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Roland Barthes//Semiotics

the idea that texts communicate their meanings through a process of signification
the idea that signs can function at the level of denotation, which involves the ‘literal’ or common-sense meaning of the sign,
and at the level of connotation, which involves the meanings associated with or suggested by the sign
the idea that constructed meanings can come to seem self-evident, achieving the status of myth through a process of
naturalisation Adbusters (magazine):
Woman (magazine): Used to construct ideas
Tide (print):
Feminine elements are conveyed surrounding their main
Hermeneutic code- ‘what women want’ creates suspense and is
through semiotics for example, viewpoints e.g. the dirt on the
emphasises through the use of exclamation marks (proairetic code)
the pastel pink front cover, words front cover immediately
Semantic code- use of hearts suggesting she loves the product but
such as ‘soft’ and ‘puff’ in the conveys ideas of nature, linking
her husband will also love her for using the product, reinforced
magazine and floral dress on the to their ideas of climate change
through the colour red. and saving the planet.
woman in the central image.

Kiss of the Vampire (print): The Times (newspaper): Formation- Beyoncé Zoella (online media):
Hermeneutic code- enigmas are used to create Use of American iconography (music video): Used to help convey ideas
suspense surrounding the relationship of the male throughout the front and back Antebellum era dresses as about that person via colour,
and female character and the fate of the two victims pages and the American flag as worn by Beyoncé and the typography etc. However,
Semantic code- bats, gothic imagery etc the backdrop will have other Black women- this can cause the audience
Symbolic code- horror, fear and darkness are widely immediate cultural significance significant to referencing to focus on static elements of
reinforced through the imagery of moons and the for the reader who will be able slavery, semiotics are used the text and ignore the
male victim’s submissive sacrifice gesture code to create meaning in the to reinforce the message dynamic features that
associations with these signs. shown in the video. separate online media from
other texts.

The Daily Mirror (newspaper): Riptide- Vance Joy (music

Water Aid (AV): Attitude (online media):
Use of American iconography video):
Hermeneutic code- suspense is The use of the rainbow colours on
throughout the front page (subverted The video uses very literal
created through the slow-motion the homepage reinforces the
use of the Statue of Liberty) and the imagery for the lyrics, for
tracking shot of Claudia’s feet and LGBTQ+ themes of the magazine
colours of the American flag in the example green=money,
the swinging bucket as it has become a symbol for the
article will have immediate cultural constructed meanings can
Symbolic code- drought ridden community. The use of colour has
significance for the reader who will be come to see self-evident but
African countries are reinforced both connotations of inclusivity and
able to create meaning in the may have multiple layers,
visually and through the advert’s welcoming for those in the
associations they will have with these Vance Joy does this often in
audio codes for the start of the advert community.
Tzvetan Todorov//Narratology
the idea that all narratives share a basic structure that involves a movement from one state of equilibrium to
the idea that these two states of equilibrium are separated by a period of imbalance or disequilibrium

Humans (television): The Returned (television):

Equilibrium- the family at home Equilibrium- parents in the meeting
Disruption- Anita joins the house Disruption- children coming back/ Victor
Recognition- Laura recognises there is something Recognition- going back to their parents/ meeting
wrong with Anita, reinforced through the people family members
on the hunt for Anita Resolution- setting fire to the house and
Resolution- not found in the first episode committing suicide (Mr Costa) etc
Equilibrium- not found in the first episode Equilibrium- cyclical structure showing the bus
The narrative is episodic and not all elements can crashing because of Camille and Victor (?), sense of
be met in the first episode satisfaction for the audience as their understanding
Non-linear elements occur in the episode through increases, learn it is four years since the bus crash
Anita’s flashbacks, breaking the typical structure There is no full causality as cliff hangers are needed
and going against the theory to keep watchers intrigued
Lack of linearity breaks theory
Steve Neale//Genre Theory
the idea that genres may be dominated by repetition, but are also marked by difference, variation, and change
the idea that genres change, develop, and vary, as they borrow from and overlap with one another
the idea that genres exist within specific economic, institutional and industrial contexts

Riptide- Vance Joy (music video): Humans (television): The Returned (television):
The indie folk music video genre is The use of sub-genre- Humans is made Differences presented in the show:
dominated by repetition, Riptide up of sci-fi elements as well as family ‘Zombies’ are different- the
offers variation to these aspects, this relationships, romance, action etc, the undead are relatives and friends
may be done for artistic reasons or to use of sub-genres offers variation and The zombies are unaware of why
generate interest in the band to make allows genres to change over time they are back and at first are
a profit. Hybridity and intertextuality- brings unaware they have been dead-
difference to a text and new elements appear more like ghosts than
from other genres e.g. remake of Real zombies
Humans, Niska is reminiscent of ‘the Lucy is murdered- crime/thriller,
basic pleasure model’ Pris from Blade atypical as death is usually not
Runner, the robots reflect ‘The Stepford intentional for the genre
Wives’ who were domestic, beautiful, Poetic French realism- different
subservient robots as a replacement of from what we see every day on TV
real women Religious elements- water
Breaking conventions- Humans breaks symbolising cleansing/ rebirth
typical conventions for the sci-fi genre,
for example the robots looking like
humans, this once again offers variation
for the genre and supports the theory
the idea that texts can best be understood through an examination of their underlying structure
the idea that meaning is dependent upon (and produced through) pairs of oppositions
the idea that the way in which these binary oppositions are resolved can have particular ideological significance
The Daily Mirror
(newspaper): Adbusters (magazine):
Tide (print): The use of the pronoun Some of the key points in the magazine
Opposition is constructed through ‘They’ in the front-page and only clear when placed in opposition
Humans (television):
the presentation of commercial headline ‘What have with another article, for example the
Humans vs
rivals, this is done by the brand’s they done?’ creates an woman sat on the street with the model,
name drop ‘Procter and Gamble’, immediate binary only with the homeless woman do we see
Anita vs Laura
the advert also suggest Tide is the opposition of ‘us and Adbusters criticising the modelling
Captivity vs freedom
best on the market, reinforcing them’ and lays blame industry, similarly done with the refugee
this idea of competition. on the American people page.
for Trump’s win and
creates the suggestion
Water Aid (AV): that this has a global
impact and therefore The Times Zoella (online media): Attitude (online
‘Sunshine on a rainy day’ used over
particular ideological (newspaper): Binary oppositions are media):
shots of children laughing creates
significance. Use of the headline normally constructed in The focus on the
more positive connotations of this
‘The New World’ videos to create the idea LGBTQ+ community
section, the high key lighting
positioned over of conflict and therefore presents the idea of
reinforces this. Further oppositions
Trump’s jacket invites a narrative and conflict, the
are presented through the dull
the reader to question excitement, for example community being
colours at the start and bright
The Returned what impact of Trump’s British vs American. good and all those
colours at the end, conveying
(television): presidency may be, against it bad, forming
success. Past vs present which is reiterated the opposition of good
Living vs dead through the use of the vs bad. The fight
Kiss of the Vampire (print): Illusion vs reality subheading ‘Donald ‘Attitude’ is presenting
Opposing representation of the Etc Trump sends forms an conflict and
vampires and their victims and the shockwaves around the opposition.
romantic connotations of ‘kiss’ Globe’, his body
opposed in the film’s title to the language suggests
stereotypical ‘vampire’ monster. determination and
Jean Baudrillard//Postmodernism
the idea that in postmodern culture the boundaries between the ‘real’ world and the world of the media have
collapsed and that it is no longer possible to distinguish between reality and simulation
the idea that in a postmodern age of simulacra we are immersed in a world of images which no longer refer to
anything ‘real’
the idea that media images have come to seem more ‘real’ than the reality they supposedly represent
Humans (television): Zoella (online media):
Elements of bricolage and borrowing from other texts- ‘The Stepford The media has become so saturated
Wives’, ‘Blade Runner’, being a remake of ‘Real Humans’ etc it is impossible for audiences to
Relies on the audience’s understanding of sci-fi to decode the text experience the natural or real world.
Narrative is paradoxical and fragmented with flashbacks and Online has become a simulacrum or
montages from Anita hyperreality where everything
Uses intertextuality and cultural codes to create audience appeal e.g. appears perfect. Although Zoella
news reels about robotics strives for an authentic aesthetic she
Post-modern themes e.g. the relationship between man and still only conveys the parts she
technology (Levi-Strauss, Structuralism) wants to show, offering a perfect,
The synths themselves may be seen as simulacra- copies of perfect constructed lifestyle. What the
humans which do not really exist audience see from them is not
The parallel world to our own is a hyperreality- it is the present or entirely real and is constructed for
near-future re-presented from a mediated perspective an audience, similar to a fictional
The wall between their reality and our own is further broken through product.
the advertising for the show using a physical shop, eBay sellings and
vans to collect broken synths
Stuart Hall//Theory of
the idea that representation is the production of meaning through language, with language defined in its broadest sense as a
system of signs
the idea that the relationship between concepts and signs is governed by codes
the idea that stereotyping, as a form of representation, reduces people to a few simple characteristics or traits
the idea that stereotyping tends to occur where there are inequalities of power, as subordinate or excluded groups are
constructed as different or ‘other’ (e.g. through ethnocentrism)
Woman (magazine):
Tide (print): The Daily Mirror (newspaper): A clear stereotype is shown of
Images of domesticity give meaning to the The signs constructed through media language 1960 house wives, through
world of the advert, the world presented of suggest that Trump and his supporters belong to the domestic articles this
women hanging out washing is familiar to a specific cultural group of predominantly white, stereotype is reinforced as a
the audience and can act as a middle class men. This representation transmits gender norm for women.
representation of their own lives. ideas to the reader about inequalities of power
and the subordination of certain social groups.

The Returned (television):

The Returned are constructed
as other through the conflict,
Water Aid (AV): their decaying skin, the lights
The Times (newspaper): Formation- Beyoncé (music
The images of Kiss of the Vampire flickering around them etc.
The use of media language video):
dry and dusty (print): suggests that Trump and his The music video challenges
Africa in which Images of castles, team belong to a specific traditional inequalities of
people are bats etc form the cultural group of power by placing black
struggling to world presented Zoella (online media):
predominantly white, women in a positon of
survive is typical within the poster Zoe is her own gate-keeper and
middle class men, this use of control but may perpetuate
however the which encourages represents herself in a way she
representation transmits a sense of binary
positive codes the audience to wants to be represented. She
ideas to the reader about oppositional between races,
used later decode the familiar reinforces gender norms with
inequalities of power and supporting Hall’s notion of
challenge these generic her pastel colours and female
subordination of certain difference or otherness and
David Gauntlett//Theory of Identity
the idea that the media provide us with ‘tools’ or resources that we use to construct our identities
the idea that whilst in the past the media tended to convey singular, straightforward messages about ideal types of male and
female identities, the media today offer us a more diverse range of stars, icons and characters from whom we may pick and
mix different ideas

Tide (print): Woman (magazine): Riptide- Vance Joy Zoella (online media):
Women represented in the Women is a historical (music video): Audience’s see Zoe’s perfect
advert act as role models of product which does convey Gauntlett’s idea of lifestyle and may want to shape
domestic perfection that the mostly (army corps) pick and mix seems their lives around hers,
audience may want to construct singular straightforward particularly especially if they have placed her
their own sense of identity messages about the ideal relevant due to the in a role model position. Zoe
against. type of female identity, style of the video also conveys typical female
supporting the point that which constructs a stereotypes with her content
the past offered singular range of different surrounding makeup, fashion,
messages. stimuli that the etc. She reflects a typical female
audience are magazine.
invited to interpret.
The video rejects
Kiss of the Vampire (print): straight forward
Perhaps the female vampire Water Aid (AV): messages and Attitude (online media):
acts as a role model for women Claudia acts as a role invites ‘Attitude’ does not present
struggling against male model for the type of interpretation. straight forward ideas about
oppression or desperate to be lifestyle changes that the identity and breaks gender
seen as equals with men audience could be norms through the
whatever the narrative or responsible for creating if presentation of men in makeup
environment. they donate to Water Aid and other feminised pieces.
This aggress with the theory
that the media today offers a
more diverse range of stars.
Liesbet van Zoonen//Feminist Theory
the idea that gender is constructed through discourse, and that its meaning varies according to cultural and historical
the idea that the display of women’s bodies as objects to be looked at is a core element of western patriarchal culture
the idea that in mainstream culture the visual and narrative codes that are used to construct the male body as spectacle differ
from those used to objectify the female body

Tide (print): Water Aid (AV): Humans (television):

Although the women are not By assuming the stereotypically Socialist feminism- Laura is replaced by a synth
sexualised they are still male roles of the protagonist and Radical feminism- Niska is used as an erotic object
presented as housewives and provider Claudia is perhaps Liberal feminism- ‘super woman’ Laura is struggling
through historical knowledge contributing to social change by Typical gender norms are reinforced through Anita
we know would have been seen breaking these, collecting water is being a domestic object, Joe is frustrated that Laura
as objects to their husbands, the physically work that women are is working and unable to care for the children, etc.
domestic presentation in this typically not seen doing. However, conventions can be seen as broken
advert uses different narrative through the nurturing characters of Leo and George.
codes to how men would have
been presented.

Kiss of the Vampire (print): Woman (magazine):

By assuming this co- The women are not The Returned (television):
antagonist role, the female particularly sexualised The characters do not entirely conform to gender
vampire is perhaps however can be seen as norms- multiple characters are seen as nurturers or
contributing to social objects for men, especially in domestic including male characters (Jerome, Pierre)
change by representing the Crème Puff advert. Simon is also sexualised alongside Lena, Lucy and
women in non-traditional other female characters, not restricting the erotic
roles though the passive presentation to one gender.
bell hooks//Feminist Theory
the idea that feminism is a struggle to end sexist/patriarchal oppression and the ideology of domination
•the idea that feminism is a political commitment rather than a lifestyle choice
the idea that race and class as well as sex determine the extent to which individuals are exploited, discriminated against or

Riptide- Vance Joy (music video):

Tide (print): hooks could be used as a stimulus
Tide only includes white Humans (television):
to explore the seemingly
women supporting the Shows multiple
contradictory messages about
theory suggested. ethnicities for female
gender in the video. Is the video
characters however
objectifying women in an ironic
most of the non-white
way or knowing way or is it
characters play synths
instead feeding into the Woman (magazine):
Kiss of a Vampire (print): who are made to act as
oppression of women in a Only white women in
Only white characters- slaves for white
patriarchal society? Sexism can be the magazine
supports. characters.
hard to challenge in media texts supporting the idea of
when it is unclear of the a hierarchy suggested
producer’s intentions and down to by hooks.
The Returned
Water Aid (AV): (television):
The main character is a No other ethnicities
Formation- Beyoncé (music
black female, going against shown in the show
hook’s theory, however the other than white-
Beyoncé herself is a woman of
advert is for charity supports hierarchy
colour and her video presents
suggesting that those in the
cultural codes for women of
video need help, presenting
colour, creating a media text that
them lower than the British
has not been reduced to Western
audience they are asking
culture and going against the
help from. theory.
Judith Butler//
Theory of Gender Performativity
the idea that identity is performatively constructed by the very ‘expressions’ that are said to be its results (it
is manufactured through a set of acts)
the idea that there is no gender identity behind the expressions of gender
the idea that performativity is not a singular act, but a repetition and a ritual

Woman (magazine): Zoella (online media): Attitude (online media):

Reinforces gender stereotypes Zoe’s blog reinforces Gender norms are
through the content of fashion, gender norms through broken through ‘Attitude’
makeup and a domestic her female typical which often presents
lifestyle. The magazine also content including men as feminised or with
reinforces the idea of a female makeup, fashion and makeup, in heels, etc.
having children and being a soft pastel colours on This reiterates the idea
nurturing figure. This product her blog. Her that gender is
was current in the 1960s personality of being constructed by society
showing that gender friendly, bubbly and and can be broken.
stereotypes have been cheerful is also female ‘Attitude’ is breaking the
reinforced for a long time and typical. Zoe is repeating repetition of gender
that our understanding for female stereotypical norms.
each gender is not surprising acts, reinforcing what is
as they have been taught to us expected for each
since a young age. gender.
Paul Gilroy//
Theory around Ethnicity and Post
the idea that colonial discourses continue to inform contemporary attitudes to race and ethnicity in the
postcolonial era
the idea that civilisationism constructs racial hierarchies and sets up binary oppositions based on notions of
Tide (print): Zoella (online Attitude (online
This text could be seen to Formation- Beyoncé media): media):
reinforce colonial power by only (music video): Zoe’s content is ‘Attitude’ is seen
presenting white women. The music video mostly white presenting people with
Contextually, this power has empowers minority people, unlike colour and their
perhaps been challenged at this groups and offers a voice traditional struggles or victories
moment in American history by for those victimised by media she with their sexuality.
the events of WW2. the hurricane, therefore cannot cast This is reducing
not reinforcing colonial other ethnicities colonial power as it is
power as suggested by however, her presenting a different
Water Aid (AV): content still minority. The idea of
Media texts reinforcing colonial the theory. Beyoncé is
also a woman of colour reflects the idea ethnicity seems less
power could be seen here as the of colonial relevant as something
advert is encouraging a British and extremely successful
once again going against power even if it else has been placed as
audience to help those in less is not the ‘other’.
developed countries. the theory.
Curran and Seaton//
Power and Media Industries
the idea that the media is controlled by a small number of companies primarily driven by the logic of profit and power
the idea that media concentration generally limits or inhibits variety, creativity and quality
the idea that more socially diverse patterns of ownership help to create the conditions for more varied and adventurous
media productions
The Daily Mirror (newspaper):
The Trinity Group have maintained their Woman (magazine): I, Daniel Blake (film):
position in the UK market despite falling Sales The IPC (International The concept of the film is outside
of the Daily Mirror and other mainstream titles Publishing Cooperation) which of typical ideas created for profit
by diversifying into regional news. This diverse publishes Woman is a and power and therefore goes
pattern of ownership has allowed them to conglomerate, this allows the against the theory. The film was
create the conditions for more varied and company to have a widespread created for social change, not
adventurous media products. audience and minimise risks. profit.

The Times (newspaper):

Horizontally and vertically integrated company
Adbusters (magazine): Late Night Woman’s Hour (radio):
and subsequently a large conglomerate, being
part of a huge press organisation could limit or The magazine is a part of an The BBC is a major deliverer of
independent publisher, they content, they are also a public
inhibit creativity and journalists’ freedom.
Murdoch is often accused of controlling his have been seen asking for service broadcaster offering more
newspaper content and editorial teams. Could submissions showing they do creative freedom as they are free
not have a large organisation to from advertising pressure, allowing
also be suggested that by having a more diverse
pattern of ownership, a more pluralistic help with content and are more them to create niche content for
susceptible to risks. example LNWH.
approach could create conditions for more
varied and adventurous media productions.
Livingstone and Lunt//
Regulation Theory
the idea that there is an underlying struggle in recent UK regulation policy between the need to further the interests of
citizens (by offering protection from harmful or offensive material), and the need to further the interests of consumers (by
ensuring choice, value for money, and market competition)
the idea that the increasing power of global media corporations, together with the rise of convergent media technologies and
transformations in the production, distribution and marketing of digital media, have placed traditional approaches to media
regulation at risk
The Daily Mirror (newspaper):
The Trinity Group is facing increasing The Returned (television): Zoella (online media):
pressure alongside the rest of the UK Different cultures have different Zoe follows all community
press industry to adhere to strict rules social norms surrounding nudity, guidelines making her a family
and guidelines. There is an violence etc. As ‘The Returned’ is a friendly channel which keeps
underlying issue of protecting citizens French show that was broadcasted in sponsorships and advertisers. The
from harmful material while ensuring America there may have been issues CAP (Committee of Advertising
choice and press freedom. surrounding regulation. Practice) regulate YouTube.

The Times (newspaper):

Late Night Woman’s Hour (radio):
The Times Newspaper Group and News
BBC is self-regulatory as a media Assassin’s Creed (video games):
Corp are facing increasing pressure
organisation it is responsible for not Video games regulation is hard to
alongside the rest of the UK press industry
breaching codes. LNWH discusses monitor as there is no way to
to adhere to strict rules and guidelines.
more controversial topics but is regulate people in their own homes.
There is an underlying issue of protecting
shown at a later time, however the Video games are age-rated by PEGI
citizens from harmful material while
product is distributed through however this cannot be enforced
ensuring choice and press freedom. The
iPlayer which is easily accessible to strongly, especially with the digital
increase in digital media has also placed
young children and hard to purchasing of games.
traditional media sources at risk.
Hesmondhalgh//Cultural Industries
the idea that cultural industry companies try to minimise risk and maximise audiences through vertical and horizontal
integration, and by formatting their cultural products (e.g. through the use of stars, genres, and serials)
the idea that the largest companies or conglomerates now operate across a number of different cultural industries
the idea that the radical potential of the internet has been contained to some extent by its partial incorporation into a large,
The Daily Mirror profit-orientated set of cultural industries
(newspaper): Straight Outta Compton (film): Humans (television): Zoella (online
Trinity Mirror group has Media conglomerate- film was Use of stars and celebrities- Colin media):
become a horizontally released alongside music albums, Morgan who played Leo was also in Uses horizontal
integrated company with a accessing multiple platforms and ‘Merlin’ and William Hurt who plays integration
wide range of titles in order therefore expanding the George is a well-known American through her
to maximise audiences and audience. actor multi-channel
minimise risks. They have Through the use of stars and Channel 4 and aMC- both have a network, also
embraced digital media and genre (biopic films) the film had reputation and established audience, uses vertical
now offer digital marketing an established audience reducing creating expectations but also integration
as well as digital classifieds risk and may have led to a larger reducing risks through her
to generate additional budget. Use of genre- established audience, manager Dom
income. The film has a low risk for the ‘Humans’ also breaks some Smales who
producers who are already conventions offering fresh content works at the
The Times (newspaper): successful in their own right. without scaring avid sci-fi watchers company Gleam.
Vertically and horizontally
integrated company with a
Late Night Woman’s Hour The Returned (television): Assassin’s Creed (video
wide range of titles in order
(radio): Horizontal integration- Canal+ games):
to maximise the size of the
The presenter of LNWH is purchased TPS as they were a The re-release of the game
audience and minimise
Lauren Laverne, an competitor to them, re- across different game consoles
risks. The company has
established personality, the establishing their role in the both minimised risk and
embraced digital media and
show also often includes market maximised potential
introduced paywalls to
guests and other celebrities, Vertical integration- Canal+ is audiences who could not
allow for online content to
the product is shaped via a vertically integrated access the game previously.
be viewed while still
these personalities. company
Albert Bandura//Media Effects
the idea that the media can implant ideas in the mind of the audience directly
the idea that audiences acquire attitudes, emotional responses and new styles of conduct through
the idea that media representations of transgressive behaviour, such as violence or physical
aggression, can lead audience members to imitate those forms of behaviour

Assassin’s Creed (video games):

Video games have often been blamed for aggressive
behaviour, for example, the Jamie Bulger case. They are
the one media source that is regularly criticised for the
assumed effect that over-exposure may have upon young
people’s behaviour. Some of this criticism stems from the
problem of regulating the industry and ensuring that
gamers are only playing games suitable for their age. In
video games, the player is more immersed in the action
and violence taking place. Assassin’s Creed can therefore
be applied as it is a video games containing a first-person
narrative and violence, which some may argue can lead
to aggression from the consumers.
Stuart Hall//Reception Theory
the idea that communication is a process involving encoding by producers and decoding by audiences
the idea that there are three hypothetical positions from which messages and meanings may be decoded:
–the dominant-hegemonic position: the encoder’s intended meaning (the preferred reading) is fully understood and
–the negotiated position: the legitimacy of the encoder’s message is acknowledged in general terms, although the message is
adapted or negotiated to better fit the decoder’s own individual experiences or context
–the oppositional position: the encoder’s message is understood, but the decoder disagrees with it, reading it in a contrary or
Tide (print): oppositional way Humans (television): The Returned (television):
Dominant- indirect mode of address The Times (newspaper): Preferred reading- synths Preferred reading- although
made by the woman suggests that her The Times is able to promote a negotiated are a negative idea it hurts to say goodbye, the
relationship with the product is of reading of its viewpoint on Trump’s victory Negotiated reading- we dead should remain dead
prime importance (Tide has what she through the use of encoding and decoding, should have some form Negotiated reading- religious
wants), this is the message the want to which is interpreted by the reader. of AI, but conscious connotations and the idea
be conveyed to the audience. synths shouldn’t be that Jesus resurrected may
Adbusters (magazine): exploited but also not cause religious watchers to
Water Aid (AV): Adbusters present a potentially have full human rights support the idea of the dead
Handheld camera shots make the controversial message and most of their Oppositional reading- coming back
audience feel like they are following content will have contrasting viewpoints, synths should be created Oppositional reading- some
Claudia and her story, this has been some may accept the message they are and conscious synths may see it as unrealistic and
constructed for us and is therefore the conveying about climate change etc, whilst deserve to be exploited therefore oppose the show
dominant view. The fact she has been some may disagree or only want to accept
named creates the preferred reading some elements.
that she is a real person and the
audience should invest in her narrative. Woman (magazine): Late Night Woman’s Hour (radio):
Preferred reading- historical reader that finds the articles The show does discuss some
helpful controversial topics which could lead to
The Daily Mirror (newspaper): Negotiated reading- historical reader that doesn’t find all people disagreeing with what is being
The Daily Mirror is able to promote a articles applicable, e.g. if they are not a mother, during the discussed. Due to the real elements of
hegemonic-dominant reading of its 1960s the second wave of feminism occurred which may the show including real people this may
viewpoint on Trump’s victory through have led to some contrasting views result in physical retaliation to the
the use of encoding and decoding, which Oppositional reading- modern reader may disagree with celebrities and guests on the show via
is fully accepted by the reader. the presentation of women social media.
Henry Jenkins//Fandom Theory
the idea that fans are active participants in the construction and circulation of textual meanings
the idea that fans appropriate texts and read them in ways that are not fully authorised by the media
producers (‘textual poaching’)
the idea that fans construct their social and cultural identities through borrowing and inflecting mass culture
images and are part of a participatory culture that has a vital social dimension

Humans (television): Zoella (online media):

Use of social media, forums, fan fiction, Zoe has fan art, fan fiction etc written for her
etc frequently, showing examples of textual
Fan-fiction acts as examples of textual poaching and allowing her audience to take
poaching as people create their own her content into their own hands. Zoella is
endings which are not suggested by the also imitated creating a subculture inspired
producers, the story is placed in the by her and her content.
hands of the fans
Assassin’s Creed (video games):
The Returned (television): Online fan communities and the importance of fan
There are forums, fan sites etc for the culture is significant for the gaming industry. Video
show where fans can discuss theories games offer social, collaborative experiences as part of
and endings as well as create their own game play and fan communities. Interaction in video
content. Similarly, to ‘Humans’ allowing games allows fans to construct their identities through
for textual poaching. the shared online gaming experience and the role-
playing environment. AC has a well-developed fan base
of core gamers who have been instrumental in the
development of the franchise.
Clay Shirky//End of Audience Theory
the idea that the Internet and digital technologies have had a profound effect on the relations between media and individuals
the idea that the conceptualisation of audience members as passive consumers of mass media content is no longer tenable in
the age of the Internet, as media consumers have now become producers who ‘speak back to’ the media in various ways, as
well as creating and sharing content with one another

The Daily Mirror (newspaper): Assassin’s Creed (video

The conceptualisation of Zoella (online media): games):
audience members as passive Through fan art and fanfiction, it is clear AC has a well-developed vocal
consumers is no longer that the audience has used their tools to fan base of care gamers that
tenable in the age of the respond with Zoe’s content. Zoe’s audience have been instrumental in the
internet with the rise of the was also seen ‘speaking back’ when The Sun development of the franchise
prosumer who can create their ran a salacious article about a relatively through shaping their views,
own content such as innocent image that Zoe posted on the devoted players ‘speak
submitting stories and being a snapchat, many defended the photo and back’ to the producers and
part of forums. began the hashtag westandwithzoe. help shape the product.

The Times (newspaper): Late Night Woman’s Hour (radio):

The conceptualisation of audience Radio, which was originally only on the radio, is
members as passive consumers is now accessible across multiple platforms offering
no longer tenable in the age of the new ways for consumers to consume the product,
internet with the rise of the expanding audiences. Audience members can now
prosumer who can create their also not be passive and can respond via social
own content such as submitting media and other platforms.
stories and being a part of forums.
Gerbner//Cultivation Theory
theory suggests that our exposure to television changes our perception of reality e.g. mean world syndrome is where we see
the world as worse than it is
two main concepts:
mainstreaming- people who watch more TV will be more influenced, especially if they have little first-hand knowledge on the
resonance- what we see on TV is intensified and does not reflect everyday life

Tide (print): The Daily Mirror (newspaper):

Advert from the 1950s, this theory from 1970s Audience exposure to repeated patterns of representation
explains some of the ways in which audiences (of Trump and his election campaign) by newspapers may
may be influenced by media texts. The advert shape and influence their views and opinions.
cultivates ideas that Tide is the leading washing
detergent and is a desirable product for the
female audience. The repetition of these The Times (newspaper):
messages convinces the audience member. Exposure to repeated patterns of representation (of
Trump and his election campaign) by newspapers can
shape and influence audience’s views and opinions.
Water Aid (AV):
Audience members may have become used to the
typical conventions of charity adverts, this new Adbusters (magazine):
design may impact the audience more as they are The more people read the magazine the more embedded the ideas
not immune to these codes. about saving the planet become in their minds, their online content
helps with this, constantly reiterating their points to convince their
consumers and any one that falls upon their content.
Woman (magazine):
Continuous viewing of this magazine may
reinforce gender norms about women and how Attitude (online media):
they belong in the house as house wives, some The repeated exposure of the views shown in ‘Attitude’
elements of how women are represented are still normalises the LGBTQ+ community in mainstream media.
evident now showing they have become the norm The inclusion of mainstream celebrities helps this and begins
and we are desensitised to it. the integration of the community within traditional media.