up to the completion of project as well as the commercial operations. In general,
the Feasibility Study is a preliminary study performed in the early stage of the project, a
conceptual design or FEED engineering stage.

Front End Engineering Design (FEED) is for the evaluation of accurate TIC (Total
Investment Cost) estimate and development of overall project execution planning, and
preparation of tendering documentation for main EPC (Engineering, Procurement,
Construction) contractor selection, and to make a FID (final investment decision). The
FEED engineering depth is similar to a basic engineering, and it is developed based on
a conceptual engineering or pre-FEED results, and basis of a detailed design and
engineering. The FEED engineering main outputs are process studies including process
technology selection, process and utility configuration, and optimizations for a cost
minimization, supporting documentation for permits and funding, EPC execution
planning including EPC cost estimate (Accuracy: +/- 15 ~ 30%), EPC Schedule, EPC
tendering document, and basis of detailed design and engineering document. Type of
FEED is a light, normal and extended FEED based on engineering and deliverables and
depth depend on the client's demand. The FEED is also called a Front End Engineering
(FEE) or Front End Loading (FEL).
Basic Engineering is a basis of detailed design and engineering development for a
construction. A cost estimate in the basic engineering phase may typically be refined to
+/- 15 ~ 30%, and this is used as the project final investment decision (FID). In many
cases this package may also be called as a front end engineering design (FEED) and
used as an Invitation of Bidder (ITB) or tender package for the EPC Contract selection.

Detailed Design and Engineering is to develop all required construction documents

and drawings up to AFC (Approved for Construction) stage for the construction, and
detailed bill of materials (BOM) for the bulk material procurement based on the basic or
front end engineering design (FEED) package. The Detailed Design and Engineering is
limited to verifying design basis but producing all construction drawings after
incorporating vendor information.

Engineering Management is a combining engineering and management skills with

technical expertise to coordinate work in various technical fields including inter-
discipline and external interfaces, and to solve technical issues and problems. The
Engineering Management is focusing on the application of engineering principles for the
effective planning and efficient operations of resources and technology.

C. Engineering Disciples

Engineering Discipline is the main disciplines (Civil, Computer, Electrical, and

Mechanical Engineering: 67%), and the medium four disciplines (Aerospace,
Biomedical, Chemical, and Industrial/Manufacturing Engineering: 20%), and the smaller
ten disciplines (Agricultural, Architectural, Engineering Management, Engineering
Physics/Engineering Science, Environmental, General Engineering Studies, Materials,
Mining, Nuclear, and Petroleum Engineering: less than 10%), and the specialty
disciplines (such as Ocean Engineering, etc.: less than 5%) of all engineering
bachelor’s degrees awarded annually.
In 2014 ~ 2015, degrees awarded to students graduating with a bachelor’s degree from
an engineering program increased by 7.5%, continuing a trend of annual growth since
2007. Some of the largest year-to-year percentage increases were seen in computer
engineering related programs: Computer Engineering (16.2%), Computer Science
(inside engineering) (17.6%); and Electrical/Computer Engineering (21.3%). Electrical
Engineering was an outlier, showing only a 1.1% gain in bachelor’s degrees over the
previous year (Source: ASEE)

Process Engineering is a branch of engineering disciplines, focuses on a process

technology selection, configuration, integration and optimisation of the process and
utility facilities, and a selection of equipment type considering the performance of
production and economics with other disciplines support. The Process Engineer is
responsible for the development of process design and engineering document including
PFD, P&ID, Process Datasheet, etc. The Process Engineer is often to involve a
collaboration of engineering and science, and a normal back ground of process
engineer is a chemical engineer.

Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that applies principles of science,

technology and industrial engineering practices for the mechanical design and
engineering, focuses on machines, structures, devices, mechanical systems, and
energy conversion systems. The Mechanical Engineer is responsible for the
development of mechanical data sheets and bid evaluations, and involves the
production, construction, operation and maintenance of machineries.

Piping Engineering is a branch of engineering discipline (mechanical), focuses on the

fluid flow mechanics: analysing the behavior of liquids and gases, and using that
knowledge in the design of the piping systems. A Piping Engineer is responsible for
design and engineering for the piping components and systems including the plant
layout (plot plans) development.

Pipeline Engineering is an engineering discipline, responsible for design and

engineering for the long distance piping system (pipeline) effectively. Generally, a
Pipeline project is executed as an independent project, and a Pipeline Engineer is
covering for a project, process and piping and civil engineering matters.

Electrical Engineering is a part of the design and engineering discipline, deals with the
electricity power system including power generation and distribution system, and
electrical power system controls. An Electrical Engineer is responsible for the
technology and application of the electric power generation, distribution and system
controls. Key deliverable of the Electrical Engineering is a one-line diagram (single-line
diagram), electrical load list, electrical equipment datasheet, electrical bulk materials,
and distribution network drawing. etc. The Electrical Engineering is expanded to
telecommunication systems.

Control System and Instrumentation (CSI) Engineering is one of engineering

disciples, responsible for a Control Systems and Instrumentations (Former
Instrumentation Engineering or Control System Engineering)

Control System Engineering is a branch of engineering disciplines (CSI or Electrical)

that is an interdisciplinary approach to enable the plant control systems, focuses on
defining customer needs and required functionality with design synthesis and system
validation. A Control System Engineer (CSI Engineer) is responsible for designing,
developing, installing, managing and/or maintaining equipment which is used to monitor
and control engineering systems, machinery and processes.

Instrumentation Engineering is a specialised branch of control system, electrical and

electronic engineering that focuses on the measurement, control and automation of
processes. In scientific terms, instrumentation is defined as the art and science of
measurement and control of process variables within a production, or manufacturing

CSA (Civil, Structural and Architectural) Engineering

Civil Engineering is an engineering discipline, focuses on the design, engineering,

construction and maintenance of a building, road, bridge, related infrastructure, and
underground works such as a structure and equipment foundation, etc., and water and
energy systems, sea ports and airports, and the infrastructure for a cleaner
environment, etc. A Civil Engineer is responsible for design, build, and maintenance for
structures and underground works.

Structural Engineering is a part of the civil engineering, focuses on the design and
engineering of all type of stationary structures.
Architectural Engineering is a part of the civil engineering, responsible for a building
and structure design and engineering and construction.

Systems Engineering is a generic term that describes the application of structured

engineering methodologies to the design and creation of complex systems. The
Systems Engineering focuses on the design and management of complicated
engineering projects, across a wide range of engineering specialties, and a combination
of technical and project management skills required to complete multidisciplinary
projects. (e.g. Modelling, Simulation, and P&ID development, etc.)

Production Engineering is an application of manufacturing techniques, engineering

sciences with management science to produce a specific product that includes activities
such as design, development, implementation, operation, maintenance, and control of
all processes in the manufacture of a product as well as analysis of producibility,
productions processes, and systems.

Construction Engineering is to perform an engineering activity or work at the

construction site that covers a wide range of activities to evaluate and select the
techniques for assembling materials and components as well as developing workable,
cost-effective, low-risk technical solutions. (Refer to the Field Engineering)

Chemical Engineering is a branch of engineering that applies physical sciences and

life sciences together with mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport,
and properly use chemicals, materials and energy. It focuses on the chemical based
manufacturing including: Fuels (gasoline, natural gas); Petrochemicals (chemicals
obtained from petroleum or natural gas); Agricultural Chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides);
Industrial Chemicals (acids, alkalis, organics, salts); Plastics, Polymers and Fibers;
Paper and Paper Products; Pharmaceuticals and Drugs; Consumer Products (paints,
soaps, household cleaners, etc.); Food Additives/Products; Advanced Materials
(ceramics, electronic materials, composites, etc.)

Offshore Geotechnical Engineering is a sub-field of geotechnical engineering,

focuses on the application of geological principles for the exploration or extraction of
natural resources (oil, natural gas, coal, minerals, etc.). It is also concerned with
foundation design, construction, maintenance and decommissioning for human-made
structures in the sea including oil platforms, artificial islands and submarine pipelines,

Undergraduate Enrollment (2014 ~ 2015, Source: ASEE)

D. Other Definitions

Field Engineering is one of the construction organization, perform the design and
engineering work at the Site. A primary responsibility is an interpretation of engineering
design and document to the construction teams, supporting ad-hoc engineering related
site activities including field material supply, gathering and feedback requested site
information to the Engineering division, and assisting engineering matter to operation
and maintenance team. The Field Engineering team involves performing of
completeness check and inspection of construction outcomes, and development of
hand-over documentations.

E. Additional Definitions

FEED Deliverable List (Sample)


 Introduction
 General Project Description
 Site Description
 Operating Philosophy
 Rely Upon Data/Information
 Document Order of Precedence
 Project Execution Plan
 Master Document Index


 Design Basis
 Design Criteria
 Project Engineering Basic Design Data
 Flare and Relief Systems
 FEED Studies
 Preliminary Noise Data
 Process Safety Documents
o HAZOP Report
o Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) Reports
o Plant & Building Siting Study
o SIL Assessment
o Fireproofing Zones (drawings)
o Firewater Design Considerations
 Environmental Documents
 Mechanical Handling Report


 Project Philosophies
 Project Technical Specifications
 Codes and Standards


 Overall Block Flow Diagram

 Process Simulations
 P&I Symbols & Legend and Typical Detail Diagrams
 Equipment List
 Equipment Specifications – complete for long lead items, preliminary for other
 Equipment Data Sheets
 Specialty Items List
 Line List
 Preliminary Pipe Stress Analysis
 Line Sizing – complete for major process lines
 Equipment Sizing – complete for major equipment
 Site Plan
 Plot Plan Drawings
 Preliminary Equipment Arrangements
 Conceptual Underground Layout Drawings
 Safety Drawings
 Material Selection Guides
 Design Pressure / Design Temperature Guides
 Utility Summary
 Catalyst, Chemical and Lubricant Summary
 Start-up and 2-Year Spare Parts List Template
 Process Description
 Process Flow Diagrams
 Heat & Materials Balances
 P & I Diagrams
 Geotechnical Surveys and Reports


 Control Systems -DCS, PLC, SIS Systems

 Instrument and Control System General Requirements and Configuration
 Block Diagrams
 Cause & Effect Diagrams
 Typical Loop Diagrams
 Typical Instrument Details
 Instrument Systems
 Instrument Index
 Instrument Data Sheets
 Electrical Systems
 Electrical System Description
 Electrical One Line Diagrams
 Conceptual Substation Layouts
 Conceptual Cable Routing Diagrams, Grounding Drawings and Lighting
 Electrical Equipment List
 Electrical Data Sheets
 Electrical Load List, Calculations, Preliminary Cable Schedules and Studies
 Area Classification Drawings
 Telecommunication System Description
 Telecommunications Block Diagrams
 Utility Systems P & I Diagrams
 Preliminary Buildings Drawings
 Preliminary Drainage, Paving and Fencing Arrangements
 Structural and Pipe Rack Drawings

 Long Lead Items List

 Approved Vendors List - International
 FEED Contracts List
 ITB Format and Key Documents
 Material requisitions and RFQ’s for long lead items


 Land Use Plan

 Infrastructure Strategy Document
 Temporary Facilities


 Introduction – Division of Responsibility (DOR) and Interface Management

 Interface Management Plan
 Division of Responsibility
 Tie-in & Interface Lists and drawings
 Electrical Interface and Block Diagrams

COST ESTIMATE Level 3 (-10%/+15%)

 Estimate Report and Direct Summaries

 Email Budgetary Quotations – Equipment
 Email Budgetary Quotations – Packages
 Reference Drawings
 Cost Estimate Plan

Detailed Design and Engineering

Deliverable List (Sample)
Process Design

 Basis of Design
 Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs), Utility Flow Diagrams (UFDs) and Heat &
Material Balances
 Process & Operational Control Description
 Process Equipment List
 Process Datasheets for Main Equipment (per Equipment List)
 Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID’s)
 Line list
 Tie-in Schedule
 Cause & Effects Diagrams
 Process Data Sheets for instrumentation
 Process Alarm & Trip Schedule
 Effluent and Emission Summary
 Catalyst and Chemicals Summary
 Process Simulation Report (including Process Simulations files)
 Process Design Calculations
 Flare and Relief System Study/Sizing Calculations
 Distribution P&ID for the flare headers
 HAZOP Report
 Performance Guarantees Statement
 Performance Test Procedure
 Pre-commissioning and Commissioning Manual
 Operating & Maintenance Manual

Civil and Structural Design

 Earthworks Specifications defining procedures for excavation, filling and

 Earthworks Grading Drawings Layouts
 Piling Specification
 Piling Layouts identifying capacities, locations and cut-off elevation of piles.
 Civil Design Criteria
 Structural Design Criteria
 Reinforced Concrete Specification
 Structural Steelwork Specification
 Design Calculations complete with index
 Fireproofing of Structural Steelwork Specification (If applicable)
 Civil Layouts
 Underground Services Specification
 Underground Services Layout
 Underground Service Design Details Drawings
 Foundation & Concrete Structure General Arrangement Drawings (GA’s)
 Drawings of platforms, ladders, handrails and stairs associated with
equipment and vessels
 Cable Trench Layouts
 Cable Trench Details
 Paving Plan and Details Drawings
 Foundation and Concrete Structure RC Details
 Road Layouts and Details
 Structural Steel Layout and Details for Pipe racks Structures and Pipe
 Requisitions for Structural Steelwork

Architectural Design

 Building layout drawings

 Building detail drawings
 Specifications for Buildings
 Schedules of Finishes (Buildings)
 Schedules of doors and windows

Piping & Layout

 Well flowline layout

 Overall Site Plot Plan
 Process Area Plot Plans
 Piping Material Specifications
 Special Piping (SP) Item Schedule and Data Sheets
 Standard Piping Details
 Fabrication and Installation of Pipe-work Specification
 Heat Tracing/Jacketing Specification and Schedules
 Piping General Arrangement Drawings
 Isometric drawings for 2" and above pipe-work above and below ground
 Material take-offs
 Key Plans of Piping General Arrangements.
 Stress Analysis Specification
 Stress Critical Line List
 Stress Sketches
 Final Stress Report
 Pipe Supports Design details
 Special Pipe Support Register
 Pipe Support Spring Register and Calculations
 Hydrostatic test diagrams

Electrical Design

 Area plans
 Hazardous area classification drawings
 Area key plans for Lighting, tray and grounding layouts
 Layout drawings
 Grounding layouts
 Plant cable tray and cable routing layouts
 Plant and buildings lighting layouts
 Substation layouts
 Switchgear building equipment layout
 U/G duct bank layout etc.
 One line diagrams showing interlocks, inter tripping, system capacity, Voltage
levels, currents, impedances, generation power levels etc.
 Key one line diagram
 138/4.16 kV one line diagram
 4,16 kV (MV) one line diagrams
 480V one line diagrams
 120 VAC UPS one line diagrams
 125 VDC UPS one line diagrams
 Emergency power one line diagrams etc.
 Schematics
 4 kV motor schematics
 460 V motor schematics
 MOV control schematics
 Lighting control schematics
 Heat tracing isometrics etc.
 Equipment drawings including vendor prints
 These drawings shall be supplied for all the major tagged equipment such as
Transformers, Switchgears, MCCs, UPS, Chargers, Generators, Power
supplies, PTs, CTs, Control panels, packaged equipments etc.
 Front and interior layout showing all the components
 Wiring drawings and terminal connections
 Installation details including manuals
 Component maintenance and instruction manuals
 Electronic equipment manuals and settings
 Fuse ratings and characteristic curves
 Equipment and component datasheets
 Weights and measurements
 Schematics
 Equipment specifications
 Motor datasheets
 Circuit breaker settings
 3 Line diagrams
 Battery details including amp-hour ratings
 Relay settings and relay discrimination curves
 Data sheets and environment limitations
 HVAC requirements
 Manufacturing data books
 Spare parts lists etc.
 Inter connection diagrams
 Inter connection drawings between panels
 Details
 Hazardous area classification details
 Installation details for Lighting, grounding, heat tracing etc.
 Duct bank details
 Lists and Schedules
 Cable routing schedules
 MCC schedules
 Lighting and Distribution panel schedules
 Heat tracing panel schedules
 Load lists
 Electric equipment list
 Bulk material lists and catalogue numbers
 Cable tray penetration details in to buildings
 Calculations
 Tray sizing calculations
 Heat tracing calculations
 Equipment sizing calculations
 Lighting level calculations
 Emergency power load requirements
 Studies and reports
 System studies showing fault levels, short circuit current, Minimum/
 Load flow analysis, motor starting effects and system stability, voltage
 Transformer tap settings
 Motor protection settings
 Relay setting schedules including setting curves

Instrumentation and Controls

 System Block Diagrams

 Specifications Defining functionality of systems and interfaces between
 System Graphic Displays
 Control Logic Diagrams based upon ISA2
 Instrument Specifications for equipment and materials
 Instrument Data Sheets based on ISA S20 templates Data Sheets
 Instrument Index
 Relief and Safety Device Index
 Alarm and Trip Schedule
 Control Room and Control Building Layouts
 Instrument Location Drawings
 Instrument Cable Routing
 Panel and Rack Layouts
 Instrument and Control System Schematics
 Instrument Power and Utility Requirements
 Power Distribution One line
 Power Distribution Schedule
 Grounding Diagrams for instruments and control system
 Instrument Junction Box Schedules
 Instrument Cable Schedule
 Termination Schedule/Diagram
 Instrument Hook-Up Diagrams (Electric, Pneumatic, hydraulic and/or
 Air Distribution Diagram
 Instrument Junction Boxes and Panels Block Diagrams
 Interconnection Diagrams
 Loop Diagrams
 Requisitions for equipment and bulk materials
 Input/Output Schedules
 Instrument Design Data and Engineering Calculation

Fire Fighting and Safety

 Safety Design Philosophy

 P & ID for Fire Water Ring Main
 Fire Fighting Equipment Layout
 Fire Fighting Equipment List / Requisitions
 Fire & Gas Cause & Effects Matrix.
 Fire and Gas Detection Equipment Schedule
 Extinguishing Systems Design (Where/if applicable) of fixed fire extinguishing
systems (e.g. foam, carbon dioxide, clean agent, and/or dry powder systems)
 Mobile Fire Fighting Equipment Schedule
 Safety Equipment Schedule

Document Review and Approval

A. Document Review and Approval Work Process

B. Definitions

Document is a written information and used for an instruction, communication and

record to identify a document's purpose, determine the appropriate document type. A
type of document is a plan, procedure, contract, specification, report, manual,
calculation, drawing, diagram, list, engineering document, and electronic document, etc.

Document Review and Approval is a project design and engineering work process in
the development of project deliverables, document and drawings. Following initial
document development and the necessary internal check and review processes to
ensure adequate quality it will be released for external review ultimately leading to its
approval. Part of the internal checks includes proper documentation of required design
and controlling steps, assurance of critical safety and alignment with operating
requirements, project specifications whilst ensuring that contract, client and regulatory
requirements are satisfied.

Document Review and Approval Procedure is a project document quality

management work process ensuring that there is an adequate review or approval of
project deliverables which are successfully completed before beginning subsequent

Document Distribution Matrix is a systematic organised matrix for the document and
drawings to be distributed to related person or organisation for their information, review
and approval, record, and use for further actions. The Document Distribution Matrix
includes lists of key project positions or organisations on one side and types of
documents on the other.

Information is a fact of situation, person, event, work or data developed on paper,

electronic, audio, video by word, table, drawing or document which knowledge and data
can be signified understanding of real things or abstract concepts. Information is
meaningful and valuable data that can affect behaviour, a decision, or an outcome, and
lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty.

Information Classification is all company information and all information entrusted to

company from other parties for the project can be classified by information sensitivity in
business as: unclassified public information; client confidential information; company
confidential information; proprietary information.
Drawing is a graphical illustration document to explain and demonstrate the final
shapes with dimensions created based on the project specifications and procedures,
and used for design basis drawings (flow diagrams, one-line diagrams, etc.),
manufacturing, fabrication and installation and construction. Type of drawings are
sketch, two-dimensional CAD, three-dimensional CAD and three-dimension model
drawing. They are also used for cost and quantity estimate work.

Approval is 1) an act of endorsing or adding positive authorisation, acceptance or

agreement, or official permission for something; 2) an agreement or consensus on an
activity or output comparing with baselines or contractual requirements by an approver
to proceed a next step of activity, or work defined in project plans and procedures
(Project Execution Plan (PEP) and Document Review and Approval Procedure.

Review is an activity of considering something again in order to make a suitable,

adequate, effective, and efficient way of achieving established objectives.

Document Review and Approval Category is defined by the importance of document

and information that is for information, for review, for approval, and for record. There
are: IFR (Issued for Review), IFA (Issued for Approval), IFD (Issued for Design), FCR
(Issued for Client Review), FCA (Issued for Client Approval), AFD (Approved for
Design), and IFC (Issued for Construction) or AFC (Approved for Construction) aligning
with the work processes completed.

Document Review and Approval Cycle is a period of time frame including a

preparation or development, or update of document in accordance with the document
list (deliverable list), a review and approval work process including a specified review
meeting, and update and re-issue.

C. Document Review and Approval Category

Issued for Information (IFI) means that drawings or documents are issued for
information only. (e.g. Progress Status Reports, Detailed Calculations, etc.)
Issued for Review (IFR) means that drawings or documents are Issued for internal or
external Review (IFR) or Client Review (FCR). (e.g. Project non-critical Document, etc.)

Issued for Approval (IFA) means that documents or drawings are issued for client or
delegated authorised person/ organisation to review and approval to use of them for
further developments or activities. (e.g. Project Critical Document including P&ID, Plot
Plan, etc.)

Issued for Design (IFD) means that drawings or documents are issued for further
development of design or used for other disciplines' design.

Approved for Design (AFD) means that drawings or documents are reviewed and
approved by a dedicated and authorised person or organization for use, mainly further
design development, and procurement.

Issued for Construction (IFC) is drawings and documents which are categorized as
the review, and Issued for Construction.

Approved for Constriction (AFC) means that drawings and documents are reviewed
and approved by authorities of internal and external organisations including the client
team members of the construction. A Construction team must use only AFC marked or
stamped drawings and document for the construction works and activities.

Issued for HAZOP (IFH) means that drawings (P&IDs) and documents are issued for
the HAZOP review.

FCA stands for Issued for Client Approval

FCR stands for Issued for Client Review

C. Details and template to be developed

Modularisation (Modularization)
A, Definition

Module is a set of separated parts from a complete unit or plant, and is a transportable
pre-assembly components of process plant designed to minimise site installation and
commissioning activities and labour costs. Module Types are pre-assembled unit (PAU),
pre-assembled Rack (PAR), pre-assembled building (PAB), and vendor assembled unit

Modular design is an engineering technique that a design of complete unit or plant

divide into smaller units (system or subsystem) with tie-in provisions.

Modularisation (or Modularization) is for difficulties in a skilled labour mobilisation at

the site or remote areas and significantly disadvantages in economics for a traditional
stick built construction method, requires large number of labour, construction equipment
and supporting infrastructures, modularisation method is applicable. Modules are self
contained and operated with essential utility supply. Module design and Engineering
is slightly different form a normal engineering, reinforcement of structures for
transportations and minimize ground spaces are executed, modules are fabricated (pre-
fabricated) or manufactured at the module shop yard, tested, pre-commissioned,
preserved and transported to the site for installation and connection (tie-ins) to other
module or existing facility to complete a unit or plant. Modularisation plan develops in
the beginning of the project, and perform a module design and engineering,
procurement and construction. Optimum Module Size and Inclusions are depend on
a transportation ability for inland and ocean, module erection and handling capacity at
the site, module fabrication yard capacity as well as ability of skilled labour mobilisation
and level of direct cost at the site, and a severity of project such as project duration,
quality, safety and environmental requirement.
In general, a Modularization project is shorter project schedule, but cost is dependent.

B. Reference

Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

Modular Construction