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To Analyse the Truss using STADD pro


STADD pro software, compute,


1. Entering Job information.

2. Truss model geometry
3. Defining member properties ,sections
4. Assigning Loads(Load Cases and combination)
5. Defining Pre-Analysis Print out, analysis type and Post-Analysis print out
6. Defining Design Requirements

How to Start Staad Pro

The Pic below shows how to start Staad Pro

In New File select

1. Truss

2. Units (here KN and mm in this example)

The staad Graphical interface will appear as shown in below picture

1. Entering Job Information

Building Model (structure) Geometry

 Defining Truss Geometry

One of the methods that you can construction lines and then draw on these lines the truss members
Noting that the no. of construction lines is excluding Ist line..
After clicking Snap Node/Beam ,use the mouse and connect between nodes created at the intersections
of construction lines
How to see Diagram Labels (Nodes Numbers, Beam Numbers etc)

Node and beam labels are a way of identifying the entities we have drawn on the screen, and very
useful when dealing with the output results
3. Defining member properties, sections


In which we can define or choose sections properties of the members of the truss.

 Spec.: In which we can define or choose members’ specifications.

 Support: In which we can define the supports properties (restraints).

 Load: In which we can define the applied loads, load cases, load combinations.

 Material In which we can define the material properties (ex. E, density, etc.)

Assume Preliminary

 Sections:

All Top and Bot chords are one size L 55*55*3

All Diagonals and verticals are one size L 45 * 45* 3

Assigning the sections created to the model


By clicking on the support icon the shown window will appear. We have to create new kinds of supports
Use the mouse and click on the nodes according to its support type as shown below
 4. Defining Loads

The creation and assignment of load cases involves the following two steps:

1. First, we will be creating all 3-load cases.

2. Then, we will be assigning them to the respective members/nodes

For example

Dead Load Case can be Load Case No.1

Live Load Case can be Load Case No. 2 and Wind Load is the Case No.3

Also, we can define load combinations according to required.

For example, we can create a load combination

1.25 D.L. + 1.5 L.L + 0.8 W.L.

And In Dead Load Create the Self weight as

In each Load Case Create the Nodal Loads on truss as specified before. Make sure of the direction of
forces according to global coordinates
After Creating the commond of (Perform Analysis-Check);We have to assign the members that want
to be this type of analysis for it.

Click Assign and then use the cursor and choose all the members,thus all the members should
be highlighted as shown below.
To add the Pre-Print Commond click" Define Commands"

For example here we have choosen to print the support reactions,member forces,joint displacements

Post Print Commands

 Support reactions

 Analysis results

 Member Forces
 Max Forces

Add which property you need and then use cursor to ASSIGN to which member in the truss

6. Defining Design Requirements


1. To Specify steel design parameters, go to Design/Steel page from the left side of the screen. Make
sure that under the Current Code selections on the top right hand side ,Canadian is selected.

There are many Design Commands in the STAAD Design subroutine. Here, we will use only to Check
Code, regarding adequacy of members.
7-Analysis & Viewing Results
STAAD Performs Analysis and Design simultaneously. In order to Perform Analysis and Design, select
the Run Analysis option from the Analyze menu

When you select the Run Analysis option from the Analyse menu, the following dialog box appears. We
are presented with the choice of 2 engines. The STAAD engine and the STARDYNE Advanced Analysis
engine. The STARDYNE Analysis engine is suitable for advanced problems such as Buckling Analysis,
ModaL Extraction using various method ,etc

STAAD engine is suitable for this tutorial. Click on th Run Analysis button.
The soloving process is shown in pop up screen.

Visualization of Some Results



Analysis of Multistoried space frame using STADD pro


Computer with specified configuration with installed STADD Pro Software


Staad is powerful design software licensed by Bentley .Staad stands for structural analysis and
Design any object which is stable under a given loading can be considered as structure. So first
find the outline of the structure, whereas analysis is the estimation of what are the type of loads
that acts on the beam and calculation of shear force and bending moment comes under analysis
stage. Design phase is designing the type of materials and its dimensions to resist the load. This
we do after the analysis.

To calculate s.f.d and b.m.d of a complex loading beam it takes about an hour. So when it
comes into the building with several members it will take a week. Staad pro is a very powerful
tool which does this job in just an hour’s staad is a best alternative for high rise buildings.
Now a day’s most of the high rise buildings are designed by staad which makes
a compulsion for a civil engineer to know about this software.
These software can be used to carry rcc, steel, bridge , truss etc. according to various country

Staad foundation:
Staad foundation is a powerful tool used to calculate different types of foundations. It is
also licensed by Bentley software’s. All Bentley software’s cost about 10 lakhs and so all
engineers can’t use it due to heavy cost.
Analysis and design carried in Staad and post processing in staad gives the load at
various supports. These supports are to be imported into these software to calculate the footing
details i.e., regarding the geometry and reinforcement details.
This software can deal different types of foundations
1. Isolated (Spread) Footing
2.Combined (Strip) Footing
3.Mat (Raft) Foundation
1. Pile Cap
2. Driller Pier
1. Isolated footing is spread footing which is common type of footing.
2. Combined Footing or Strap footing is generally laid when two columns are very near to each
3. Mat foundation is generally laid at places where soil has less soil bearing capacity.
4. Pile foundation is laid at places with very loose soils and where deep excavations are
required. So depending on the soil at type we have to decide the type of foundation required.
Also lot of input data is required regarding safety factors, soil, materials used should be
given in respective units.
After input data is give software design the details for each and every footing and gives
the details regarding
1. Geometry of footing
2. Reinforcement
3. Column layout
4. Graphs
5. Manual calculations
These details will be given in detail for each and every column.
Another advantage of foundations is even after the design; properties of the members can be
updated if required.
The following properties can be updated
Column Position
Column Shape
Column Size
Load Cases
Support List

The multistoried frame represents the center line diagram of the building in staad pro. Each
support represents the location of different columns in the structure. This structure is used in
generating the entire structure using a tool called transitional repeat and link steps. After using
the tool the structure that is created can be analyzed in staad pro under various loading cases.
Below figure represents the skeletal structure of the building which is used to carry out the
analysis of our building.

All the loadings are acted on this skeletal structure to carry out the analysis of our building.
This is not the actual structure but just represents the outline of the building in staad pro.
A mesh is automatically created for the analysis of these building.
Load Conditions and Structural System Response :
The concepts presented in this section provide an overview of building loads and their
effect on the structural response of typical wood-framed homes. As shown in Table, building
loads can be divided into types based on the orientation of the structural action or forces that they
induce: vertical and horizontal (i.e., lateral) loads. Classification of loads are described in the
following sections.

Building Loads Categorized by Orientation: Types

of loads on a hypothetical building are as follows.
Vertical Loads

Dead (gravity)
Live (gravity)
Wind(uplift on roof)
Seismic and wind (overturning)
Seismic( vertical ground motion)

Horizontal (Lateral) Loads:

Direction of loads is horizontal w.r.t to the building.
Seismic(horizontal ground motion)
Flood(static and dynamic hydraulic forces
Soil(active lateral pressure)

Dead load calculation

Weight=Volume x Density

Self weight floor finish=0.12*25+1=3kn/m^2

The above example shows a sample calculation of dead load.
Dead load is calculated as per IS 875 part 1

Generally for any structure live load is taken as 25 N/mm for design.
Live loads are calculated as per IS 875 part 2

Wind loads:
In the list of loads we can see wind load is present both in vertical and horizontal loads.
This is because wind load causes uplift of the roof by creating a negative(suction) pressure on the
top of the roof

After designing wind load can be assigned in two ways

1. collecting the standard values of load intensities for a particular heights and assigning of
the loads for respective height.
2. calculation of wind load as per IS 875 part 3.
We designed our structure using second method which involves the calculation of wind load
using wind speed.
In Hyderabad we have a wind speed of 45 kmph for 10 m height and this value is used in
Floor load:
Floor load is calculated based on the load on the slabs. Assignment of floor load is
by creating a load case for floor load. After the assignment of floor
load our structure looks as shown in the below figure.
The intensity of the floor load taken is: 0.0035 N/mm2
-ve sign indicates that floor load is acting downwards

Load combinations:
All the load cases are tested by taking load factors and
analyzing the building in different load combination as per
IS456 and analyzed the building for all the load combinations
and results are taken and maximum load combination is
selected for the design
Load factors as per IS456-2000

When the building is designed for both wind and seismic loads
maximum of both is taken. Because wind and seismic do not come
at same time as per code.
Structure is analyzed by taking all the above combinations.
6. Project Management & Use of Project Management Tools in Construction Industry
6.1. Why Project Management?
According to India’s 12th Five Year Plan, anestimated $1 Trillion is required to be invested in
Infrastructure. Study also reveals that by around 2025, India will be regarded as the World’s
third Largest Construction Market. The Construction Industry also regarded as an un-
organized Sector, but with Technological Advancement and Supply Skilled Labour Force
Construction Industry in India is on the way to becoming an Organized Sector

Project Management is a word used to imply the Management of people, time and cost to
effectively commence, progress and finish a Construction Project. Project managers are
responsible for planning and managing projects. The responsibility of project managers
includes design, procurement, planning, and budget of any construction project.

One of the major problems faced by the construction industry is time management.
Unscheduled finish of any task will lead to time overrun and thus cost overrun. Time
management is a pivotal part of Construction Project Management. It is the role of the project
manager to allocate proper time required for completion of each activity and also employ
proper measures to control the same and complete the project in the stipulated period. Due to
lack of expertise of the project managers about 90% of the construction projects suffer from
time overruns and there by cost overruns.

These obstacles can be overcome by a sound Project/Construction Management model within

the organisation.

6.2. Objectives of Construction Management

 Completing the Project within Estimated Budget and Time
 Ensuring the Quality of Work for the Stakeholders
 Leadership and Delegation of Authority
 People Management

Planning and Scheduling are one of the major parameters of a Project Management network
which helps the project manager to complete the Construction Project successfully in all
respects i.e., in terms of time and cost.

6.3. Characteristics of a Project

 Objectives: All projects have a set of objectives and when these objectives have been
completed, the project is said to be completed
 Life Span: Any project has a definite life span which has to be defined through specific
 Team Work: Team Work is constituted of members of different disciplines, organizations
and countries
 Life Cycle: It is reflected by growth, maturity and decay of the project
 Uniqueness: No two projects are exactly the same. each project is unique
 Risk &Uncertainties: There cannot be a project without risk and uncertainties.
6.4. Project Life Cycle

Concept Phase: An idea germinates in this phase. It maybe the effort of an individual or
group to satisfy the need of the society.
Definition Phase: The idea originated has to be further analysed and designed to work out
the cost, risk and benefits of the project.
Planning & Organizing Phase: Necessary investigation, designs, drawings, cost analysis
and various other elements of the project are drafted in this phase.
Implementation Phase: The project takes shape in this phase. The components are built as
per the plans and designs.
Project Handover: The completed project is handed over to the stakeholder.

6.5. Project Planning

6.5.1. Objectives of Planning

 Planning Helps in Proper Design
 Proper Selection of Equipment’s and Machines
 Constant Flow of Funds
 Employment of Trained and Experienced Staff
6.5.2. Steps in Planning
 Identification of problem/opportunity. This is necessary to formulate practical and
realistic goals.
 Securing & analyzing necessary information.
 The analysis of the information will lead to formulation of certain processes and course of
 Ascertaining alternative course of action
 Selecting an efficient plan

6.6. Scheduling
Scheduling is defined as putting the project on a calendar basis. A project network shows the
sequence of interdependence of activities and their time duration. But it needs to be
scheduled to determine the commencement and termination dates of each activity, using
optimum resources.

6.6.1. Advantages of Scheduling

 Clear picture regarding the resources is obtained.
 Arrangement and rearrangement of activities can be done prior to the commencement of
 Monitoring of work is streamlined.
 Total duration of the project is known.

6.7. Project Management Tools

 Gantt Chart
 Network Diagrams
 Histograms
 CPM – Critical Path Method
 PERT – Program Evaluation &Review Technique

6.7.1. Gantt Chart

Developed by Henry L Gantt in 1990. The Gantt bar chart is a linear calendar on which the
time is spread along the abscissa and activity is indicated along the ordinate.
Microsoft Project (MSP) works on the basis of Gantt Bar Review Technique.

6.7.2. Network Diagrams

A network diagram is a pictorial tool which helps the project manager to achieve their goals
of successful completion of a construction project in terms of time and cost by having a clear
picture of the process of the Construction Activity. Important Definitions
 Activity: Any process which consumes time or resource and has a definite beginning and
end. It is denoted by an arrow.
 Event: The beginning or completion of any activity is called an event. It does not
consume any time or resource itself.
 Successor Event: Any event which follows a particular event is called as a successor
 Predecessor Event: Any event which occurs before a particular event is called a
predecessor event. Exercise No.1: Draw the Network Diagram for the following Activities:

Predecessor Predecessor
Activity Activity
Activity Activity
A - F C,A
B - G -
E C,A J G Exercise No.2: Draw the Network Diagram for the following Activities

Predecessor Predecessor Predecessor

Activity Activity Activity
Activity Activity Activity
A - F E K F,G,H
6.7.3. PERT – Program Evaluation & Review Technique
PERTfollows a probabilistic approach towards time duration. PERT is an event oriented
network method where importance is given to the achievement of a specific milestone rather
than the activity itself. PERT introduces certain uncertainty to the time estimate; hence it can
be used in places where enough background information is not available. Important Definitions

 Optimistic Time (t0): Minimum time required for an activity if everything goes as per
ideal conditions.
 Pessimistic Time (tp): Time required for an activity to complete if everything goes
wrong or abnormal.
 Most Likely Time (tm): Time required for an activity to complete if the normal
conditions prevailed.
 Expected Time (te):
te = 6 (t0 + 4tm + tp)

 Earliest Expected Time: Time when the event can be expected to occur.
TEj = TEi +tEij
 Latest Allowable Occurrence Time: The latest time by which an event should occur to
keep the project as per schedule
TLi = TLj –tLij
 Slack: The difference between Latest Allowable Occurrence Time and Earliest Expected
S = TL – TE
 Positive Slack – The project is ahead of schedule (Use of Excess Resources)
 Negative Slack – The project is behind schedule (Use of Less Resources)
 Zero Slack – The project is as per schedule (Use of Adequate Resources)
 Critical Path: It is generally regarded as the path with the highest duration. A critical
path connects the events of zero slack. Any delay in the critical path adversely affects the
project duration. Exercise No.3: Determine the Critical Path using PERT Network for the following

Activity to tm tp
1-2 1 5 9
1-3 5 6 7
1-4 3 5 7
2-6 2 4 6
3-5 1 3 5
4-5 2 3 6
5-6 4 6 8
5-7 6 8 10
6-7 1 4 7
6-8 3 7 11
7-8 2 5 8
8-9 1 2 3


Activity to tm tp te = 𝟔 (t0 + 4tm + tp)
1-2 1 5 9 5
1-3 5 6 7 6
1-4 3 5 7 5
2-6 2 4 6 4
3-5 1 3 5 3
4-5 2 3 6 3.33
5-6 4 6 8 6
5-7 6 8 10 8
6-7 1 4 7 4
6-8 3 7 11 7
7-8 2 5 8 5
8-9 1 2 3 2
Earliest Expected Time Latest AllowableOccurrenceTime Slack
Pred tEij TEj TE(max) Succ tLij TLi TL(min)
2 5 6
1 3 6 0
- - - 0 0 0
4 5 0.33
2 1 5 5 5 6 4 11 11 6
3 1 6 6 6 5 3 6 6 0
4 1 5 5 5 5 3.33 5.67 5.67 0.67
3 3 9 6 6 9
5 9 9 0
4 3.33 8.33 7 8 11
2 4 9 7 4 15
6 15 15 0
5 6 13 8 7 17
5 8 17
7 19 8 5 19 19 0
6 4 19
8 6 7 22
24 9 2 24 24 0
7 5 24
9 8 2 26 26 - - - 26 0

Critical Path: 1-3-5-6-7-8-9 Exercise No.4: Determine the Critical Path Using Pert Network for the following
Activity Predecessor Duration Activity Predecessor Duration
A - 6 I C,B 4
B - 8 J C,B 2
C - 10 K D,E,F 6
D A,B 5 L E,F 9
E A,B 6 M G 8
F B 7 N H,I 9
G B 7 O I,J,H 1
H B 3 P M,N,O 6

Earliest Expected Time Latest AllowableOccurrenceTime Slack

Pred tEij TEj TE(max) Succ tLij TLi TL(min)
2 8 0
3 6 5
1 - - - 0 0 0
4 10 0
5 3 11
7 7 13
2 1 8 8 8 8 0
9 7 8
7 6 1
3 1 6 6 6 1 5
8 5 18
5 4 2
4 1 10 10 10 2 8
6 2 20
2 3 11
5 14 10 9 13 13 1
4 4 14

6 4 2 12 12 10 1 22 22 10
2 7 15
7 15 11 9 20 20 5
3 6 12
8 3 5 11 11 11 6 23 23 12
9 2 7 15 15 10 8 15 15 0
5 9 23
10 23 11 6 23 23 0
6 1 13

Critical Path: 1-2-9-10-11

6.7.4. CPM - Critical Path Method
The CPMcan be employed to repetitive projects where fairly accurate estimates of time can
be made for the activities of the project.

The activities of these projects are characteristically subjected to relatively small amount of
variation. CPM is found to be much of use in the construction industry with applications in
construction of massive structures like dams, bridges, tunnels, high rise buildings, etc. Important Definitions

 Earliest Start Time (EST): Earliest time by which the project can start.
EST = Earliest time of the tail event = TEi
 Earliest Finish Time (EFT): Earliest time by which an activity can be completed.
EFT = EST + tEij = TEi + tEij
 Latest Start Time (LST): Latest time by which an activity can be started without
delaying the completion of the project.
LST = LFT – tEij
 Latest Finish Time (LFT):Latest time by which an activity must be completed so that
the project duration does not get affected.
 Float: Floats denotes the flexibility range within which the activity start time and finish
time may fluctuate without effecting the total duration of the project. It is similar to
slackin PERT network.
 Total Float (FT): Time span by which start or finish of an activity can be delayed
without affecting the overall completion of the project
 Free Float (FF): Duration by which an activity can be delayed without delaying any
other succeeding activity.
FF = FT – Sj, Sj = TLj – TEj (Head Event Slack)
 Independent Float (FID): It is the excess time available if the predecessor activity
ends as late as possible and the succeeding activity starts as early as possible.
FID = FF – Si, Si = TLi – TEi (Tail Event Slack) Exercise No.5: For the relationship shown, determine the Total Float and locate the
Critical Path.

Activity Predecessor Duration

A - 10
B - 12
C B 6
D C 8
E A 8
F A 12
G B 5
H E,D 10
I D,E 8
J I,G 6
K F,H,J 12

Activity Duration EST EFT LST LFT FT = (LST-EST)

1-2 12 0 12 0 12 0
1-3 10 0 10 2 12 2
2-4 6 12 18 12 18 0
2-6 5 12 17 13 18 1
3-5 8 10 18 18 26 8
3-7 12 10 22 24 26 14
4-5 8 18 26 18 26 0
5-6 8 26 34 26 34 0
5-7 10 26 36 24 34 2
6-7 6 34 40 34 40 0
7-8 12 40 52 40 52 0
Critical Path: 1 – 2 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 Exercise No. 6: Determine the Critical Path for the Network to be drawn with the
following Relations.
Activity Predecessor Duration
A - 5
B A 4
C - 6
D C 3
E - 5
F E 3
G D,F 6
H D,F 8
I B,G 4
J B,G 7
K H,I 5
L J,K 2

Activity Duration EST EFT LST LFT FT = (LST-EST)

1-2 5 0 5 5 11 6
1-3 6 0 6 0 6 0
1-4 5 0 5 1 6 1
2-6 4 5 9 11 15 6
3-5 3 6 9 6 9 0
4-5 3 5 8 6 9 1
5-6 6 9 15 9 15 0
5-7 8 9 17 11 19 2
6-7 4 15 19 15 19 0

Critical Path: 1 – 3 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 AON Network (Precedence Network)

In thistype of networkdiagramthenodesdenotetheactivityandarrowtheinterdependencies. This
technique was developed by Mr. B Roy of France in 1957. Exercise No.7: From the given tabular column draw A-O-A network and from A-O-
A network draw A-O-N network and locate the Critical Path of the Project.

Activity Predecessor Duration

A - 6
B A 12
C A 7
D A 5
E B 3
F C 5
G C,E 9
H D 1
I F 3
J F,H 2

Critical Path: A – B – E- G – F’
7.Microsoft Project (MSP)
7.1. Introduction to MS Project
MS Project, the project management software program by Microsoft is a very handy tool for
project managers that helps them develop a schedule, assign resources to tasks, track the
progress, manage the budget and analyze workloads for ongoing projects.

7.2. MSP Initial Settings

7.2.1. Step – 1:
Open MSP> File > Display>
Choose INR as currency for Indian projects
7.2.2. Step – 2:
File > Schedule
Change work hours if required to suit the project or conditions

7.3. Creating a New Schedule

7.3.1. Step 1: Start Date
Click Project Tab > Properties Group > Project Information.
A dialog box appears. In the start date box, type 18/01/18, or click the down arrow to display
the calendar, select January 18, 2018 (or any date of your choice).
Click Ok to accept the start date.
7.3.2. Step 2: Set Up Calendar
Click Project Tab > Properties Group > Project Information.
Click the arrow on the Current Date dropdown box. A list appears containing three base
24 Hour: A calendar with no non-working time.
Night Shift: Covers 11 PM to 8 AM, night shifts covering all nights from Monday to Friday,
with one hour breaks.
Standard: Regular working hours, Monday to Friday between 8 AM to 5 PM, with one hour

7.3.3. Step 3: Adding Exceptions to Calendar

Exceptions are used to modify a Project calendar to have a non-standard workday or a non-
working day. You can also allot unique working hours for a particular resource as well.
Here is an example to create a non-working day, which could be because of a holiday or
office celebrations or events other than the standard office work effort.
Click Project Tab > Properties Group > Change Working Time.

7.3.4. Step 4: Setting Up Resource Calendar

Just like you can change a Standard Base Calendar, you can change the work and non-
working time for each resource. You can modify the resource calendar to accommodate flex-
time, vacation time, training time, etc.
Also remember, Resource Calendar can only be applied to work resources and not to
material and cost resources.
By default when we create the resources in a plan, the resource calendar matches the
Standard Base Calendar and any changes you make to the Project Calendar, gets reflected
automatically in resource calendars, except when you create an exception in the resource
calendar. In that case even if you update the project calendar, the exception in resource
calendar is not affected.
Click Project Tab>Properties Group>Click Change Working Time.
Change Working Time dialog box appears.
Click the down arrow for the “For Calendar” drop-down box.
7.3.5. Step 5: Create Non-Working Days
Click Project Tab > Properties Group > Click Change Working Time.
The Change Working Time Dialog Box Appears.
Click the Down Arrow for the “For Calendar” Dropdown Box.
Select the resource for whom you want to change work schedule.
Click “Work Weeks” tab.
Double-click the [default] cell below the Name column heading.
Under “Selected Day(s)” choose any day you want to change the work schedule.
Click any day (we have chosen Friday) and use the radio button “Set days to nonworking
Click OK to close the Dialog box. You will now see all Fridays are greyed out in the

7.4. Build a Schedule

7.4.1. Enter Task
In Gantt Chart View, just click a cell directly below the Task Name column. Enter the task

7.4.2. Enter Duration

A duration of the task is the estimated amount of time it will take to complete a task. As a
project manager you can estimate a task duration using expert judgment, historical
information, analogous estimates or parametric estimates.
You can enter task duration in terms of different dimensional units of time, namely minutes,
hours, days, weeks, and months. You can use abbreviations for simplicity and ease as shown
in the following table.

Value You Want to

Abbreviation Appearance
45 minutes 45 m 45 mins
2 hours 2h 2 hrs
3 days 3d 3 days
6 weeks 6w 6 weeks
2 months 2mo 2 mons
In Gantt Chart view, click the cell below Duration column heading. Enter the duration.
You can also enter Start and Finish date and MS Project will calculate the duration on its
own. (Task 6 in the following screen shot)
You can enter text as well when you don’t have a duration metric currently. (Task 3 in the
following screenshot)

7.4.3. Elapsed Duration (Dummy Activities)

You can enter elapsed duration by preceding any duration abbreviation with an “e”. So 1ew is
seven 24-hour days.
For example, when you are ‘Waiting for the paint to dry’ and it takes 4 days for this to
happen. It does not need a resource or a work effort and all you are doing is waiting for it to
dry. You can use 4ed as the time duration, which signifies 4 elapsed days; the paint can dry
regardless of whether it is a weekend or if it falls on a holiday. Here in this example, the
drying occurs over 24 hours over the weekend.

7.4.4. Create Milestones
In project management, milestones are specific points in a project timeline. They are used as
major progress points to manage project success and stakeholder expectations. They are
primarily used for review, inputs and budgets.
Mathematically, a milestone is a task of zero duration and they can be put where there is a
logical conclusion of a phase of work or at deadlines imposed by the project plan.
There are two ways you can insert a milestone. Method 1: Inserting a Milestone

Click name of the task which you want to insert a Milestone
Click Task Tab > Insert Group > Click Milestone.
Click on >New Milestone> To Change its Name. Method 2: Converting a Task toa Milestone

Click on any particular task or type in a new task under the Task Nameheading.
Under Duration headingtype in “0 days “.

7.4.5. Create Summary Task

There can be a huge number of tasks in a project schedule; it is therefore a good idea to have
a bunch of related tasks rolled up into a Summary Task to help you organize the plan in a
better way. It helps you organize your plan into phases.
In MS Project 2013, you can have several number of sub-tasks under any higher level task.
These higher level tasks are called Summary Task. At an even higher level, they are called
Phases. The highest level of a plan’s outline structure is called the Project Summary Task,
which encompasses the entire project schedule. Method 1
Select the names of Task 4 and Task 5.
Click Task Tab >Group Insert >Click Summary Method 2
Select “Insert Task”. A <New Task> is created.
Now select Task 4 and Task 5.
Click Task Tab >Schedule Group >Click Indent Task
7.4.6. Link Tasks
Once you have a list of tasks ready to accomplish your project objectives, you need to link
them with their task relationships called dependencies.
In MS Project, the first task is called a predecessor because it precedes tasks that depend on
it. The following task is called the successor because it succeeds, or follows tasks on which it
is dependent. Any task can be a predecessor for one or more successor tasks. Likewise, any
task can be a successor to one or more predecessor tasks.
There are only four types of task dependencies; here we present them with examples.
 Finish to Start (FS): Finish the first floor before starting to build the second floor. Most
 Finish to Finish (FF): Cooking all dishes for dinner to finish on time.
 Start to Start (SS): When doing a survey, we would seek survey responses but will also
start tabulating the responses. One does not have to finish collecting survey response
before starting the tabulation.
 Start to Finish (SF): Exam preparation will end when exam begins. Least used. Method 1
Select the two tasks you want to link. In the following screenshot taken as an example, we
have selected names, Task 1 and Task 2.
Click Task Tab > Schedule Group > Link the Selected Tasks. Method 2
Double click a successor task you would like to link.
Click Predecessors tab
In the Table, click the empty cell below Task Name column.
Choose the predecessor task. Click OK.
7.4.7. Respect Links
If you are in Manually Scheduled mode, any change in duration of the predecessor task will
not reflect on Start date of Task 4. For example, Task 4 starts on 11/01/2018 which is the next
day of Finish date of Task 3.

Now when we change the Duration of Task 3 from 4 to 7 days, the start date is not
automatically updated for Task 4 in Manual Scheduling.
You Can Force MS Project to respect the link (dependency) by doing the following:
 Select Task 4.
 Click Task Tab > Schedule Group > Respect Links. Switching Task – Manual to Automatic

MSProject by default sets new tasks to be manually scheduled. Scheduling is controlled in
two ways.
Manual Scheduling: This is done to quickly capture some details without actually
scheduling the tasks. You can leave out details for some of the tasks with respect to duration,
start and finish dates, if you don’t know them yet.
Automatic Scheduling: This uses the scheduling engine in MS Project. It calculates values
such as task durations, start dates and finish dates automatically. It takes into accounts all
constraints, links and calendars.

Method 1
If you want to change the mode for a particular task, say Task 5 in the following example.
Click on Task Mode cell in the same row. Then, click the down arrow to open a dropdown
box, you can select Auto Scheduled.
Method 2
Click Task > Tasks Group > Auto Schedule.
Method 3
To switch completely to Auto Schedule mode:
Toggle the scheduling mode of the plan by clicking the New Tasks status bar (at the bottom-
left) and then selecting Auto Scheduling mode.
Go to File tab and click Options. Then click Schedule tab and under scheduling options for
this project select “All New Projects” from the dropdown box. Under new tasks created,
select “Auto Scheduled” from the dropdown box.
7.5. Setup Resources
In Project Management terminology, resources are required to carry out the project tasks.
They can be people, equipment, facilities, funding, or anything (except labor) required for the
completion of a project task. Optimum Resource Scheduling is the key to successful project

7.5.1. Resource Types

 Work Resources:People and equipment to complete the tasks.
 Cost Resources: Financial cost associated with a task. Travel expenses, food expenses,
 Material Resources: Consumables used as project proceeds. For example, paint being
used while painting a wall.

Click View Tab > Resource Views Group > Click Resource Sheet.
Click the cell directly below the Resource Name heading column.
Enter Resources as an individual person, job function or group.

Entering a value less than 100% in Max.Units would mean you expect the resource capacity
to be lower than a full-time resource. So 50% would mean the individual works for half of the
normal full capacity, so if a normal work week is 40 hours, this equals 20 hour capacity.

Cost of Task = Work Value (In Number of Hours) X Resource’s Pay Rate.
7.5.2. Assign Resources to Task
Method 1
 Click View Tab > Gantt Chart View > Resource Name Column.
 Click the box below the Resource Name column for the task you need the resource to be
 From the dropdown, choose the resource name.

7.6. Plan Duration, Cost & Time

7.6.1. Check Plan’s Duration
In Gantt Chart View > View Tab > Split View Group > Timeline Checkbox.
7.6.2. Check Plan’s Cost
Click View Tab > Data Group > Tables > Cost.

7.6.3. Check Plan’s Work

Click Report Tab >View Reports Group >Click Resources >Click Resource Overview
7.6.4. View Critical Path
Critical Path is the succession of connected tasks that will take the longest to complete. The
word “critical” does not mean that the tasks are complex or important or need to be closely
monitored, but the focus is on terms schedule that will affect the project finish date.
So, if you want to shorten the duration of a project, you should first start with activities/tasks
on the critical path. Critical path can be a single sequence of tasks (a singlecritical path) or
there can be more than 1 critical path for a single project. While schedule changes are made,
it is also likely that the critical path will change from time to time.
One needs to always focus on the critical path first, when one wants to apply fast-tracking or
crashing to shorten the project duration.
Slack or Float are key to understanding Critical path. There are two types of float:

 Free Float: It is the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying another task.
 Total Float: It is the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the
completion of the project.

In Gantt Chart View > Format Tab > Bar Styles Group > Check the Critical Tasks Box On.

All task bars in the critical path, in the Gantt Chartview on the right, will turn Red in color.

8.1. Download QGIS Software from Website

The QGIS software, tutorials and related documents are available in and
softwarecanbedownloadedusing the linkbelow.

8.2. Install QGISand Plugins

Downloaded software for 64bit and 32bit systems shown below. It can be installed in
windows computers directly by double clicking.
QGIS-OSGeo4w-2.2.0-1-setup-x86_64.exe (64 bit)
QGIS-OSGeo4w-2.2.0-1-setup-x86.exe (32 bit)
Many tools are added to QGIS by using QGIS plugins. We activate some must-have plugins
by navigating to Plugins | Manage and Install Plugins. Plugins are activated by ticking the
checkbox beside their name.
8.3. Understanding User Interface
QGIS main page screenshot is given below. The basic layout contains Layers List, Map
Canvas, Status Bar and Tool Bars as shown.

Next, there are multiple toolbars to explore. If you arranged them as shown in the previous
section, you'll find the following toolbars in the top row:
File: This toolbar contains tools to create, open, save, and print projects.
Manage Layers:This toolbar contains tools to add layers from vector or raster files,
databases, web services, text files, or create new layers.
Database: Currently, this toolbar only contains DB manager, but other database-related tools
will appear here when they are installed.
Help: These points to the user manual download

The following screenshot shows what the preceding toolbars look like

The second row of toolbars contains the following:

Map Navigation: This toolbar contains pan and zoom tools.
Attributes:These tools are used to identify, select, open attribute tables, measure etc.
Label:These tools are used to add, configure, and modify labels.
Vector:This is currently empty, but will be filled by additional Python plugins Web:
This is currently empty, but will be filled by additional Python Plugins.

The following screenshot shows what the preceding toolbars look like:

Finally, on the right screen border, we find the following:

Digitizing: These tools enable editing, basic feature creation and editing
Advanced Digitizing:This toolbar contains undo/redo, advanced editing tools, geometry
simplification, and so on.

The following screenshot shows what the preceding toolbars look like:
8.4. Exploring Spatial Data
8.4.1. Loading Vector and Raster
Vector data or shapefiles (.shp) can be added using Add vectorlayer button.

Raster data can be added using Add raster layer button.

Excel data or .csv can be added using Add Delimited Text Layer button.

8.4.2. Coordinate Reference System

Layer’s coordinate system can be viewed using layer properties button and coordinates are
shown on the fly at the bottom of page.
8.4.3. Loading Background Maps
Background maps are added using Open Layers Plugins.
8.4.4. Selection and Measurement Tools
Features can be selected using Select Features button; here options are available to select
features in multiple ways

Distance, area and angle measurements are possible using Measure button.
9. Spatial Data Creation and Editing
9.1. Geo Referencing
Geo referencing of raster files or toposheets are possible in QGIS using Georeferncer tool
shown in raster button.

In Georerefencer open raster file and start inputting coordinates of known points as shown.
Then press Start Georeferencing button (choose transformation type and resampling
method), select output location and file name, by pressing OK button, Georeferencing starts.
9.2. Digitization
Open base map which is geo rectified and create new shapefile layer using New
ShapefileLayer button.

Select type of vector (Point, Line or Polygon), specify coordinate reference system (CRS),
and add essential attributes, finally save file in required location by giving name.
To add features to layer, select layer and toggle editing button and then start digitising
Right click and select Open Attribute Table button to see attributes of created features in
row and column wise.

Finally press Save Layer Edits button to save feature creation or changes.
9.3. Adding/Editing/Deleting Attributes Data
To add new column in attribute table, press New Column button, then toggle editing mode,
specify type, width, precision, name etc.

Save Edits is must to save any changes either attributes or geometry

9.4. Editing Vector Geometries
Geometries can be edited using digitization tools as shown for point, line and polygon
9.5. DataConversion and Re-Projecting
Shapefiles of point features can be converted in to .csv using save as button and vice versa is
also possible. Similarly coordinate reference system also changeable.

9.6. DataQueries
Complex queries of data is done in QGIS using select feature using expression button.
Multiple mathematical, logical queries are possible and selected features can be saved
separately for further work.

9.7. FieldCalculator
Area and length of polygon and line features are can be created using field calculator as
shown. Field calculator can also be used for mathematical calculations.
10. Spatial Analysis
10.1. Geo Processing Tools
Many geo processing tools are available in QGIS, for example here clip and buffer tools are
demonstrated. Clipping features of one layer with other is carried out using clip tool under
geo processing tools.

Butters for point, line and polygon features can be formed using buffer tool, by inputting
buffer distance.
10.2. Spatial Query
Spatial query is used to select features from multiple layers following specific conditions,
here for example, point of interests (poi), within road buffers are queried.

Selected features from spatial query can be exported as separated layer for further work.
10.3. Working with DEM Data
Elevation data called DEM are opened in QGIS using add raster data button and it can be
used to create contours, slope, relief maps etc.
Contours are developed using contour tool as shown, contour interval need to be specified.
10.4. Geo-Tagging of Photos
Photos can be attached to point features by specifying file location, photo name using QGIS
plugins called eVis.
11. Composing Maps
11.1. Styles and Labelling
Styling of layers is carried out using Style button in layer properties, layers can be styled
based on their attribute values also.
Labels button is used for labelling of features; here simple labelling of attributes and label
using expressions are also possible
11.2. Map Tips
Map tips are used for specific attribute viewing of features; here by simply moving cursor on
the map defined attributes are shown on the fly.
11.3. Compose Manager – Design Print Maps
To prepare atlas or maps in QGIS compose manager is used. It facilitates user to page setup,
layer setting, inserting map components (legend, title, north arrow, scale bar etc.), exporting
maps to pdf or image formats.
12.Application of MS Excel in Civil Engineering Problems
12.1. Exercise No. 1: Estimation of Earthwork Quantity for Highway
Reduced levels of ground along the centre line of the proposed road from the chainage 0 to
200m are given below. The formation level at 40m chainage is 102.75m. The formation of
road from chainage 0 to 80m has a raising gradient of 1 in 40 and from 80 to 200m; it is
falling gradient of 1 in 100. The formation width of road top is 12m and side slope of banking
is 2:1. Obtain volume of the earthwork.

Chainage (m) RL of Ground (m) Gradient

0 101.50
20 100.90
40 101.50 Raising 1 in 40
60 102.00
80 102.85
100 101.65
120 101.95
140 100.70 Falling 1 in 100
160 101.25
180 99.90
200 100.60

Step 1: Start the MS Excel program and open a new blank worksheet.

Step 2: Enter the data given as shown below and do the basic computations if necessary by
typing the appropriate formula with ‘=’ sign (for example calculation of gradients).
Step 3: Calculate the formation level using given gradient at every chainage in form of
tabular column. In the figure shown below, the calculation and format to type the formula and
cell reference are given. Each and every referred cell will appear in a different colour and the
corresponding cells will be highlighted in the same colour. The symbol ‘$’ in the formula
indicates that the referring cell value is same for the corresponding series of calculations.

Step 4: At every chainage, the length of the segment, average height to be filled or cut,
corresponding cross sectional area are calculated as tabular column.
Finally, the quantity of earthwork in filling or cutting at every chainage is calculated. Using
conditional formulae like ‘if’, ‘if else’, etc., the quantity calculated is decided as filling or
cutting depending on the sign convention of the value.
The total filling or cutting quantity is calculated using ‘sum’ formula below the
corresponding column.
The complete work sheet for estimation of earthwork quantity for given reduced levels of
existing ground and formation will look like as shown below:
12.2. Exercise No. 2: Design of Horizontal Curve
Design a horizontal curve of radius 180m having a peg interval of 7.5m, given the length of
long chord is 60m.

Solution:The calculation is shown below:


Interval for ordinates in meters (m) 7.5
Length of long chord in meters (m) 60
Radius of curve in meters (m) 180

Ordinate at the middle of long chord = 2.518m

Ordinate in m
Distance x from Mid-Point Distance x from Mid-Point
- √(R2-(L/2)2)
x (m) y (m) -x (m)
0.00 2.518 0.00
7.50 2.361 -7.50
15.00 1.892 -15.00
22.50 1.106 -22.50
30.00 0.000 -30.00

Horizontal Curve by Off-Set Method



Ordinates (m)




-40,0 -30,0 -20,0 -10,0 0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0
Distance (m)
12.3. Exercise No. 3: Computation of Super Elevation
Compute the super-elevation, extra widening and length of transition curve for a horizontal
curve of radius 229m. Design speed on the road is 288kmph. Given number of lanes- 2; width
of each lane- 3.5m; rate of introduction of transition curve- 150; length of wheel base- 6m.

Solution: The spread sheet for computation of super elevation, extra widening and length of
transition curve:

12.4. Exercise No. 4: Design of Simply Supported Singly Reinforced Beam

Design a Singly Reinforced RCC Rectangular Beam which is simply supported for a clear
span of8 m and subjected to an imposed UDL of 10 kN/m. Consider M20 grade concrete and
Fe500 grade steel.

Solution: Spread sheet for the design of Simply Supported Singly Reinforced Rectangular
Beam subjected to UDL:

Data Entry:
Clear Span = lo =8.00 m
Width of the Support = X =230 mm
Concrete Grade = M20
Steel Type = Fe500
Width of Beam =230 mm
Depth of Beam = D = 560mm (Approx440 from L/d)
Imposed Load on The Beam = W = 10.00 kN/m (Excluding Self Weight)
Self Weight of Beam =3.22kN/m
Total Ultimate Load =19.83 kN/m
Effective Span 'lef' of the Beam =8230 mm
Effective Depth’d’ of the Beam =530 mm
Max Bending Moment = 167.89 kN-m
Max Shear Force = 81.60 kN

Rumax= 2.67N/mm²
Required Effective Depth 'dreqd' =522.67 mm O.K.

Reinforcement Design…
Required Main Reinforcement = Ast =891.64 mm²
Choose Bar Diameter forthe Main Reinforcement 16 12 mm
Area of One Bar = 201.06 113.10 mm²
Enter No. of Bars to be Provided = 4 3
Provided Reinforcement =1143.54 mm²O.K.

Check For Shear…

Design Shear = Vu = 81.60 kN
Nominal Shear Stress = τv= 0.67 N/mm2
Bars Bent Up @ Support =2 Numbers12 mm
% Reinforcement @ Support =0.75%
β= 3.09 τuc = 0.56 N/mm2
Design Shear Strength of Concrete τc =0.56 N/mm2

Shear Reinforcement' has to be Designed…

Design for Shear Reinforcement…

Shear Resistance by Concrete = Vc = 68.35 kN
Design Shear = Vus = 13.25 kN
Shear Resistance by Bent Up Bars = Vs1 =83.72kN
Maximum Resistance by Bent Up Bars =6.63kN
Vertical Stirrups should be Designed for = 6.63 kN
Bar Diameter =6 mm Fe250
No. of Legs for Shear Stirrups = 2
C/s Area of Stirrup = 56.55 mm²
c/c of Stirrups =130 mm
Provide 6mm Dia 2 Legged Vertical Stirrups @ 130 mm c/c @ Support

12.5. Exercise No. 5: Design of Simply Supported Doubly Reinforced Beam

Design a Doubly Reinforced RCC Rectangular Beam which is simply supported for an
effective span of 4.8 m. The superimposed load is 70 kN/m and the size of the beam is
limited to 300 mm x 600 mm overall. Consider M15 grade concrete and Fe415 grade steel.

Solution: Spread sheet for the design of simply supported doubly reinforced rectangular
beam subjected to UDL:

Data Entry:
Clear Span = lo =4.50 m
Width of the Support = X =300 mm
Concrete Grade = M15 N/mm²
Steel Type = Fe415 N/mm²
Width of Beam =300 mm
Depth of Beam = D = 600 mm (275 from L/d)
Imposed Load on the Beam = W =70.00 kN/m (ExcludingSelf Weight)
Self Weight of Beam =4.50kN/m
Total Ultimate Load =111.75 kN/m
Effective Span 'lef' of the Beam =4800 mm
Effective Depth 'd' of the Beam = 562.5 mm
Max Bending Moment Mu = 321.84 kN-m
Max Shear Force Vu = 268.20 kN
Rumax= 2.07 N/mm²
Required Effective Depth 'dreqd' = 720.00 mm (Increase Depth)

Designed as Doubly Reinforced Beam…

d' = 25 mm
fsc = 353N/mm²
Xumax =0.48
Mulim= 196.16 kN-m
Ast1 = 1204.06 mm²
Mu2 = 125.68 kN-m
Ast2 = 647.60 mm²
Reinforcement Design…
Required Main Tension Reinforcement = Ast =1851.67 mm²
Choose Bar Diameter for the Main Reinforcement 25 0 mm
Area of One Bar = 490.87 0.00 mm²
Enter No. of Bars to be provided = 4 0
Provided Tension Reinforcement = 1963.50 mm²O.K.
Required Compression Reinforcement = Asc =662.37 mm²
Choose Bar Diameter forthe Main Reinforcement 16 12 mm
Area of One Bar = 201.06 113.10 mm²
Enter No. of Bars to be provided = 2 3
Provided Compression Reinforcement = 741.42 mm²O.K.
Check for Shear…
Design Shear = Vu = 268.20 kN
Nominal Shear Stress = τv = 1.59 N/mm2
Bars Bent Up @ Support = 0 Number12 mm
% Reinforcement @ Support = 1.16%
β= 1.50 τuc = 0.63 N/mm2
Design Shear Strength of Concrete Τc = 0.63 N/Mmm2
Shear Reinforcement' has to be Designed…

Design for Shear Reinforcement…

Shear Resistance by Concrete = Vc = 105.82 kN
Design Shear = Vus = 162.38 kN
Shear Resistance by Bent Up Bars = Vs1 =0.00kN
Maximum Resistance by Bent Up Bars =0.00kN
Vertical Stirrups should be designed for =162.38 kN
Bar Diameter =6 mm Fe250
No. of Legs for Shear Stirrups =2
C/s Area of Stirrup= 56.55 mm²
c/c of Stirrups= 100 mm
Provide 6 mm Dia, 2 Leg Vertical Stirrups @ 100 mm c/c @ Support

12.6. Exercise No. 6: Design of RC One Way Slab

Solution: Spread Sheet for the Design of RC One Way Slab will be as below: