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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

Research Paper

ANALYSIS OF LONG SPAN SUSPENSION BRIDGES USING SERIES

METHOD

N D Shah1, D A Shah2, Dr J A Desai3, H S Patil4

1

Associate Professor & Head, Civil Dept., Charotar Institute of Technology, CHARUSAT,

Changa.

2

Lecturer, Civil Department, Charotar Institute of Technology, CHARUSAT, Changa.

3

Director, C G Patel Institute of Technology, Bardoli – 394 350.

4

Professor, Applied Mechanics Department, SV National Institute of Technology, Surat

Email: nirajshah.cv@ecchana.ac.in

ABSTRACT

Deflection theory is the basic theory of cable and stiffening girder suspension bridges.

Geometric nonlinearity of suspension bridges due to dead load is taken in to account in this

theory. Geometrical changes are having significant effects in suspension bridges, so it cannot

be neglected in preliminary analysis of suspension bridges. Series method is a new method

for the deterministic aerostatic stability analysis of suspension bridges. The geometric

nonlinearity in the deflection theory and the three components of displacement-dependent

wind loads are taken into account in the method. A computer program for calculating change

in various geometric parameters of stiffened suspension bridges is developed using HTML.

Again another computer program for finding a critical wind velocity of suspension bridges

was developed using MATLAB.

KEY WORDS

Aerostatic Stability, Suspension Bridge, Nonlinearity, Displacement Dependent Wind Load

The basic design of a suspension bridge towers and anchoring them on either side

has been in use for centuries: thousands of of the bridge. He hung lesser chains from

years ago, people crossed waterways and the two master chains and used them to

chasms by swinging hand over hand on suspend a rigid deck, and the modern

suspended cables. Later, walkways were incarnation of the suspension bridge was

hung from the cables to make the process born.

easier, and the original vines and ropes A suspension bridge is a type of bridge

began to be replaced with chains. Major which is built by suspending the roadway

bridges were still built using a truss design from cables attached to a master cable

until 1808, when an American inventor which runs above the length of the bridge.

named James Finley filed a patent on an In addition to being strong and

early version of a suspension bridge. lightweight, suspension bridges are also

Finley's design involved stretching two beautiful, and some of the most famous

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

bridges in the world are also suspension increasingly being constructed all over the

bridges, including San Francisco's iconic world. Thus, there is a need for developing

Golden Gate Bridge and New York's a comprehensive understanding about the

Brooklyn Bridge. The design of a detailed behavior of these bridges. Also,

suspension bridge is simple and they are one of the costliest civil

straightforward, and takes advantage of engineering projects, and hence necessitate

several techniques to distribute the weight much attention while its analysis and

of the bridge safely and evenly. structural design stage. Therefore, it is

Suspension Bridges have received more imperative that a reliable analysis should

attention due to their ability to cover the be available. With the increasing central

large spans. For bridging the long and span length of suspension bridges, it

unsupported spans, the Suspension Bridges becomes especially important to

present the most elegant and efficient understand the aerostatic behavior of

structural solution. And hence, they are suspension bridges.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

SUSPENSION BRIDGES & Hw 4a2f

ξ =1− secQ *{(1−2z) sin2πz+(1−cos2πz)}

VERIFICATION EA l

..…….(1)

In the theory of cable and stiffening girder

Vertical deflection of cable element:

systems the geometrical relations between

the positions and dimensions of a given η = a 2 sin 2 π z …….(2)

element of the cable in the initial and Initial slope of undeflected cable:

deflected configuration is taken in to 4f

Ψ = tan − 1 (1 − 2 z )

account. As shown in Fig. 1 an element of l .….(3)

cable length is defined by cd subtends a Deflection of stiffening girder:

length ab when not deflected. After ν = a 2 s in 2 π z ………(4)

deflection the point c and d move to new Forces in the suspenders:

position c’ and the length c’d’ is in general Hw8f 4π2 w

2πx

Fh = 2 + 2 a2 sin *{hs} −( hs ) * 1

not equal to cd. The vertical deflection of c EA l l l 2

is denoted by η and the lateral shift of the …………… (5)

same point is ξ. Horizontal component due to dead load:

The suspenders which connect cd to ef in wl 2

Hw = …… (6)

the initial configuration, are attached to 8f

d’ are the new positions of c and d. The E=Modulus of elasticity of cable, A=Area of cable,

f=Sag of the cable, a2 =Maximum deflection of

deflection of the girder at e is denoted by ν

structure, l= Length of main span, hs=Hanger

and is equal to the sum of η and changes

spacing, w= weight of main span, w1= weight of

due to the suspenders. cables, suspenders etc. in main span.

Structural details decide whether g shall be JavaScript is an object-oriented scripting

vertically below e and are discussed later. language used to

The slope of the undeflected cable is ψ. enable programmatic access to objects

Equations for calculating deflection of within both the client application and

suspended main cable, deflection of girder, other applications. It is primarily used in

slope of undeflected cable in initial the form of client-side JavaScript,

position and forces in suspenders of any implemented as an integrated component

finite element cable based on basic of the web browser, allowing the

deflection theory of suspension bridges are development of enhanced user

as follows:

IJAET/Vol. I/ Issue I/April-June, 2010/84-94

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

interfaces and dynamic websites. Spans= 1,125 ft. , Weight of Main Span

JavaScript is a dialect of the ECMA per lineal ft. Deck= 1,11,300 lbs., Weight

Script standard and is characterized as of Cables, Suspenders etc.= 6,670 lbs.,

a dynamic, weakly typed, prototype- Weight of Stiffening Trusses= 3,330 lbs.,

based language with first-class functions. Weight of Bracing= 600 lbs., Weight of

JavaScript was influenced by many Miscellaneous= 400 lbs., Total Weight

languages and was designed to look =21,300lbs., Dead load for side spans per

like Java, but to be easier for non- linear ft.= 21,500 lbs., Live load capacity

programmers to work with. per linear ft.= 4,000 lbs., Maximum

A computer HTML program is developed downward deflection of Main Span= 10.8

for calculating change in various ft., Longitudinal Tower deflections

geometrical parameters due to dead load of Shoreward= 22 ins., Longitudinal Tower

Stiffened Suspension Bridges. Main deflections Channel ward= 18 ins.

feature of program is, it can simulate Diameter of Cables over wrapping= 36-f

graphical presentation of deflected shape. ins., Length of one cable= 7,650 ft.,

Its accuracy has been checked by Number of wires in each cable= 27,572,

numerical example. Size of wire, diameter= 0.196 ins., Weight

Properties of the main span of the Golden of cable, suspenders etc.= 24,500 tons.,

Gate Bridge at San Francisco are as under: Moment of Inertia of one main stiffening

Length of Main Span= 4,200 ft. , Sag of girder= 43,150 in4.

Main Span= 470 ft. , Length of Side

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

Paper Results:[2] Our Results Paper Results:[2] Our Results

z ψ z ν

0 24°7’ 0 0.000

0.3 9.510

0.3 10°9’

0.4 5.877

0.4 5°7’

0.5 0.000

0.5 0°0’

0.6 -5.877

0.6 5°7’

0.7 -9.510

0.7 10°9’

0.8 -9.510

0.8 15°2’

0.9 -5.877

0.9 19°42’

1.0 0.000

1.0 24°7’

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

Bridges are frequently built on exposed deterministic methods for aerostatic

sites and are subject to severe wind stability analysis of suspension bridges.

conditions. Aerostatic loads on bridge Series method is also proposed to

superstructures depend on the type of investigate the aerostatic stability of

bridge, such as slab-stringer, truss, suspension bridges using a hybrid method,

arch, cable-stayed, or suspension. Other consisting of the series method and direct

parameters that affect aerostatic loads on Monte Carlo simulation.

bridge superstructures are the wind Presented series method contains the fol-

velocity, angle of attack, the size and lowing characteristics:

shape of the bridge, the terrain, and • The series method considers both three

the gust characteristics. Aerostatic loads components of displacement-

form a major component of lateral loads dependent wind loads and geometric

that act on all structure. In general, they nonlinearity of structure in the

are a component of the so called deflection theory of suspension

environmental loads to which all bridges.

structures are subjected. Because of the • The following derivation of formula is

long spans, suspension bridges have based on the deflection theory of

become increasingly sensitive to aerostatic suspension bridges.

instability. This is mainly because this theory can, to a

On the other hand, experimental certain extent account for the geometric

observations suggest that the aerostatic nonlinearity of structure (the stiffening

instability of long-span bridges effect of the tension force in the cable).

(suspension bridges and cable-stayed This conclusion has been demonstrated by

bridges) can occur under the action of the fact that the majority of the existing

static aerostatic loads. Therefore, the long span suspension bridges were

aerostatic stability analysis of long span correctly designed using the deflection

suspension bridges under the aerostatic theory before the computer era.

loads is of considerable importance. ASSUMPTIONS MADE IN THEORY

DETERMINISTIC AEROSTATIC In the above theory, the following

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF assumptions are made:

SUSPENSION BRIDGES

1. Hanger is densely distributed along the

A series method is proposed by Jin Cheng,

bridge length direction;

Jian-Jing Jiang, Ru-Cheng Xiao [10] to

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

2. The stretching of hangers under wind Assuming that under the effect of the mean

loads is ignored; wind velocity V with the angle of

3. Changes of critical wind velocity incidence α0, the torsional displacement of

caused by longitudinal deformation deck is θ. Then the effective wind angle of

and lateral deflection of stiffened attack is α = α0 + θ. The components of

girder are ignored; wind forces per unit span acting on the

4. Configuration of cable during on deformed deck can be written in wind axes

completion is quadratic parabola; as:

stress of stiffened girder due to dead Drag force: Fv(α) = 0.5 ρ V2 Cy(α ) D

load is ignored and …………(7)

5. Under the action of drag force of Lift force: Fz(α) = 0.5 ρ V2 Cz(α ) D

Pitch moment: M(α) = 0.5 ρ V2 Cm(α ) B2

the load transferred to the stiffened

………..(9)

girder from cables is assumed to be

isosceles triangle distribution. SOLUTION PROCEDURE

SERIES METHOD 1. Calculate the initial horizontal

The series method is a two-step process: component of cable tension owing to

the calculation of deflection response dead loads of cables, hangers and

under the displacement-dependent wind stiffened girder from

loads and the calculation of the critical ql 2

Ho =

wind velocity. The response under the 8f

displacement-dependent wind loads is 2. Give an initial wind velocity V

calculated from Fourier series. The critical 3. Initialize the iteration counter i = 1.

wind velocity is calculated by means of an 4. If i = 1, the coefficient bri = 0, Hpi =

iterative method. It is found that a small 0, and Hi = H0 in Eq.(13).

number of iteration cycles and Fourier 5. Determine the coefficient ari by

coefficients are sufficient enough for substituting bri, Hpi and Hi into Eq.

convergence. The series method is suitable (13).

for single-span suspension bridges. 6. Calculate the vertical displacement of

Three components of wind loads stiffened girder, η(x), from (10).

The three components of wind load are 7. Set i= i+1.

drag force, lift force and pitch moment. 8. Substitute η(x) into (9), and the new

Consider a section of bridge deck in a value of Hpi is determined.

smooth flow, as shown in Fig. 2.

IJAET/Vol. I/ Issue I/April-June, 2010/84-94

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

10. Substitute Hi into (7), and the ε1max, continue.

coefficient br is determined. 14. Check the convergence using

11. Calculate the torsional displacement of i

15. Check if H has a negative value.

stiffened girder, α(x), and the vertical 16. If Hi is a positive value, update the

displacement of stiffened girder, η(x), wind velocity V using

and the lateral displacement of 17. V= V + ∆V

stiffened girder, u(x), from (4), (10), 18. Where V is the incremental wind

(18) and (19), respectively. velocity, go to step 2;

12. Check the convergence value ε1 using 19. Otherwise, STOP (end of calculation).

i −1

H −H

i

ε1 =

H i −1

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

The Hu Men suspension bridge in China was not considered.

was chosen for verification example. The Comparison of different methods result for

general configurations of the bridge, critical wind velocity is shown in table

shown in Fig. 5.03, are summarized as 4.02. From this table it can be seen that

follows: a suspension bridge of main span presented series method result using

888 m; portal frame shape towers with 150 matlab-7.0 is nearly equal to paper result.

m height; closed-box deck with 3.012 m And quite satisfactory result in the

depth and 35.6 m width; width between prediction of critical wind velocity can be

center lines of cables is 33 m; the spacing obtained by using MATLAB program.

between the two hangers is 12.0 m. section And <5% difference with respect to

material and geometrical features of the accurate critical wind velocity calculated

main member are indicated in Table 1. by different methods as shown in Table 2.

The three components of the displacement- Fig 4 shows horizontal tension in cable vs.

dependent wind loads were only wind velocity. From this fig it can be seen

considered for the bridge deck while for that horizontal tension in cable decreases

the cables only the initial drag force was with increase in wind velocity. And for a

considered. The angle of incidence α0= 0 is particular wind velocity it gives negative

taken. The coefficients (e1, e2, c1, c2) are value. It indicates critical wind velocity,

given by e 1 = 0.00877, e2 = 0.01838, c1 which may causes instability in suspension

=0.02462, c2 = 0.0789. Sag of the cable is bridge.

m (t/m) E(MPa) γ

Steel box girder 18.33 210000.0 0.3

Cable 2.397 200000.0 -

Hanger 0.172 160000.0 -

Paper Result MATLAB-7.0 Result

NFEM Linear Method Series Series Method

Method

Critical Wind 120.0 136.0 125.0 123.0

Velocity (m/s)

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

CONCLUSIONS the suspenders it is necessary to know

From this work following conclusions can the forces in the suspenders.

be drawn: 6. Salient feature of HTML program is, it

1. Series method gives very precise can simulate deflected shape of a cable

results compared to NFEM and linear element at various distances from

method, the difference is @ <5% with tower.

respect to accurate critical wind REFERENCES

velocity. Hence, series method is 1. B. Semper “A Mathematical Model

suggested for higher spans. Suspension Bridge Vibration”, Math1.

2. The results show that the developed Cornputer Modeling, Vol. 18, No. 11,

pp. 17-28, 1993.

program is accurate, practical, and

2. Dino A. Morelli “Some Contribution

computationally efficient.

To The Theory Of The Stiffened

3. By using series method, the problem of

Suspension Bridges”

aerostatic analysis is greatly simplified,

3. E.S. Kreis, J.C. Andr “A Numerical

thus saving of computation time Inquiry into The Flutter Phenomenon

significantly. in Long-span Bridges”, Latin

4. Vertical deflection and lateral shift of American Journal of Solids and

main cable element is having Structures, 2 (2005) 321–337

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configuration of stiffened suspension “Refinements on Aerodynamic

Bridges” Journal of Wind Engineering

5. To determine longitudinal movement

and Aerodynamics, Elsevier, 90

of the girder, due to the inclination of

(2002) 1493–1515,

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

Application of Time series analysis to

Describe the Tynamic Movements of

Suspension Bridges”, Elsevier ,

Nonlinear Analysis: Real World

Applications 10 (2009) 910–927.

6. Henrik Ditlev Nissen, Paul Haase

Sorensen.and Ole Jannerup “Active

Aerodynamic Stabilisation of Long

Suspension Bridges”, Elsevier, Journal

of Wind Engineering and Industrial

Aerodynamics 92 (2004) 829–847.

7. Jin Cheng, Jian-Jing Jiang.and Ru-

Cheng Xiao, Hai-Fan Xiang

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analysis of Jiang Yin Suspension

Bridge”, Elsevier , Engineering

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Bridges”, Elsevier, Engineering

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