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AR 6141

ARSITEKTUR,
BUDAYA DAN
PEMBANGUNAN
WIWIK D PRATIWI

TUGAS 01

michael lengkey 25209009


AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

GREEK PORT CITIES IN TRANSITION :


REGENERATION STRATEGIES, WATERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF CULTURAL
AND TOURIST RESOURCES
KARACHALIS NICHOLAS, Ph.D. Candidate, Departemen of Economic and
Regional Development of Panteion University at Athens, Scientific
Collaborator of the Regional Development Institute of Panteion University

KYRIAZOPOULOS EVANGELOS, Ph.D. Scientific Collaborator of the


Regional Development Institute of Panteion University

source :
http://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?start=20&q=waterfront+investment+culture&hl=en&as_sdt=2000
(http://www-sre.wu-wien.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa06/papers/714.pdf)
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

PORT
CITY
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

DEFINISI
waterfront city : - the land of city/town alongside a body of water (www.allwords.com)
- the area of a town or city alongside a body of water (www.dictionary.com)
kota tepian air : - kota yang berada di pinggiran badan air

klasifikasi sumber air antara lain : laut, sungai dan danau

KONTEKS

Kota Tepian Air (Waterfront City)

pelabuhan (port/harbour)
identik penekanan / emphasizing
pendukung transportasi :
• antar pulau
• fasilitas sumber daya alam &
laut PORT CITIES /
• pariwisata KOTA PELABUHAN
• bisnis / perdagangan
• dsb
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

CHANGING
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

PORT CITIES in TRANSITION/


KOTA-KOTA PELABUHAN dalam PERALIHAN
berkembang

PELABUHAN ERA
KOTA REVOLUSI INDUSTRI

sarana keluar masuk

Kota & Pelabuhan mengalami pertumbuhan yang cepat


pada waktu yang bersamaan ;
merupakan hasil dari tuntutan INDUSTRI

yang dipengaruhi/dibesarkan

• INTERDEPENDENCE (saling ketergantungan)


• CONFLICT
• COMPETITION
(Kotea 1995)
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

POLICY
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

CONTEMPORARY GREEK PORT POLICY


/ KEBIJAKAN PEMERINTAH

the greek port system includes 1250 ports, marinas, piscatorial


shelters, small harbours registered in the 188 Central Coast Guard
Office & Station
SAILING CULTURE
/BUDAYA MELAUT Greece is the country with most active ports between the 25
members-states of the EU / uni eropa. European Sea Ports
Organisation (ESPO, 2005)

BUDAYA MELAUT / • aktifitas


SAILING CULTURE of PORTS
• jumlah

(monitoring & controlling) as responbility


• ministry of merchant marine stabilitas masyarakat
• local government dan lingkungan
• port fund bodies
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

DEVELOPING
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENT AND REGENERATION


/ PENGEMBANGAN & REGENERASI

COCCOSIS 1999 waterfront is vital environmental and aesthetic importance and that it faces
many problems (intense land pressures, environmental pollution, conflict of
uses, etc) especially when it is part of an urban conglomeration

traffic & environmental problems

port to city

city to port

• SERVICE
• FACILITY • traffic, area extension inability
competition (ketidakmampuan perluasan
• URBAN NEEDS dampak
wilayah pelabuhan),
• restriction in the hours and types
of horbour work
(pembatasan waktu & jenis
pelayanan)
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

konsep pengembangan/ perbaikan kota (urban) ;


keep or change ; stay or move

meningkatan kualitas perkotaan


metode pendekatan
(increasing urban quality) melalui
• revitalisasi / revitalization
- lokasi baru yang dinilai lebih memiliki
• pemindahan /relocation
prospek
• fungsi baru / new urban place
- optimalisasi fungsi lokasi sebelumnya

• POLICY (pemerintah dengan kebijakan dan aturannya)


• PRACTICES (investor/pengembang)

konsep #1

the city & the port as


two contacting system

- saling mengambil keuntungan port city


city to port ; port to city
- mempertahankan urban system yang
telah ada
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

konsep #2

memasukan fungsi baru lebih meningkatkan


peran budaya, dan objektifitas konsep 1 dan konsep 2
/ infill new “agendas”
kepariwisataan regenerate / regenerasi : perubahan
(port cities) dengan tujuan meningkatkan
kualitas perkotaan (life & image)
• CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURE • attractive
• MEGA-EVENTS • consumable
• ADVANCED TOURIST FACILITIES • more incomes

since 1960 until today the practices in regeneration of waterfronts can be presented through four generation
(Marshall 2001, Panagopoulos and Argyriadis, 2003)

1960s-1070s basic element : revitalization of historical identity with the


simultaneous rejection of “orthodox architecture” through
collaboration of

• local business community baltimore’s inner harbour, seattle,


• dynamic local autorities oakland, san fransisco, london,
• port itself liverpool, rotterdam
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

1980s perencanaan kota lebih baik : prestigious architectural,


implemented urban planning affecting the whole city, not
only the waterfront

boston’s charleston harbour,


sidney’s darling harbour and cape
town, london docklands and
barcelona’s port vell

1990s karakter dasar (yang ditekankan) adalah “cultural city”,


exploitasi heritage assets dan perencanaan lingkungan
yang berkelanjutan

cardiff, liverpool, birmingham,


manchester, amsterdam, vancouver
and shanghai

2000 - now karakter dasar (yang ditekankan) adalah “do not differ”
dipengaruhi perencanaan kota
konsep “the knowledge economy” melalui sejarah dan kontemporer
bangunannya

amsterdam, genova and hamburg


AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

THE ROLE
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

THE ROLE OF CULTURAL AND TOURISM RESOURCES


/ PERAN BUDAYA DAN KEPARIWISATAAN

URBAN ECONOMIC IMPROVED


URBAN
implisit promoting cities and
region through . . .
urban strategies • creativity
(miles and paddison 2005)
• assets
advanced / upgrading • people

resources (tourism, nature)

IMPROVED preseden ;
URBAN ECONOMIC “red light district”, offer great opprtunities
URBAN for cultural and leisure enterproses due to
large, cheap spaces and the historical
atmosphere.
culture ( of port cities)

urban strategies (Florida 2002)


AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

IMPLEMENTATION
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

BEST PRACTICE AND EXAMPLES IN EUROPE


/ PENERAPAN TERBAIK DAN CONTOH

example: industrial space for cultural purposes


regeneration and waterfront developments of harbour
re-use seafronts.
rehabilitation - bilbao (the guggenheim museum)
- dan masih banyak lagi……..

POLICIES (PEMERINTAH)
PRACTICES (PENGEMBANG/SWASTA) intervention “star architect”

port cities are often presented as the most successful stories of culture-led regeneration
(bianchini and parkinson 1993, garcia 2005)

sustainability

FOCUS ON CULTURE PROGRAMMING


JOINT PUBLICITY EXTRA FUNDING

M A N A G I N G
(palmer/rae 2004)
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

CONCLUSION /
KESIMPULAN

CONDITION ; ISSUES & PROBLEMS NEW EXPERIENCING

program NEW LOCAL NEW FORMS OF


COMPETITION IDENTITY URBAN SPACE

ARCHITECTURE MORE
& DESIGN CHALLENGING
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

CONSIDERATION / avoid the negative impact of regeneration

• lack connected of social housing schemes in


housing developments
• centralizing cultural activities
• many actors that involved in the policy making
(uncooperate/co-ordination problems)
• the absence of urban tourism plan
• untreated assets (heritage or re use industrial
heritage site)
• lack of attractiveness (tourism context)
• increasing diverse local population = conflict
• lost connection within cultural clustering
AR 6141 ARSITEKTUR, BUDAYA DAN PEMBANGUNAN

COMPLETED