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WOMEN’S LIFE IN THE HAND OF AN ABUSER

A Research Paper

Presented to the

Faculty of College of International Relations

Lyceum of the Philippines University

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the course requirements for the

Degree in Bachelor of Arts in Foreign Service

By:

Ma.MikaelaKassandraAlmeda

BlezzleCazzenEspaldon

Nicolle Oblena

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Statement of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Significant of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Objective of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-9

Scope and Limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12

CHAPTER II THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

Review of Related Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-30

Theoretical Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..31

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

Research Design . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …….32

Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Data Gathering……... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..33

Research Locale………………………………………………………………….. …………………33

Questionnaires ………………………………………………………………………………………34

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND FINDINGS

AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-39

CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……40

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….. ……………………..40-41

Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …. 41

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-45

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Acknowledgement

A major research project like this is never the work of anyone alone. The contributions of many

different people, in their different ways, have made this possible. We would like to extend our sincerely

appreciation especially to the following:

To Jesus Christ, our Lord and Savior, for giving the wisdom, strength, support and knowledge in

exploring things; for the guidance is helping surpass all the trials that the researchers encountered and

for giving determination to pursue their studies and to make this study possible, "I can do everything

through him who give me strength." (Philippians 4: 13);

To Ms. Kristine Gail Lobo, for lending her time for giving opinions, suggestions and ideas for

improvement;

To the police officers and the participants who willingly shared the information and their

experiences to us;

Last but not least, we would like to thank our parents for their unconditional support, both

financially and emotionally throughout our research.

To the people who helped and contribute great ideas and advices, especially classmates and close

friends for without them, this study would not be possible. We greatly appreciated. The researchers

would like to extend the deepest gratitude.

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

“I call on men and boys everywhere to join us. Violence against women and girls will not be

eradicated until all of us – men and boys – refuse to tolerate it. – Ban Ki-Moon”

Violence is committed when a person uses his/her physical force over others resulting to injury

or damage towards them. Violence against women became a phenomenon worldwide through time

causing enormous impact not only in the life of the victims but also to their families, and societies.

That’s why different groups of people throughout the world think of possible ways to prevent violence

against women. Now, violence against women is considered a violation of human rights.

Women are the most common victims of violence rather than men and that is why the

researchers chose to study the experiences of abused women. Abuse or violence may come in different

forms such as physical violence, sexual, economic, threats, and psychological abuse. In this matter, the

researchers will be focusing on a case study on physical violence along with sexual and psychological

abuse committed by men against their wives/ women.

In the past, women have no rights at all, or if they do have, it is very limited. But as years go by,

women gain rights until they are treated equally to men. Now, women are highly regarded because of

their achievements in life. A number of women have been recognized in the fields of politics, arts,

education or even in government. Women in every sector of society particularly in the labor sector,

women have assumed various male dominated occupations. In spite of their participation in the labor

force, women still bear the responsibility to take care of their children, prepare meals for the family, and

doing household chores (UNICEF, 2010). Though women now have the same rights as what men have,

still, in some parts of the world, women are regarded as weaker than men. There is still a gap between

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men and women as to their rights and ways of living. Other cultures believe that the husbands “own”

their wives, and must be submissive to them.

In the Philippines, some people find it hard to accept the equality of women to men. Traditional

Filipino women concentrate only on taking care of their husbands and children. They are supposed to be

obedient to their husbands and let their husbands make important decisions. But today’s Filipino

women are now different; a majority of them are being recognized in different fields of work.

Women help their husbands in providing the basic needs of family by working abroad or

pursuing a career. But there is a perception that women are weak, helpless, and very dependent on

men. Thus, it does not come as a surprise if violence against women still persists; they remain vulnerable

into violence, with physical abuse as the most common among intimate partners.

Philippine National Police the armed, civilian, national police force of the Philippines. It is one of

the country's force who has the authority to implement safety and security of its jurisdiction. With the

continuous crimes that have been happening in our country, our Philippine National Police is someone

whom we can rely on to serve the justice we are seeking.

In our country, where VAW is one of the most common crimes which is being reported by

women who are subjected to different forms of abuse almost every day are being handled by the

women's desk. Reports are given immediate and adequate actions by the authorities to make sure that

these crimes and abuses are not to be done again by abusive men who have domination over their

partners. Furthermore, office like the Department of Justice and lower local authorities like the

barangays also give protection to the abused women by issuing of what is called the "Barangay

Protection Order.

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BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In the Philippines, VAW (Violence against Women) is one of the serious social problems. This

includes Physical abuse, Emotional Abuse, Psychological abuse, & Sexual abuse. Based on National

Demographic and Health Survey conducted by National Statistics Office in 2013, one out of five women

experience physical violence. One Fourth (1/4) or twenty-five percent (25%) of ever-married women

experienced physical abuse from their husbands/spouse and onlythirty percent (30%) of women who

reportedly have experienced physical violence sought assistance in response to the physical or sexual

violence they experienced.VAW remained a problem despite the implementation of Republic Act 9262,

also known as the Anti-Violence against Women and their Children Act of 2004. The protection of

women and children is embedded in section 2, which states:

“It is hereby declared that the State values the dignity of women and children and
guarantees full respect for human rights. The State also recognizes the need to protect
the family and its members particularly women and children,from violence and threats
to their personal safety and security.
Towards this end, the State shall exert efforts to address violence committed
against women and children in keeping with the fundamental freedom guaranteed
under the constitutions of the Provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights,the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other International human rights
instrumentsof which the Philippines is a party”.(Anti Violence against Women and their
Children Act of 2004, section 2)”

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study seeks to understand the challenges of abused women and how they cope with these

situations.Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:

1. How do abused women seek help from the women’s desk?

2. What are the usual actions or responses of the officer/s assigned in the station?

3. What hinders women from voicing out the abuses that they experience?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

As students of the Lyceum of the Philippines University- Manila, this study can help the students

to be aware that there is a “desk” assigned for women subjected to acts of violence. In connection to

our course, AB Foreign Service and with United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal #5 also known

as Gender Equality, we can relate our study to empower the women’s right and equality between men

and women. For future researchers, to provide them with a guide and basis to recommend solutions

that will lessen the incidents regarding this matter.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study on women’s experience against violence specifically aims to achieve the following:

1. To know how the officers address the complaints of abused women.

2. To find out the common types of abused that were complain in the women’s desk.

3. To know the reason behind the dilemma why they chose not to report or complain to women’s

desk.

4. Find out the government’s response towards the experiences of women on physical abuse.

5. To understand the experience of abused women who seek help from police officers.

6. To analyze the gaps between the police officers and the abused women.

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SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This study will focus on the topic about the case being reported by the abused women in

Bacoor, Cavite police station, women’s desk. The researchers also decided to look for certain situation if

there are some reported case similar to another. However, the researchers will not tackle issues

regarding the abuses committed to women that resulted to death.

The researchers will seek Informed consent to the officers in charge in handling the women’s

desk. Through this letter, the researchers will be able to introduce the research that they are conducting

and this will give an idea to the participants whether they will participate or not. If they chose to

participate, the researchers will make sure to anonymousthe participants since the study has a sensitive

topic, in order to protect their identity from being known by people.The researchers willalso treat the

participants with respect and courtesy.And aside from keeping our participants’ anonymity, the

researchers will also make sure to keep the information they’ve collected confidential.

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DEFINITION OF TERMS

The researchers decided to define the terms technically to better understand on how these

terms are use throughout the research:

1. Assault - by having force or threat of violence to women

- A crime of trying or trying to hurt someone physically especially

when it comes to women.

- a violent physical or verbal attack to women

2. Domestic Violence - actions or words which are intended to hurt a person usually

done at home.

- this is a habitual or usual pattern of such behavior

- The inflicting of physical injury by one family or familial member on

another.

3. GABRIELA - a woman’s national alliance which aims to protect the rights of the

women.

- This party wherein they are dedicated in promoting the rights and

important of every women in this world.

- This party seeks to harness the potential, initiative, skills, and

leadership of marginalized women towards empowerment, justice

and equality.

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4. BWS - short term for Battered Women Syndrome

- Also known as Battered Wife Syndrome

- A signs of mistreatment, injuries and set of symptoms seen in a

woman who has been abused repeatedly by a spouse, husband and

other relatives.

5. Abuse - excessive or improper use of something.

- Physical maltreatment of women

- Defined as the systematic pattern of behaviors in a relationship that

are used to gain and/or maintain power and control over another.

6. Battered - someone who is injured due to repeated form of violence.

- having suffered repeated violence from spouse, parent, or partner.

- Husbands that are behaving violently and abusively towards their

wives.

7. IPV - Intimate Partner Violence; physical aggression and violencethat

usually occurs between couple.

- Describes sexual, psychological and also physical affliction by a

current or former intimate partner.

8. Women’s desk - a part in a police station wherein women can file their complaints.

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9. Statutory Rape - “Statutory Rape is a laceration of penetration into the hymen of a

woman”

10. Inflagrante delicto - “caught in the act that he is committing a crime”

11. Medicolegal – medical certificate that indicates the physical condition of a person

who is subjected to injuries.

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CHAPTER II

A. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

1. Since then, violence committed to women gradually expanded as years passed by.

Women from different parts of the world are reportedly abused by their husbands or partners

due to financial problems and any other reasons may be on why they are being sadistic to their

partners. Violence against women began to draw attention as a serious problem in the late

1960’s and early 1970’s. Since then, the term violence against women has been used to describe

a variety of different behaviors, including emotional, sexual and physical assault; murder; genital

mutilation; stalking; sexual harassment and prostitution (Crowell & Burgees, 1996)

Physical violence against a partner, more often than not, is associated with

psychological abuse. In this case, woman who is physically abused also experience psychological

abuse because of the threats she receives from her partner. Woman may also feel belittled

because of the verbal attacks being thrown at her that causes public humiliation and criticisms

not only from the abuser himself but also from people around her leading her to feel

traumatized. “Psychological abuse may be equally as traumatic as physical abuse” (Walker,

2000).
2. The study on battered women cases show that woman battering occurs in lower and

middle class. It categorized the finding of rural and urban women in terms of physical, sexual,

and psychological abuse. This classification is largely consistent with that of Tong (1984), who

distinguishes among four forms of woman battering. Physical battering includes assaultive

behavior such as punching, kicking, choking, and burning. Sexual battering includes forced

sexual intercourse with violence or the threat of violence. Psychological battering refers to

consistent attacks on the self-esteem of women that often include intimidation and threats of

violence. It is the unidirectional flow of this emotional abuse and the duration of the abuse that

distinguishes it from occasional acts of emotional abuse engaged in by partners in most

cohabiting relationships. Tong argues that consistent psychological battering can throw the

recipient into a state of confusion because societal messages continually imply that the marital

bond should produce the most intimate and caring relationship of one’s life.

Lenore Walker (1984) describes the battered women as being more likely than no

battered women to believe in traditional sex role stereotypes. In addition, battered women may

have less confidence in their ability to make it on their own to leave his partner. The abuser is

more likely than non-abusive men to have grown up in a home where he has experienced or

witnessed abuse as a child. According to Walker (1984), battered women suffer from a condition

known as battered women syndrome whereby they assume the persona of the victim. They

suffer from learned helplessness, a trait that makes them increasingly submissive and

despondent.

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3. During the period between 60’s and 70’s, feminists scholars emerged and they started

to study the gender inequality. Feminism is the belief that men and women should have equal

rights and opportunities or just simply is the advocacy of women’s rights on the grounds of

political, social and economic equality to men. They found out that the main cause of abuse

against women is because of patriarchy. Patriarchy which means man is dominant in the family

and most likely, in the society. So, he has the power over women and children. He can also

control both of them. Man, battering or beating wife is part of their lives because wife is just

subordinate. And women being the subordinate, she must give or fulfill the needs of the

dominant, which is the man. The abuser must take control of their relationship even if he needs

to use force. It can be physical or verbal abuse or other in order for him to prove that he is the

dominant.

The feminists see abuse against women is mainly because of patriarchy but it isn’t.

Somehow, patriarchy just plays a role in abuse against women. But there are other possible

reasons why men tend to abuse women. Men have different way of thinking, they have unique

personality than others; their experienced were different from others. These can be some of the

factors why men tend to abuse women.

It is true that patriarchy and abuse against women are linked together but it does not

necessarily mean that all men abuses women. Though there are several men who battered their

wife, there are still a lot of men who don’t. During the past few years, different groups or

individuals from different places took actions on how to prevent and stop abuse from happening

all over again. Though there are a lot criminal and civil justice tools in regards to violence against

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women or their partner, most of the abuse woman chose not to seek help from police

and other institutions. Some tried to seek help and pursue a case in the court against the

abuser. Maybe not all, but most of them would not show up in the following proceedings. They

decided to stay because of some reasons and some reconciled with their partners. (Tracy, S.,

2007)

Some women decided to stay with her husband/partners because bringing up the topic

about them being separated might trigger her husband/partner to abuse her again. They chose

to stay because they are thinking that if ever they got separated, their husband/partner might

revenge on them. While those who try to seek for help but back-out after some time, they don’t

want to continue the court proceedings because they know that the protection order is not for

forever, it has limited time. And because pursuing the case will cost a lot of money. They would

rather be physically abuse with house to sleep and food to eat rather than nothing at all. But if

they decided to continue and fight for their rights, in the end, they are still not safe. Even if the

case is closed, it does not necessarily mean that the abused woman is now safe. There are still

possibilities that the abusers will harassed again their partners. (Payne, D. &Wermeling, L. 2009)

Women before were known for being tolerant, they are willing to do and accept what

their husbands says because before, their religion taught them to treat their partner as their

master. And for a long period of time, violence against women was being ignored by the police,

social workers and even on the court. They can’t do anything because they thought it was their

private life so they cannot meddle into it even if the woman was being abuse. They don’t even

protect or acknowledge the right of the women until in the 1960’s and 1970’s when the feminist

emerged. (Websdale, N., 1998)

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But sometimes, because of the long-term violence that the women endure, some

women killed their husband as an act of self-defense. It can be because of Battered Women

Syndrome. It is a mental disorder that can lead to a theory that called as “learned helplessness”.

In this, because there is no one helping them, women think that the violence will never stop and

they will start to believe it. This made them tolerant about the abuse and made them stay in

that battering relationship that they have. Learned Helplessness theory explains why the

women killed her husband is because for them, they see it as the last option they have to

stop their abusive husband to continue abusing her.

Victims who survive often experience long lasting harms: emotional and psychological

trauma, post traumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems, substance abuse

problems, poor reproductive health and physical injury (Campbell et al, 2002). Because of the

experiences that women had in the hands of their abusive partners, they often lead to serious

mental health problems, which in some cases are too hard to be given medication especially in

the part when the victim refuses to share or somehow voice out her experiences in the fear that

her partner might use it again against her. Thus, hitting the victim in her private parts, whether

intentionally or accidentally often leads to severe reproductive health problems. (Johnson, H.,

Ollus, N., &Nevala, S., 2008)

4. Various national and international communities have addressed women's issues and

taken various efforts to empower them so as to enhance their social and health status and

involve them in developmental activities. Empowerment as delegation of power to someone has

been a mechanism to increase personal and work life quality of woman in recent

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decades. Higher education and occupation is effective instrument to empowerment of women

but culture role and creativity can’t be denied in this relation. Knowledgeable, passionate, and

organized woman can collectively dispel the myths used to rationalize gender differences.

Women have an obligation to help the women who come after them. Change will not happen

without women persevering in their professional lives to end gender imbalances.

5. The researchers added about the Provision that is written in our Student Handbook in

Lyceum of the Philippines University which is connected to our study: Provisions against Sexual

Harassment. The Provision of the Student handbook said that the LPU is committed to the

prevention of sexual harassment of any member of the community. Wherein, Sexual

harassment refers to any unwanted sexual attention that is explicitly or implicitly made a

condition for favorable decisions affecting one’s school standing, or which creates an

intimidating, hostile or offensive environment in the school. Meaning cases of Sexual

Harassment are covered by the implementing guidelines of the Anti-Sexual harassment Act of

1995. An ad hoc committee will conduct the investigation of alleged cases constituting sexual

harassment and will recommend any course of action that may be called for an investigation. On

this provision it says that the State shall value the dignity of every individual, enhance the

development of its human resources, guarantee full respect for human rights, and uphold the

dignity of workers, employees, applicants for employment, and students of those undergoing

training, instruction or education. Toward this end, all forms of sexual harassment in the

employment, education or training are hereby declared unlawful.

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6. Women’s rights are the fight for the idea that women should have equal rights with

men. Before women have no rights to vote that was called Women suffrage. The movement’s

originators used the term “Woman Suffrage” to refer to the enfranchisement of women as a

whole. It was meant to make the point that suffrage was a gendered category, that what people

thought as a suffrage did not consist in the aggregation of individuals’ right to vote. The

nineteenth century gender system was threatened by women’s demands for suffrage rights.

During the 19th and 20th centuries, the battle for women's vote has followed the development

of democracies in which public power depended on the outcome of voting. The struggle in the

United States was not the only suffrage campaign, but the American and British woman suffrage

campaigns are the best-known and were influential in winning the vote elsewhere.

7. Women's history has always been closely linked with contemporary feminist politics as

well as with changes in the discipline of history itself. In America, women’s month was always

celebrated with them. During women’s month they honor the countless women who sacrificed

and strived harder to ensure all people have an equal shot at pursuing the American dream. On

the Philippines, the researchers found out that we also have our own supported group about

women called: Women’s Liberation Movement or simply Feminism that are primarily concerned

with making social, political, and economic status of women equal to that of men. Also,

Women’s Liberation Movement is a feminist group for women who want to fight back against

male supremacy and win more freedom for women. Feminism has won important footholds and

significant gains for women in crucial areas of our lives, but the need for this fight continues.

Strengthened by what we have learned in battles won and lost, we are ready for another assault

on male supremacy. The researchers believe the leadership and ideas of women of color are

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central to the struggle going forward. The researchers oppose racism. So, they believe women

as a class will never be free as long as any part of our class is not free.

8. In a journal made by Andrea Den Boer, she explained the connection between an

abused women’s right and women’s security in a larger basis, specifically on land ownership that

has a positive effect on women’s physical security.

9. The right of women to suffrage was made possible here in the Philippines in the year

1937 during the administration of the late President Manuel Quezon. Article V of the 1935

Constitution that limited the right to vote to men set a condition that suffrage may also be

extended to Filipino women if 300,000 of them will vote in favor of the motion in a special

plebiscite to be held within two years after the adoption of the Constitution. In the election held

on December 14, 1937, women casted their first votes and were allowed to run for a public

positions.

10. With the statistical data gathered by the UN in the year 2015, around 1/3 of the women

across the world experienced violence. Only 10 percent of women who experienced physical or

sexual abuse sought police help or assistance and others only looked for their family’s or friends’

help.

11. The Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

is a treaty which is made by the United Nations to set up an agenda that will end the

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discrimination against women from around the world. In a journal made by SharifahShahirah,

she focuses on the concept of regional-global network by understanding CEDAW in the ASEAN

countries and how they are implementing it.

12. In 1984, a large number of women from different places, artist, poor, worker, middle

class - marched together and unite against the Marcos dictatorship because they wanted

economic and political change. That’s when the Gabriela started. Gabriela came from Gabriela

Silang, who is an icon to the Filipina women from the 18th century.

Gabriela launched a party list called “Gabriela Women’s Party” and it was founded on

October 28, 2000. It is the biggest alliance of women’s organization here in the Philippines that

promote the rights and welfare of Filipino women through participating in the electoral arena.

And for 20 years, Gabriela, with an important position in Philippine women’s movement have

experienced and learned a lot.

In 2001, Gabriela participates in the country’s electoral system and Liza Maza run as the

party list representative. They passed pro-women legislation like the anti-Trafficking in Persons

Act and the Anti-Violence against Women and Children Act. Gabriela Women’s Party ranked 7th

out of 66 in the national party list election in 2004 while in 2007, they ranked 4 th place in

national partylist election. This set as a proof of its continuing success.

There are over 100, 000 members throughout the Philippines and Filipinos abroad. And

Gabriela Women’s Party will continue to protect the country as well as the rights of women and

children through conducting different activities.

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13. Last year of October 5, 2015, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon appointed Heidi

Mendoza, a commissioner of the Philippines' Commission on Audit (COA), as the new

undersecretary general of the UN’s Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) for a five-year

non-renewable term. It is stated in OIOS’s website, she will assist the UN secretary-general

“through the provision of audit, investigation, inspection and evaluation services.”

Before she was appointed as the undersecretary general of (OIOS), she served

Commission on Audit (COA) for 2 decades and was appointed as a commissioner by President

Aquino in March 2011. She also worked as the Chairperson of the Audit Committee on Public

Sector Auditing Standards Board as well as External Auditor for the Food and Agriculture

Organization (FAO), International Labour Organization (ILO) and World Health Organization

(WHO). She served the government for 20 years and she specialized in different aspects like

anti-corruption, investigation, integrity advocacy, audit and fraud examination that made her a

certified public servant.

14. Ms. Sri Rumiati, an Indonesian woman who wanted to join the police had to take several

tests as a requirement for you to be part of the police, including virginity test. Ms. Rumiati said it

was humiliating and uncomfortable. It can also traumatize those who undergo such tests.

She campaigned to abolish taking virginity tests for the women. And after Human Rights

Watch (HRC) condemned the practice, it was officially abolished last year. Though it was already

ended, in the new tests, the chief medical officer of Jakarta’s metropolitan police, Dr. Musyafak

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said that doctors are examining the cadet to see if the cadet’s hymen is intact. Female doctors

conduct the tests if there are available, but if there’s no female doctor like in rural provinces,

they have no choice but to be examined by a man.

There are 2 assumptions behind these tests. First, probing the hymen of the women can

tell if she’s still a virgin. Second, women who are still virgins make better police officers because

they are moral. And both of these assumptions were wrong. Taking those tests won’t reveal

about a woman’s sexual history.

These can be the reasons why there are few policewomen in Indonesia. And this makes it

difficult for women to go to police station and report for domestic violence or rape because they

might not understand. There was an incident last year, when a woman reported that her

husband was abusing her. She spent 5 months in jail because she defamed her husband.

15. Violence against women and children has a widespread effect because it does not only

affect the life of the women, but also her family and those who surrounds her. That’s why we

need to eradicate the gender-based social structures, public or private, that tolerates the

inferiority of women and the superiority of man, which they think, give them the power to

harass or threat the women. And every state must do an action on how to prevent violence or

what will be the punishment for the violators.

But in the recent decades, different Conference has been made that pertains to

“Violence against Women and Children.” Aside from conference, there’s also Convention on the

Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), UN Declaration on the

Elimination of Violence against Women, and Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and

Eradication of Violence against Women – these Declarations, treaties, and Conventions are

made to protect human rights specifically violence against women and children.

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Gender-based violence affects everyone. It doesn’t matter if you’re rich or poor, whether you’re

young or old, well educated or not, wherever you live, whatever is your religion. It can affect

everyone, and the effect of these is serious to the extent that the women or children may even

die. We can only stop these from continuing if the relationship of men and women will be based

on peace, equality, justice and respect.

16. Violence in the home is one social issue that cuts across all socioeconomic, racial, ethic,

gender and age boundaries." (Einhorn, 1992, p.25) In all types of family, you can find abuse and

neglect and interpersonal relationships. Violence can be committed in the form of physical and

emotional abuse. In history, there is a trace of mistreatment between family members

documented across centuries. Multidisciplinary perspective is one of the best way yo explain

abusive families.

17. Mezey, Post, and Maxwell (2002) study the relationship between age, and physical

violence, and non-physical violence. They wanted to find out if the number of physical violence

against older women is lower than other age. They found out that age is not related to physical

abuse and that older women who were abused have similar rates to the younger women.

18. Jordan (2002) pointed out that there is an assumption that women police officers will

respond actively to the rape complaints by the women instead of the policeman. The research

study found out that in 48 complainants of sexual assaults and rape who are all women, most of

them suggested on how both men and women should reached out on the abused women like

them. As the result of the study, it showed that gender was not a factor of complainant

satisfaction but rather the qualities of the policemen or policewomen possessed. Some of the

24
qualities that the complainants desired were warmth, professionalism, and sensitivity. Though

some of the complainants still preferred women officers, this study suggests that policemen

should be sensitive on the interviewers and also, being a woman does not necessarily mean that

they possessed the qualities desired by the complainants. This simply means that police should

not only provide policewomen but trained and experienced police officers.

19. There are many different policies and laws protecting women from violence. But the

rate of abused women continued to tell us that these policies might not be that effective. In the

recent studies showed that the victims continue to feel traumatized dealing with the attitudes

and practices of the response team. Some of the victims experienced things like the police

officers would not believe on what she had said or they blamed her for what happened to them.

These actions and attitudes of the police can affect the victim without even knowing it.

One of the solutions made was to train criminal justice system personnel like police, lawyers,

etc. on removing barriers to develop appropriate response to the victim of domestic violence. As

a result, police officer must understand first the problem and impact that will be made. More

knowledge about the problem can help the officers to respond to the victims effectively.

20. In the past, if there are domestic violence reported to the police departments, most of

the police officers would suggest counseling or separation because they discourage arresting the

abuser at that time. Unlike before, the abusers’ offenders will be arrested even if there is no

warrant because nowadays, there are different laws that protect women. It was found in the

different studies that battered women were not satisfied with the help of the police, though

most of the battered women seek for the help of the police. The battered women were not

satisfied because they wanted the police officers to not blame them on what happened towards

25
them but instead, show more compassion, and believed on what they said. As a result of the

study, police should improve their community satisfaction by training the police officers and by

implementing their policy well.

21. The development of modern ‘professional’ policing in the nineteenth century was an

extremely important social innovation, but one that failed to include women. Female policewere

first appointed in a sprinkling of locations in the early decades of the twentieth century. Further

expansion occurred during the First World War, largely due to labour shortages (Brown and

Heidensohn, 2000; Jackson, 2006). Appointments continued on a piecemeal basis as the century

progressed, and often comparatively late. Pioneer female officers were usually limited to very

small numbers within women police units, working predominantly as assistants to male

detectives.

The ‘women police movement’ of the early-twentieth century was only successful in

creating a very small space for female officers by making their role an extension of social welfare

work. Women police were often unsworn, appointed on lower pay rates, without any rank

structure and without a pension scheme, and they were subject to dismissal if they married

(Prenzler, 2002). The entry and expansion of women police was, in general, fiercely opposed by

police managers and police union leaders. On the job, women were often undermined by

colleagues’ lack of support, by sexual harassment, and by discrimination in deployment and

promotion (Hunt, 1990; Brown and Heidensohn, 2000). The male monopoly on police work was

supportedby powerful stereotypes about the nature of police work and intrinsic gendered traits.

Policing was seen as requiring symbolic authority and physical force that only males could

exercise. These myths were perpetrated despite research in the 1970s and ’80s indicating that

women police were as effective as men on most performance measures, and generally better at

26
diffusing conflict, and that there was strong public support for women police (Lunneborg, 1989).

From the 1970s, integration was imposed on police by equal opportunity legislation, but female

quotas were frequently retained until police managers were forced to abandon them by

litigation (Martin and Jurik, 2007). Legislation was then often subverted through the application

of military-style obstacle course tests in recruitment and more subtle forms of discrimination on

the job (Dick and Cassell, 2002; Dick and Hyde, 2006; Lonsway et al., 2002; Silvestri, 2003).

22. Policing can offer secure and stimulating work for women, with diverse career

opportunities, and with increasing opportunities for flexible employment. The presence of

women police also provides an alternative contact point for victims of crime confronted by the

well-documented insensitivity of many male police (National Center for Women and Policing,

2002). The employment of women police involves a variety of benefits, which have frequently

been denied or underestimated. Equity in policing supports the global mission to create genuine

equality and independence for women, including through employment and better delivery of

social services (United Nations, 2009).Policing can offer secure and stimulating work for women,

with diverse career opportunities, and with increasing opportunities for flexible employment.

The presence of women police also provides an alternative contact point for victims of crime

confronted by the well-documented insensitivity of many male police (National Center for

Women and Policing, 2002). Policy makers need to guard against ‘gender essentialism’ in

promoting feminized policing (Valenius, 2007), and equal opportunity should remain the

primary rationale for promoting police careers to women. At the same time, there is a strong

argument that female victims of crime, in particular, should have access to female officers

(Natarajan, 2008). The research evidence is also fairly strong in showing that increased female

participation in policing will lead to reduced complaints and reduced misconduct e including less

27
reliance on the use of force (Corsianos, 2011; National Center for Women and Policing, 2002).

There is also potential for women police to make a major contribution to improving security and

prosperity in developing nations through participation in peacekeeping missions and as part of

the professionalization of Indigenous policing (UN-INSTRAW, 2007; UNDP, 2007).

23. The term ‘‘empowerment’’ has been overused, misused, and co-opted (Stromquist,

2002; Stacki and Monkman, 2003). It is commonly deployed as a synonym for enabling,

participating, and speaking out.The idea of power as capacity is at the core of the

conceptualization of empowerment, where the researchers view women’s empowerment as a

process through which women come to recognize their inherent worth, their ‘‘power within’’

(Kabeer, 1994:229), and begin to participate on equal termswithmen in efforts to dismantle

patriarchy and promote social and economic development. Women’s empowerment is not an

end in and of itself, but a pivotal step towards establishing gender equality. In part, gender

equality is manifest through a just and equitable sharing of responsibilities by men and women.

Gender equality is not synonymous with gender parity, and does not mean that men and

women are the same or need to split work exactly in half. Rather, it characterizes social

conditions and relationships in which a vision of mutuality and cooperation shapes interactions

and enables men and women to reach their full potential (hooks, 2000).

24. The occupational environment of the police officer is often a risky and dangerous one,

as well as ambiguous. In order to cope with this atmosphere, officers adopt certain attitudinal

beliefs and behaviors. To combat the dangerous violence that may occur, officers use aggressive

law enforcement tactics (Brown, 1988; Reuss-Ianni, 1983). Officers adhering to the traditional

police subculture will adopt a strictly crime-fighting view of their role. This attitude constitutes

28
selectively performing duties, using coercion over and aggression towards citizens, and rejecting

any other job descriptions such as those that might reflect community policing. The use of

aggressive law enforcement tactics and a coercive authority over citizens is linked to an

authoritarian personality of officers that spills over into other parts of their lives.

25. Domestic violence has historically been considered a minor offense, and hence subject

to responding officer’s discretion (Fagan, 1996; Hirschel et al., 2007; Sherman and Berk, 1984).

In addition to the bias against its seriousness, complexity issues exist in various aspects of police

response to domestic violence. Given both extra-legal factors in police behavior and the

complexities in domestic violence, line officers as street-level bureaucrats cannot help but exert

a substantial amount of discretion for arrest decisions (Cross and Newbold, 2010).Police

enforcement would not deviate from the consensus in the society (i.e. law) which warrants the

legitimacy of police behavior.Police share the power with the majority group because the locus

of consensus is the source of legitimacy of their enforcement. The demographic and socio-

economic relations between offender and victim define the direction of crime, and the direction

determines the seriousness.

26. Although historically the police response to (VAW) Violence Against Women has been

one of under enforcement (Pleck, 1987; Roy, 1977; Stark, 1993; Walker, 1985), a dramatic

change in the way the police respond to violence has occurred during the last two decades. The

literature identifies several factors that have influenced the formulation of current policies

regardingthe violence (Buzawa and Buzawa, 1993; Feder, 1997; Klinger, 1995; Parnas, 1993;

Sherman, 1992; Steinman, 1991). First, beginning in the 1970s, the women's movement and

various advocate groups brought domestic violence to the forefront of the US public's attention.

29
These groups argued for an increase in the use and severity of criminal sanctions against

domestic offenders. In 1982, due to the extensive lobbying efforts of these groups, 27 state

legislatures repealed ``the common law ban on police making warrantless arrests for domestic

assaults they did not witness'' (Sherman, 1992, p. 53).Themobilization of numerous public

resources to help deal with the Violence Against Women (VAW) problem also occurred during

this time. Battered women's shelters were opened and soon filled to capacity (Okun, 1986). In

addition, the availability and use of restraining orders increased, and numerous counseling and

preventive programs were developed.

27. The belief in policewomen’s greater suitability for dealing with women clients of the

police has been extended in recent times. The concept of the police client has been expanded

from the offenders to the victims of crime, as police departments internationally responded to

the impact of consumerism and the quest for enhanced customer satisfaction with service

delivery (Walklate. 2001). Service delivery itself is a relatively new concept, signifying a shift, in

rhetorical emphasis at least, from police “force” to police “service” as police departments

around the world sought to re-establish their legitimacy in the aftermath of mounting public

criticism and dissent (Reiner, 1992: Walklate, 2001). Within the criminal justice system

generally, pressure to recognize the rights and need of crime victims has assumed increasing

significance (Doerner and Lab, 1995), as reflected in legislation designed to establish principles

which agencies should adhere to in responding to such victims. As the gatekeepers to the justice

system, the police women are pivotal in their ability to influence which offenses are recorded,

investigated, and passed through to the court system.

30
Theoretical Framework

The Feminism Theory describes gender equality between men and women predominantly in

terms of political, cultural, social and economic movement that has the aim to promote legal protection

for women. Nevertheless, though we live in a society wherein women are now being recognized for

their contributions in different fields, we cannot deny the fact that they are still being degraded for their

capacities to share their capabilities. With this, violence committed to women is considered to be one of

those reasons why gender equality cannot be totally observed. As stated by Sally Peck, “Feminism

means equality between men and women, and we’re not there yet” (Peck, 2016). VAW begins when a

partner or husband starts to lay hands, drop painful and sexual words to their partners. Recent findings

state that VAW usually occurs in the lower class families because of different reasons which may include

the limited resources for their daily lives, partners or husbands may have mental illness or personality

disorder. Moreover, this is also true for some middle class families with a good livelihood as well. A

greater awareness of the complexities of the patterns of violent relationships will also improve targeting

by intervention programs and thus, improve allocation of funding and other resources. (Jasinski, 2001)

31
CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

One of the most talked about issues of today is violence committed against women. In the

Philippines, VAW has been a serious issue in which government and other institutions for women try to

provide sufficient and effective laws that will guarantee their safety and protection.

Research Design

Considering the topic that the researchers chose, a qualitative kind of study will be used to

conduct the study. This qualitative study is concerned with the response of the participants in the

questionnaires prepared by the researchers.

A qualitative method is mostly inductive which means that the method is not to test but to

discover which leads to methods such as interviews. In comparison, the deductive method is related to

the use of the quantitative method where a more scientific approach to the research (Padgett 1998).

With the increasing cases about VAW, the researchers led to choosing this kind of topic to raise

people’s awareness on this kind of issue especially women that are in the brink of experiencing different

forms of violence or abuse by their partners.

32
A. Data Gathering

Considering the tight and differences in the schedule of the researchers, they maximized

their time to gather data and information at the library of the Lyceum of the Philippines

University and at the Bacoor City, Cavite Police Station. The researchers also maximized the use

of the World Wide Web and all other related books and articles and journals which are related

to their chosen topic.

Making all this content valid and reliable for the study, it combined modern technology

and personal connections.

B. Research Instrument

The data would be collected through research from books, articles, journals and

websites. Data will also be gathered in the form of following properties:

I: Interview/ in- depth interview

II: Questionnaires

III: Theories

C. Research Locale

The researchers were able to collect information from Bacoor City, Cavite.

33
Questionnaire:

1. What are the crimes committed on women by their partner/husband?

(Ano-

anonguringkrimenangkalimitangnararanasan/ginagawasamgababaengkanilangasawa/kinakasama?)

2. What are your usual actions and responses to the crime?

(Anoanginyongkaraniwangtugonsaaksyonsanasabingkrimennanangyari?)

3. Have you followed-up to the committed crimes?

(Sinusubaybayannyobaangmgakrimennanirereklamo?)

4. In every month, how many victims reach out to the women’s desk to report their case?

(Saloobngisangbuwan, gaanokaramiangmgababaenglumalapit at humihingingtulongsainyong

women’s desk upangiulatangnangyaring pang aabuso o krimensakanila?)

5. Among the crimes reported, were there instances wherein the abusers are being detained? How?

(Samganaiulatnakrimenlabansa pang aabuso, may mgapagkakataonba kung

saannakukulongangmganangabusosamgakababaihan?Paano?)

6. Have you done something in order to protect the victim?

(Anoanginyongnagawaupangmaprotektahanangbabaenginabusolabansakanilangasawa/kinakasama

?)

34
Chapter IV

Results and Findings

The purpose of this study is to know how officers address the complaints of the abused women.

It further examines what are the common types of abuse that were complains in the women’s desk.

Lastly, to know the reason

The researchers were able to gather data and information at the library of Lyceum of the

Philippines University. Moreover, further data were collected with the help and cooperation of the

Bacoor City, Cavite Police Officer(s) who assisted and answered the questions addressed by the

researchers.

One of the most common types of abused being done to women is the statutory rape.

According to the officer who assisted us “Statutory Rape is a laceration of penetration into the hymen of

a woman.” Also, some reports include that they are being hit or attack by their partners or husband like

being punched specifically in the eyes and abdomen. Because of the immediate response being done by

the police officer, suspects are being apprehended immediately especially if there are material

evidences. He also stated that, “There is a so called in flagrante delicto, which means caught in the act

that he is committing a crime. That has three types. Has committed, actually committing or is about to

commit an offense.” (If there is a so called in flagrante delicto, ibigsabihin caught in the act na he is

committing a crime. Kasitatloyan, about to commit a crime, actually committing.) Regular firing or direct

firing is another course of action. Usually, police women follow up the reports addressed to them by

investigating the crime scene to confirm that an incident, like sexual harassment, sexual abuse and the

like really happened in that area. Evidence and a witness must be presented to the prosecutor, because

if none, the case will be dismissed. Moreover, in the case of the VAW, women undergo in the so called

35
“Medico legal”. The Philippine General Hospital is the only authorized hospital who is allowed to

conduct the medical examination on the abused victim. He also added that “If medico legal is done by

the private hospitals, you can never know if the judge or the person being reported to has a connection

with them and they might bribe the officials to amend the result that will favor them.” (Halimbawaikaw,

huwag naman mangyari, ni-rapeka, kailangan may medico legal kagalingsa PGH. PGH langkasiang

authorized representative o ospitalnapedeng mag conduct ng medico legal at doonmolangmalalaman

kung may laceration, penetration or there is a sexual abuse within a man and a woman. Dun

nilamalalaman, kasikungpupuntasilasa private, hindipaniniwalaanngmgahusgado. Alamnyokung bakit?

Bakamamayakakilalanyoyunghusgado.Kahitwalang penetration nanangyayari, sasabihinna may

nangyari. O di ba? Kaya mayroonkamingtinatawagna authorized hospital, yung PGH lang. Silalangyung

authorized ospitalnamagconductng medical examination. Silalangangawtorisadongmagbibibgayng

medico legal paramapatunayan kung may rape na nangyari.) With regards to detaining the abuser, the

officersaid that they will automatically imprison the abuser after they heard the complaint filed by

abused. They can arrest the abuser even if there is no warrant of arrest presented. However, if the

suspect escaped even though there is already a filed case, he will be in the wanted list and after one to

two weeks, there will be a preliminary investigation to answer the accusations thrown to the abusers.

The most common action done by the police officers to protect the victim is by requesting a

protection from the Department of Justice. The victim will be listed in the DOJ’s Protection Program. The

police officer also added that under the Philippine’s Family Code, the custody of the children, who are

minors, will be in their mother because as of now, there is still no law that states that the custody of the

child is being grant to the father. “A father’s only duty is to raise and earn for his family” (Angtatay ay

gawain langnamanniyan ay magtaguyod at magtrabahoparasakanyangpamilya.) the police added.

36
A so-called “Barangay Protection Order” is an order which limits the abuser or the father to visit

the house of his wife and children every day. There should only be a specific time that he is allowed to

visit his family.

The researchers also found another woman who is willing to share her story in the case of

abused. According to (Ashley), she stated that she experienced an abuse from her boyfriend before. “At

first, I was not expecting that our relationship will go further on that kind of situation”.(Hindi

kotalagainexpectnungunanamapupuntasapisikalnasakitanyung relationship namin.) Ashley did not

expect that her boyfriend will use his power to dominate her. She also stated that “The first time

wefought, it was the start when he used his hands onme. I had scratches and wounds in every part of

my bodycaused by the heavy hands of him” (Yung unangbeses kami na nag away, yunnapalayung start

nasasaktanniyaako. Angdamikongpasa at kalmot noon saiba’tibang parte

ngkatawankodahilngasapananakitniyasa akin.)Furthermore, Ashley’s boyfriend is a very possessive guy,

meaning that he must know all the moves and actions of Ashley because if not,that is the sign that they

will fight again. “There was not a day that we will not fight and not a week will pass that I will not have

any bruises in my body” (Hindi talagalilipasangisangaraw noon na hindi kami nag aaway at

hindililipasanglinggonawalaakongpasa o di kaya sugat.)Each passing day, she endured the pain he

caused her. All she did was cry. There was not a day that she would not cry. “The worst thing that he had

done to me before was, we were fighting that day. With what he has been doing, I couldnot handle it

anymore so I sat down on the floor. He was kicking me and asking me to stand up because he thinks that

what I am doing is embarrassing. He was slapping me repeatedly while we were walking. When we

reached the corner of the room, he choked me. My vision went black and I almost passed out.” (Pinaka

worst naginawaniyasa akin noon, nag aaway kami that day. Dahilsobranaangginagawaniya,

napauponalangakosa floor tapossinisipaniyaako at pinapatayo kasi nakakahiyanadawyungginagawako.

So habangnaglalakad kami, sinasampalniyaakongsinasampal.Nungnandoonna kamisapinakasulokng

37
room, sinakalnyaako.Nagdilimnaangpaninginko at muntiknaakonghimatayin.) However, she said that

“Idid not do anything about it. I was not able to report it because I was scared. I was scared of what

might happen to me and to him.” (Walaakongnagawa.Hindi

akonakapagsumbongkasinatatakotako.Natatakotakonabaka may hindimagandangmangyarisa akin at

sakanya.)Ashley also said that she stayed and waited for the day that he would stop abusing her

physically, but he did not. Until the day had come, Ashley already proved to herself that this guy was not

meant for her because of his stupid attitude and it was already clear in her mind that she does not

deserve that kind of relationship.

Since the researchers want to maximize more their study, they found another woman (Dolores)

who was abused by his ex-husband. Dolores, who had the same experience as Ashley, willingly shared

her experience to us. “There are some days when I will go home from the market without having an

income to provide for our food. My husband, who is unemployed and is allegedly using drugs, will beat

and slap the hell out of me.” (May

mgaarawnauuwiakogalingpalangketaposwalaakongkitakasiwalabumibilingpanindako kaya

walakamingpangkain. Kapagganon, sasampalin at babanatanakongasawako kasi syempre,

walanamansiyangtrabaho at wala din siyasyemprengpanggamitngshabu.)The most serious act his

husband used to her is whenever he is drunk. “When he is drunk, I am starting to get scared. He will

choke me using his belt. He will not stop until he sees my skin changes into red or darker than my

complexion. It has always been like that. He will sometimes beat me, which results to bruises around my

face and mouth.” (Kapagnalalasingnasiya, natatakotnaako. Sasakalinniyaakogamityungsintronnya at

hindiniyaakotitigilang sakalin hangganghindiniyanakikitananag kukulay pula na ako o nangingitim na.

Palagisiyangganon.Minsan,babanatanniyaakokaya magkakaroonakongpasasamukha at sabibig.)

However, the only difference they have is that, she reported to the police. “Of course I was really

scared. I did not want to stay quiet because he might hurt our children too. So what I did, I reported to

38
the authorities. I know I am not financially capable, so what the police did, they coordinated with our

barangay captain so he can issue me a Barangay Protection Order.” (Syemprenatakotako noon. Hindi

akonanahimiklangkasibakapatimgaanaknamin eh saktan din niya. Angginawako, nagreportakosapulis.

Alamko namannawalangakamingperakaya angginawangmgapulis,

nakipagtulungansilasakapitanngaming barangayparamabigyan kami ng Barangay Protection Order.) In

this Barangay Protection Order, her ex-husband is only allowed to visit his family every weekend and

with a maximum of two hours on his every visit. This order is still being observed until now according to

Dolores to maintain the father’s communication to his children.

39
Chapter V

Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations

Summary

In the Philippines, VAW (Violence against Women) is one of the social problems that the nation

faces. With the continuous and immediate response by the police officers which includes following up of

the cases and coordinating with the barangay captain, cases being reported by the victims are being

accommodated and are given initial response. Usually, the common types of abused being reported are

slapping, choking and punching by the partner to their wife. Some women chose not to report their case

to the authorities in the fear that their partner might come after them but others are brave enough to

seek help so they can live in peace without a fear that such case will occur again and will give them

nightmares. Different forms of protection and responses are given to the victims by the authorities in

order to prevent such kind of incidents to occur again. The Department of Justice issues protection order

to the victim if they wish to. Interviews with the police officers who are in-charge in the women’s desk

where the researchers collected primary dataand with the help of the participants who willingly shared

their stories to the researchers were also conducted to gather information that will be used to complete

the study.

Conclusion

With information gathered by the researchers, though they were not able to get the statistical

data of how many cases were filed every month because the police women said it is very confidential

and cannot be seen by anybody, the researchers were able to see how many women were seeking for

40
help in the women’s desk in Bacoor, Cavite. The researchers werealso able to find out that many women

were abused by their partners/husband but not all cases were reported to the police because of their

personal reasons.However, those cases that were reported were immediately responded by the police

with necessary actions. And if they were able to prove that the women were abused, she will undergo

protection program while the case is going on.

This research study is important because there are a lot of women who are being abused by

their partner/husband but not all were given justice. The researchers wanted to help other women who

are not aware that there are institutions like the women’s desk that is located in every police station,

which is subjected to help women in such cases.

The researchers believe that there should be gender equality between men and women that is

why theory of feminism is use to support the study. Years may have passed and although women in this

generation are being recognized for the contributions that they share, we still cannot deny the fact that

many of them are being to subjected to the inequality that this cruel society has especially in the

Philippines where we live which is considered to be a least developing country.

The assumption of this theory

Recommendation

The following recommendations are offered for related research in the future:

1. For the future researchers, to gather statistical data from the police women’s desk on how many

abuses were reported to them.

2. To know more of how police officers address the complaints of the abused.

3. To raise awareness on women that there are order/s such as the Barangay Police Order.

41
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