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Performance of isolated and folded footings

Mahmoud Samir El-kadya,b, Essam Farouk Badrawic

“The purpose of this paper is introducing an alternative foundation shape that


reduces the cost of foundations by reducing the amount of reinforcing steel by
minimizing or even eliminating the tension zones in the folded isolated footings. Also,
achieving lower soil stresses through changing the isolated footing shape will
consequently reduce the expected settlements and the footing stresses”
Lugar: Abstract

Experimental Investigations on Punching Behavior of Reinforced Concrete


Footings
Josef Hegger, Alaa G. Sherif, and Marcus Ricker

“Design methods and empirical expressions in codes for the calculation of the
punching resistance of reinforced concrete footings are based on the results of these
investigations”

Lugar: INTRODUCTION

“Although punching of reinforced slabs is investigated extensively in the literature,


there are only limited data available for punching of footings. Furthermore, most of
the available tests have unrealistic test setups and the code provisions are mainly
based on slab tests. As a consequence, the punching shear capacities of footings
predicted by different codes vary significantly”

Lugar: RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE

“Since the beginning of the 20th century, only a few punching tests on footings have
been performed. Because the experimental study of a footing under realistic
boundary conditions is associated with considerable expenditure, most
researchers1-6 avoid using real soil in their experiments”

Lugar: TESTS FROM LITERATURE

“The reinforcement ratio ranged between 0.62 and 1.03%. The square column
stubs were cast monolithically at the center of the slabs”

Lugar: EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM


“ACI 318-02 seems to be conservative in predicting the punching loads. If the soil
pressure within a distance of d instead of d/2 is subtracted, ACI 318-02 would tend
to be conservative for footings having shear slenderness greater than two. Tor
compact bases (DF4 and DF5), however, this would lead to the overestimation of
the punching shear resistance (refer to Table 3)”

Lugar: COMPARISON OF CODE PREDICTIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

“1. All material and strength reduction factors incorporated in the code equations are
taken as unity.

2. The code equations are solved with mean values of the material strength.
Characteristic values are not considered.

3. The concrete strength is considered as short time strength. A reduction due to the
time-dependent behavior of concrete was not taken into account, as the loading time
period was not documented for most of the tests”

Lugar: COMPARISON OF CODE PREDICTIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

“The ACI predictions as a function of the shear slenderness are shown in Fig. 15(d).
The provisions tend to become less conservative for a/d less than 2.0. There are
only a few tests, however, on footings concerning a shear slenderness of practical
interest (a/d ≤ 2.0). The present tests confirm this tendency”

Lugar: ACI 318-02

“Regarding this evaluation of the data bank, it is considered to be acceptable to


subtract the soil pressure within a distance of d (instead of d/2) from the periphery
of the column for footings. Until further research will be done, this is only
recommended for footings with shear slenderness greater than 2.5 and without
shear reinforcement”

Lugar: ACI 318-02

“2. The consistency of the sand (loose or dense) has no further influence on the
soil pressure distribution underneath the footing. A concentration of soil pressure in
the center of the footing was measured in all conducted tests. However, the
assumption of uniformly distributed soil pressure beneath the footings according to
the building codes ensures a safe design

4. For footings without shear reinforcement and a shear slenderness greater than
2.5, it is proposed to subtract the soil pressure within a perimeter of d from the
column face in context with the ACI punching provisions”

Lugar: CONCLUSIONS
Investigations on the punching behaviour of reinforced concrete footings
J. Heggera, M. Rickera, , B. Ulkeb, M. Zieglerb

“This redistribution is completed when the bearing capacity is achieved. At limit state,
the stress distribution is convex (Fig. 1(b)) according to the theory of Prandtl–
Buisman. For a convex stress distribution, the soil reaction underneath the punching
cone is greater than for a uniform one. This results in a more economic design”

Lugar: SOIL STRESS DISTRIBUTION UNDER FOOTINGS

“The problem of calculating the punching shear capacity of footings is in assessing


the soil stress distribution and the soil reaction force”

Lugar: SOIL STRESS DISTRIBUTION UNDER FOOTINGS

“(3) In two small-scale tests as well as in tests from literature the experimental soil
bearing capacities exceed the calculated values according to current code
provisions. Thus, the soil pressure redistribution towards the centre seems not to
be completed when the calculated bearing capacity was reached.

(4) The assumption of an uniformly distributed soil pressure is safe for most practical
cases.

(5) The punching loads predicted by different codes tend to be conservative for
slender footings. Nevertheless, the codes tend to overestimate the punching
resistance for compact footings with small shear slenderness”

Lugar: CONCLUSIONS

Punching of column footings – comparison of experimental and calculation


results
Zoran Bonić

“The column punching through the slab is most often related to floor structures, and
less often to foundation slabs under columns. Calculation models for these two
problems are often not separated. The deficit of experimental results for column
footings results in the use of floor slab models”

Lugar: PUNCHING OF COLUMN FOOTINGS - COMPARISON OF


EXPERIMENTAL AND CALCULATION RESULT

“It should be noted that the punching failure through a footing is brittle, and so the
failure of one column/support can lead to the progressive and unexpected failure of
neighbouring supports, as cracks and deformations remain small until just prior to
the actual failure”

Lugar: INTRODUCTION
“Generally, technical regulations do not distinguish between punching through floor
slabs and punching through foundation slabs”

Lugar: INTRODUCTION

“The ACI 318 regulation, with the control section proposed at the distance of 1.0d
from the edge of the column, gives much better results than the standard ACI
regulation. In fact, with this proposal, the results offered by ACI 318 are generally
quite good (Fs are in the range of 1,16 to 2,02), although it may broadly be stated
that it underestimates the influence of the compressive strength of concrete”

Lugar: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

“Following the analysis of tests presented in available literature, it is proposed that


an approximate angle of 45° be adopted for punching through the footing. In paper
[3] the authors conclude that the density of sand does not affect distribution of
contact stresses under the footing, and that the adoption of their uniform distribution
provides a sufficient safety against column punching through footing. Also, it was
established that EN are less conservative than the ACI 318 which underestimate the
influence of "shear slenderness" on calculated values”

Lugar: FINAL REMARKS AND CONCLUSIONS

Punching Shear Behavior of RC Column Footing on Stabilized Ground


Sukanta K. Shill1, Md. M. Hoque2, Md. Shaifullah3

“None of the codes take into account the horizontally embedded length of column
reinforcement into the footing, which is placed just on the flexural reinforcement. In
predicting the punching shear resistance of footing properly, all of the codes should
take into account the horizontal leg of column reinforcement. Normally column
reinforcements are embedded horizontally into the footing at base level due to
development length. These legs of column reinforcement also resist the punching
shear force in column footing. It is seen that all of the existing codes underestimated
the punching shear capacity of RC column footing.”

Lugar: CONCLUSION
Aspectos fundamentals del concreto reforzado CUARTA EDICIÓN (LIBRO)

Óscar M. González Cuevas

CAPITULO 7: ELEMENTOS SUJETOS A FUERZA CORTANTE 159.pag

7.2.3 Losas planas y zapatas

Se han efectuado muchos ensayes de elementos como el mostrado en la figura 7.3


en los que se trata de reproducir el problema de la transmisión por fuerza cortante de la
carga de una losa plana o zapata a una columna. Los elementos ensayados han sido en su
mayor parte de forma cuadrada o rectangular, con la carga concentrada aplicada sobre una
superficie cuadrada menor, y apoyados generalmente en todo el perímetro.
Ocasionalmente, con el objeto de simular el efecto de la reacción del terreno en zapatas,
se han probado elementos apoyados en toda su superficie sobre camas de resortes. Sin
embargo, el comportamiento general bajo carga y el modo de falla observado han sido los
mismos, cualquiera que sea el tipo de apoyo: perimetral o en camas de resortes. La figura
7.6 muestra esquemáticamente una gráfica carga-deformación al centro de uno de estos
elementos. En general, si se tiene un elemento relativamente esbelto y dúctil, se pueden
desarrollar las tres etapas mostradas en la figura:
1 el origen al punto A. En esta etapa el comportamiento es aproximadamente lineal, hasta
que se presentan los primeros agrietamientos en la cara de tensión de la losa.

2 esta etapa, comprendida entre los puntos A y B, se alcanza la primera fluencia del refuerzo
horizontal de tensión y el agrietamiento se extiende por la losa. Simultáneamente pueden
presentarse grietas inclinadas que van del acero de tensión hacia la periferia de la superficie
cargada, formando una pirámide o cono truncado alrededor de esta superficie.

3 final de esta etapa se alcanza la resistencia (punto C) y se produce el colapso final por
penetración de la columna a través de la losa, con una superficie de falla en forma de
pirámide o cono truncado.

Dependiendo de la relación entre el claro y el peralte de la losa, o de la relación entre el


área de la losa y el área de la superficie de aplicación de carga y de la cantidad de acero
longitudinal de flexión, la falla por perforación puede presentarse antes o después de que
fluya el acero longitudinal. En otras palabras, en una losa de poca esbeltez y con mucho
acero longitudinal no se podrán desarrollar más que las etapas OA y AB de la curva descrita
anteriormente. Incluso, puede suceder que la columna perfore la losa antes de que se
alcance el punto B, aunque este caso es poco probable para las dimensiones usuales en la
práctica. Cuando el colapso por perforación se presenta después de que la losa ha sufrido
un agrietamiento considerable, y después de que el acero longitudinal ha fluido, el tipo de
falla puede clasificarse como de flexión y se caracteriza por una deformación importante.
Independientemente de la magnitud de la deformación a la falla, el colapso final se presenta
siempre por perforación de la columna a través de la losa, y la superficie de falla tiene la
forma de una pirámide o de un cono truncado. Lo anterior indica que existe siempre una
etapa previa al colapso final, en la cual se desarrollan grietas inclinadas alrededor de la
superficie cargada, hasta que se forma una superficie de falla. Los esfuerzos nominales
correspondientes a la resistencia de un elemento de este tipo, son, en general, mayores
que para una viga, debido principalmente al efecto del ancho
del elemento y a que el concreto alrededor de la superficie cargada está sujeto a
compresiones normales en dos direcciones, que le proporcionan un cierto confinamiento
lateral.
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