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A Tale of Two

Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
A Tale of Two Calendars Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

C. K. Raju Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
Centre for Studies in Civilizations, New Delhi committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Birthday Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I As a child my birthday was a very important day in my navigation

life. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Birthday Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I As a child my birthday was a very important day in my navigation

life. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I Date of birth in my passport is an important aspect of
The Indian
my identification. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Birthday Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I As a child my birthday was a very important day in my navigation

life. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I Date of birth in my passport is an important aspect of
The Indian
my identification. calendar reform
committee
I What is your birthday? Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The year of your birth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Let us say you were born in 1967.
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The year of your birth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Let us say you were born in 1967.
Incomplete reform
I Q. From what epoch is the 1967 years counted? Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The year of your birth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Let us say you were born in 1967.
Incomplete reform
I Q. From what epoch is the 1967 years counted? Indian calendar
I Q. Does the year 1 (or 0) indicate some historical event? The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The year of your birth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Let us say you were born in 1967.
Incomplete reform
I Q. From what epoch is the 1967 years counted? Indian calendar
I Q. Does the year 1 (or 0) indicate some historical event? The Indian
calendar reform
I (Typical answer) “the birth of Christ” committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Jesus Calendars

a myth not a historical figure C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I So, you state your year of birth Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Jesus Calendars

a myth not a historical figure C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I So, you state your year of birth Incomplete reform

I by relating it to the birth of Jesus, Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Jesus Calendars

a myth not a historical figure C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I So, you state your year of birth Incomplete reform

I by relating it to the birth of Jesus, Indian calendar

The Indian
I indirectly claiming that Jesus was a real historical figure. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Jesus Calendars

a myth not a historical figure C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I So, you state your year of birth Incomplete reform

I by relating it to the birth of Jesus, Indian calendar

The Indian
I indirectly claiming that Jesus was a real historical figure. calendar reform
committee
I But Jesus is just a myth not a real historical figure. Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
A thousand lies make a truth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Because dates are stated often navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
A thousand lies make a truth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Because dates are stated often navigation

Incomplete reform
I and a thousand lies make a truth
Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
A thousand lies make a truth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Because dates are stated often navigation

Incomplete reform
I and a thousand lies make a truth
Indian calendar
I billions of people come to believe that there really was a The Indian
Jesus calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
A thousand lies make a truth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Because dates are stated often navigation

Incomplete reform
I and a thousand lies make a truth
Indian calendar
I billions of people come to believe that there really was a The Indian
Jesus calendar reform
committee
I who was born at the beginning of the calendar. Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Right to identity Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Now my date of birth is part of my identity.
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Right to identity Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Now my date of birth is part of my identity.
Incomplete reform
I I want to describe my identity truthfully. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Right to identity Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Now my date of birth is part of my identity.
Incomplete reform
I I want to describe my identity truthfully. Indian calendar
I So what should I do? The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Right to identity Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Now my date of birth is part of my identity.
Incomplete reform
I I want to describe my identity truthfully. Indian calendar
I So what should I do? The Indian
calendar reform
I I have to tell a long story. committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Long story Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I I must add that there was no historical Jesus. Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Long story Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I I must add that there was no historical Jesus. Western inferiority

Calendar and
I The story of Jesus or Iesu derives from the Egyptian navigation

mystery (symbolic story) of Isis. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Long story Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I I must add that there was no historical Jesus. Western inferiority

Calendar and
I The story of Jesus or Iesu derives from the Egyptian navigation

mystery (symbolic story) of Isis. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I The intermediate entities are the Greek god of sexual
The Indian
love, Bacchus, and the Egyptian-Greek deity Serapis. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Long story Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I I must add that there was no historical Jesus. Western inferiority

Calendar and
I The story of Jesus or Iesu derives from the Egyptian navigation

mystery (symbolic story) of Isis. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I The intermediate entities are the Greek god of sexual
The Indian
love, Bacchus, and the Egyptian-Greek deity Serapis. calendar reform
committee
I (As the Greek historian Herodotus said, the Greeks Calendar and
copied their gods from Egypt. As Porphyry explained, religious politics
again
Bacchus was Isis.) Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Euclid and Jesus Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform
I Longer story told in my book Euclid and Jesus available Indian calendar
from amazon.com and amazon.in. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What difference does it make? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I What difference does it make today? the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What difference does it make? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I What difference does it make today? the calendar and
Western inferiority
I E.g., many people today say Christianity is an Calendar and
navigation
“Abrahamic” religion.
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What difference does it make? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I What difference does it make today? the calendar and
Western inferiority
I E.g., many people today say Christianity is an Calendar and
navigation
“Abrahamic” religion.
Incomplete reform
I That is completely false. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What difference does it make? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I What difference does it make today? the calendar and
Western inferiority
I E.g., many people today say Christianity is an Calendar and
navigation
“Abrahamic” religion.
Incomplete reform
I That is completely false. Indian calendar

I Beliefs of pre-Nicene Christians like Origen very similar The Indian


calendar reform
to karma-samskāra of Hinduism. committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What difference does it make? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I What difference does it make today? the calendar and
Western inferiority
I E.g., many people today say Christianity is an Calendar and
navigation
“Abrahamic” religion.
Incomplete reform
I That is completely false. Indian calendar

I Beliefs of pre-Nicene Christians like Origen very similar The Indian


calendar reform
to karma-samskāra of Hinduism. committee

Calendar and
I That depends upon time beliefs which make a religious politics
again
difference to current physics, see my book The Eleven
Conclusions
Pictures of Time (Sage, 2003).
A Tale of Two
Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
A deliberate falsehood Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Relating your year of birth to Jesus is not only a Western inferiority

Calendar and
falsehood navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
A deliberate falsehood Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Relating your year of birth to Jesus is not only a Western inferiority

Calendar and
falsehood navigation
I it is a deliberate falsehood taught to you. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
A deliberate falsehood Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Relating your year of birth to Jesus is not only a Western inferiority

Calendar and
falsehood navigation
I it is a deliberate falsehood taught to you. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I Well known that the zero point of that calendar was
The Indian
fixed in 6th c. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
A deliberate falsehood Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Relating your year of birth to Jesus is not only a Western inferiority

Calendar and
falsehood navigation
I it is a deliberate falsehood taught to you. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I Well known that the zero point of that calendar was
The Indian
fixed in 6th c. calendar reform
committee
I by Dionysius Exiguus in relation to calculations about Calendar and
the Christian ritual of Easter (related to the superstition religious politics
again
about the resurrection of Jesus). Conclusions
A Tale of Two
AD Calendars

Anno domini C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Further, I was taught in childhood to add AD and BC navigation

to dates, so it should be 1967 AD. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
AD Calendars

Anno domini C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Further, I was taught in childhood to add AD and BC navigation

to dates, so it should be 1967 AD. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I What is AD?
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
AD Calendars

Anno domini C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Further, I was taught in childhood to add AD and BC navigation

to dates, so it should be 1967 AD. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I What is AD?
The Indian
I AD = Anno Domini = year of our Lord. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
AD Calendars

Anno domini C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Further, I was taught in childhood to add AD and BC navigation

to dates, so it should be 1967 AD. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I What is AD?
The Indian
I AD = Anno Domini = year of our Lord. calendar reform
committee
I So, by saying AD you indirectly acknowledge Jesus as Calendar and
religious politics
your Lord and dominator. again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
BC Calendars

Before Christ C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Similarly, to state old historical dates navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
BC Calendars

Before Christ C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Similarly, to state old historical dates navigation

Incomplete reform
I you are taught to say BC.
Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
BC Calendars

Before Christ C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Similarly, to state old historical dates navigation

Incomplete reform
I you are taught to say BC.
Indian calendar
I BC = Before Christ. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
BC Calendars

Before Christ C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Similarly, to state old historical dates navigation

Incomplete reform
I you are taught to say BC.
Indian calendar
I BC = Before Christ. The Indian
calendar reform
I But Christ is not a surname for Jesus committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
BC Calendars

Before Christ C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Similarly, to state old historical dates navigation

Incomplete reform
I you are taught to say BC.
Indian calendar
I BC = Before Christ. The Indian
calendar reform
I But Christ is not a surname for Jesus committee

I Christ = “saviour” so in saying BC you are admitting to Calendar and


religious politics
the Christian belief that Jesus is your saviour. again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Is this OK? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Suppose with every date one states, children are asked Western inferiority

to repeat Calendar and


navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Is this OK? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Suppose with every date one states, children are asked Western inferiority

to repeat Calendar and


navigation
I “in the year of our Lord Rama” Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Is this OK? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Suppose with every date one states, children are asked Western inferiority

to repeat Calendar and


navigation
I “in the year of our Lord Rama” Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I “before our saviour Rama”.
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Is this OK? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Suppose with every date one states, children are asked Western inferiority

to repeat Calendar and


navigation
I “in the year of our Lord Rama” Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I “before our saviour Rama”.
The Indian
I People would object. Why should it be necessary to calendar reform
committee
bring in Rama just to state a date?
Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Is this OK? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Suppose with every date one states, children are asked Western inferiority

to repeat Calendar and


navigation
I “in the year of our Lord Rama” Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I “before our saviour Rama”.
The Indian
I People would object. Why should it be necessary to calendar reform
committee
bring in Rama just to state a date?
Calendar and
religious politics
I Why not also object to the AD-BC superstition which is again
taught along with ABCD? Conclusions
A Tale of Two
More mischief Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I A more neutral terminology is CE meaning Christian navigation

Era. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
More mischief Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I A more neutral terminology is CE meaning Christian navigation

Era. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I That is mischievously misread as “Common Era”
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
More mischief Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I A more neutral terminology is CE meaning Christian navigation

Era. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I That is mischievously misread as “Common Era”
The Indian
I in accord with Christian triumphalist history that calendar reform
committee
Christianity will be universal. Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Religious politics of the calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I In my books I often have to begin with this long story navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Religious politics of the calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I In my books I often have to begin with this long story navigation

Incomplete reform
I just so that the lay reader can understand the way I
Indian calendar
state dates
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Religious politics of the calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I In my books I often have to begin with this long story navigation

Incomplete reform
I just so that the lay reader can understand the way I
Indian calendar
state dates
The Indian
I and the religious politics involved in the calendar taught calendar reform
committee
in school. Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Bad education Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Most people learn about dates as children
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Bad education Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Most people learn about dates as children
Incomplete reform
I and never ask questions. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Bad education Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Most people learn about dates as children
Incomplete reform
I and never ask questions. Indian calendar

I The case of the calendar shows how colonial education The Indian
calendar reform
indoctrinates them. committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The first lesson in school Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Colonial education was church education when it came: Western inferiority

Calendar and
it aims to indoctrinate. navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The first lesson in school Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Colonial education was church education when it came: Western inferiority

Calendar and
it aims to indoctrinate. navigation

I The first lesson one learns in school is that everything Incomplete reform

you do at home is wrong. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The first lesson in school Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Colonial education was church education when it came: Western inferiority

Calendar and
it aims to indoctrinate. navigation

I The first lesson one learns in school is that everything Incomplete reform

you do at home is wrong. Indian calendar

The Indian
I What clothes you wear, the language you speak, how calendar reform
committee
you eat (and what you eat).
Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The first lesson in school Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Colonial education was church education when it came: Western inferiority

Calendar and
it aims to indoctrinate. navigation

I The first lesson one learns in school is that everything Incomplete reform

you do at home is wrong. Indian calendar

The Indian
I What clothes you wear, the language you speak, how calendar reform
committee
you eat (and what you eat).
Calendar and
I The second lesson is that the West is superior so religious politics
again
imitating the West makes you superior. Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Feeling superior Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I So, I learnt to wear a tie and shoes, and feel superior, Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Feeling superior Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I So, I learnt to wear a tie and shoes, and feel superior, Calendar and
navigation
I speak English and feel superior, Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Feeling superior Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I So, I learnt to wear a tie and shoes, and feel superior, Calendar and
navigation
I speak English and feel superior, Incomplete reform

I eat with knife and fork and feel superior, Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Feeling superior Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I So, I learnt to wear a tie and shoes, and feel superior, Calendar and
navigation
I speak English and feel superior, Incomplete reform

I eat with knife and fork and feel superior, Indian calendar

The Indian
I say AD and BC and feel superior! calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Feeling superior Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I So, I learnt to wear a tie and shoes, and feel superior, Calendar and
navigation
I speak English and feel superior, Incomplete reform

I eat with knife and fork and feel superior, Indian calendar

The Indian
I say AD and BC and feel superior! calendar reform
committee
I Church/racist/colonial history always taught superiority Calendar and
for some trifling reasons such as skin-color. religious politics
again

Conclusions
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A Tale of Two
Western calendar Calendars

A story of persistent Western inferiority C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

I But why is the Western calendar superior? Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Western calendar Calendars

A story of persistent Western inferiority C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

I But why is the Western calendar superior? Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I Have we examined the matter scientifically?
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Western calendar Calendars

A story of persistent Western inferiority C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

I But why is the Western calendar superior? Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I Have we examined the matter scientifically?
The Indian
I In fact, the Western calendar tells the story of calendar reform
committee
persistent Western inferiority in math and science. Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Western calendar: Origins Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Greek historian Herodotus tells us that the Greeks Western inferiority

copied also their calendar from Egypt (not only their Calendar and
navigation
gods). Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Western calendar: Origins Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Greek historian Herodotus tells us that the Greeks Western inferiority

copied also their calendar from Egypt (not only their Calendar and
navigation
gods). Incomplete reform
I However, Greeks and Romans could not maintain the Indian calendar

calendar they copied. The Indian


calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Western calendar: Origins Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Greek historian Herodotus tells us that the Greeks Western inferiority

copied also their calendar from Egypt (not only their Calendar and
navigation
gods). Incomplete reform
I However, Greeks and Romans could not maintain the Indian calendar

calendar they copied. The Indian


calendar reform
committee
I because they were arithmetically incompetent,
Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Western calendar: Origins Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Greek historian Herodotus tells us that the Greeks Western inferiority

copied also their calendar from Egypt (not only their Calendar and
navigation
gods). Incomplete reform
I However, Greeks and Romans could not maintain the Indian calendar

calendar they copied. The Indian


calendar reform
committee
I because they were arithmetically incompetent,
Calendar and
I Romans laughed at the “Greek calends”, religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Western calendar: Origins Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Greek historian Herodotus tells us that the Greeks Western inferiority

copied also their calendar from Egypt (not only their Calendar and
navigation
gods). Incomplete reform
I However, Greeks and Romans could not maintain the Indian calendar

calendar they copied. The Indian


calendar reform
committee
I because they were arithmetically incompetent,
Calendar and
I Romans laughed at the “Greek calends”, religious politics
again
I but their own calendar was hopelessly bad. Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The Julian reform Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I In -48 CE Julius Caesar conquered Egypt. Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The Julian reform Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I In -48 CE Julius Caesar conquered Egypt. Western inferiority

I With the help of the Egyptian astronomer Sosigenes, Calendar and


navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The Julian reform Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I In -48 CE Julius Caesar conquered Egypt. Western inferiority

I With the help of the Egyptian astronomer Sosigenes, Calendar and


navigation
I he reformed the Roman calendar in -46 CE with great Incomplete reform
fanfare. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The Julian reform Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I In -48 CE Julius Caesar conquered Egypt. Western inferiority

I With the help of the Egyptian astronomer Sosigenes, Calendar and


navigation
I he reformed the Roman calendar in -46 CE with great Incomplete reform
fanfare. Indian calendar

I (Moral: culture flows towards barbarian military The Indian


calendar reform
conquerors.) committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The Julian reform Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I In -48 CE Julius Caesar conquered Egypt. Western inferiority

I With the help of the Egyptian astronomer Sosigenes, Calendar and


navigation
I he reformed the Roman calendar in -46 CE with great Incomplete reform
fanfare. Indian calendar

I (Moral: culture flows towards barbarian military The Indian


calendar reform
conquerors.) committee

Calendar and
I To realign the calendar with the equinoxes, a year of religious politics
again
445 days was needed, showing how much in error the
Conclusions
Roman calendar then was.
A Tale of Two
Months and the moon Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The Egyptians saw that the Romans were arithmetically Calendar and
challenged: navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Months and the moon Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The Egyptians saw that the Romans were arithmetically Calendar and
challenged: navigation

Incomplete reform
I hence they were unable to correlate months with the
Indian calendar
cycle of the moon. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Months and the moon Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The Egyptians saw that the Romans were arithmetically Calendar and
challenged: navigation

Incomplete reform
I hence they were unable to correlate months with the
Indian calendar
cycle of the moon. The Indian
calendar reform
I So, they gave the Romans a simple calendrical system committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Months and the moon Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The Egyptians saw that the Romans were arithmetically Calendar and
challenged: navigation

Incomplete reform
I hence they were unable to correlate months with the
Indian calendar
cycle of the moon. The Indian
calendar reform
I So, they gave the Romans a simple calendrical system committee

I in which months no longer related to the cycle of the Calendar and


religious politics
moon. again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The Julian leap Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Sosigenes calendar started with 7 months of 30 Western inferiority

days alternating with 5 months of 31 days Calendar and


navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The Julian leap Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Sosigenes calendar started with 7 months of 30 Western inferiority

days alternating with 5 months of 31 days Calendar and


navigation
I with a leap year every fourth year. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The Julian leap Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Sosigenes calendar started with 7 months of 30 Western inferiority

days alternating with 5 months of 31 days Calendar and


navigation
I with a leap year every fourth year. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I The Romans grabbed credit by naming the calendar
The Indian
after Julius, calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The Julian leap Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Sosigenes calendar started with 7 months of 30 Western inferiority

days alternating with 5 months of 31 days Calendar and


navigation
I with a leap year every fourth year. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I The Romans grabbed credit by naming the calendar
The Indian
after Julius, calendar reform
committee
I but they did not understand even these simple
Calendar and
instructions. religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The Julian leap Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Sosigenes calendar started with 7 months of 30 Western inferiority

days alternating with 5 months of 31 days Calendar and


navigation
I with a leap year every fourth year. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I The Romans grabbed credit by naming the calendar
The Indian
after Julius, calendar reform
committee
I but they did not understand even these simple
Calendar and
instructions. religious politics
again
I They foolishly added a leap year every three years! Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Augustus Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The mistake was corrected in the time of Augustus Calendar and


navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Augustus Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The mistake was corrected in the time of Augustus Calendar and


navigation
I who insisted that a month (August) should hence be Incomplete reform
named after him. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Augustus Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The mistake was corrected in the time of Augustus Calendar and


navigation
I who insisted that a month (August) should hence be Incomplete reform
named after him. Indian calendar

I To compete with Julius he added one day to August to The Indian


calendar reform
make it 31 days. committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Augustus Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The mistake was corrected in the time of Augustus Calendar and


navigation
I who insisted that a month (August) should hence be Incomplete reform
named after him. Indian calendar

I To compete with Julius he added one day to August to The Indian


calendar reform
make it 31 days. committee

Calendar and
I The two extra days were stolen from February. religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Roman months Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I Thus months on the Roman calendar have 28, 29, 30, Calendar and
navigation
and 31 days Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Roman months Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I Thus months on the Roman calendar have 28, 29, 30, Calendar and
navigation
and 31 days Incomplete reform
I and cannot correspond to the lunar cycle. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Roman months Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I Thus months on the Roman calendar have 28, 29, 30, Calendar and
navigation
and 31 days Incomplete reform
I and cannot correspond to the lunar cycle. Indian calendar

I This non-textual evidence conclusively shows that The Indian


calendar reform
Greeks and Romans were inferior in astronomy committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Roman months Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I Thus months on the Roman calendar have 28, 29, 30, Calendar and
navigation
and 31 days Incomplete reform
I and cannot correspond to the lunar cycle. Indian calendar

I This non-textual evidence conclusively shows that The Indian


calendar reform
Greeks and Romans were inferior in astronomy committee

Calendar and
I for they could not keep track of the lunar cycle. religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Roman year Calendars

Solar cycle C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Romans couldn’t manage the solar cycle either!
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Roman year Calendars

Solar cycle C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Romans couldn’t manage the solar cycle either!
Incomplete reform
I The system of a leap year every fourth year assumes Indian calendar
that the year is 365 41 days. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Roman year Calendars

Solar cycle C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Romans couldn’t manage the solar cycle either!
Incomplete reform
I The system of a leap year every fourth year assumes Indian calendar
that the year is 365 41 days. The Indian
calendar reform
I Is that correct? committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Roman year Calendars

Solar cycle C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Romans couldn’t manage the solar cycle either!
Incomplete reform
I The system of a leap year every fourth year assumes Indian calendar
that the year is 365 41 days. The Indian
calendar reform
I Is that correct? committee

Calendar and
I This is wrong! Even if you learnt it in school. religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Arithmetically challenged Calendars

Both Greeks and Romans C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I The tropical year is the time between two equinoxes of the calendar and
Western inferiority
the same type (summer equinox to summer equinox
Calendar and
say). navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Arithmetically challenged Calendars

Both Greeks and Romans C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I The tropical year is the time between two equinoxes of the calendar and
Western inferiority
the same type (summer equinox to summer equinox
Calendar and
say). navigation

Incomplete reform
I Its duration is approximately 365.242 (tropical) days,
Indian calendar
NOT 365.25 days.
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Arithmetically challenged Calendars

Both Greeks and Romans C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I The tropical year is the time between two equinoxes of the calendar and
Western inferiority
the same type (summer equinox to summer equinox
Calendar and
say). navigation

Incomplete reform
I Its duration is approximately 365.242 (tropical) days,
Indian calendar
NOT 365.25 days.
The Indian
I In early Greek or Roman numerals there is no way to calendar reform
committee
state so accurate a fraction as 365242
1000 Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Arithmetically challenged Calendars

Both Greeks and Romans C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I The tropical year is the time between two equinoxes of the calendar and
Western inferiority
the same type (summer equinox to summer equinox
Calendar and
say). navigation

Incomplete reform
I Its duration is approximately 365.242 (tropical) days,
Indian calendar
NOT 365.25 days.
The Indian
I In early Greek or Roman numerals there is no way to calendar reform
committee
state so accurate a fraction as 365242
1000 Calendar and
religious politics
I The Romans had names for only a few simple fractions again

(parts of 12). Conclusions


A Tale of Two
Arithmetically challenged Calendars

Both Greeks and Romans C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I The tropical year is the time between two equinoxes of the calendar and
Western inferiority
the same type (summer equinox to summer equinox
Calendar and
say). navigation

Incomplete reform
I Its duration is approximately 365.242 (tropical) days,
Indian calendar
NOT 365.25 days.
The Indian
I In early Greek or Roman numerals there is no way to calendar reform
committee
state so accurate a fraction as 365242
1000 Calendar and
religious politics
I The Romans had names for only a few simple fractions again

(parts of 12). Conclusions

I Hence, they chose 365 14 since they could not even say
the right length of the year.
A Tale of Two
What difference does that make? Calendars

The Christian calendar C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I In the 4th c. (Nicene council) the church adopted the Western inferiority

Calendar and
Julian calendar as its religious calendar navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What difference does that make? Calendars

The Christian calendar C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I In the 4th c. (Nicene council) the church adopted the Western inferiority

Calendar and
Julian calendar as its religious calendar navigation

I to fix the date of Easter. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What difference does that make? Calendars

The Christian calendar C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I In the 4th c. (Nicene council) the church adopted the Western inferiority

Calendar and
Julian calendar as its religious calendar navigation

I to fix the date of Easter. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I Easter (not Christmas) was then the major Christian
The Indian
festival. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What difference does that make? Calendars

The Christian calendar C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I In the 4th c. (Nicene council) the church adopted the Western inferiority

Calendar and
Julian calendar as its religious calendar navigation

I to fix the date of Easter. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I Easter (not Christmas) was then the major Christian
The Indian
festival. calendar reform
committee
I Since then, the Julian calendar is also the Christian Calendar and
calendar. religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What difference does that make? Calendars

The Christian calendar C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I In the 4th c. (Nicene council) the church adopted the Western inferiority

Calendar and
Julian calendar as its religious calendar navigation

I to fix the date of Easter. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I Easter (not Christmas) was then the major Christian
The Indian
festival. calendar reform
committee
I Since then, the Julian calendar is also the Christian Calendar and
calendar. religious politics
again
I (Hence, also, called “Julian”, not Egyptian, to suppress Conclusions

Egyptian origins.)
A Tale of Two
The date of Easter Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Easter was defined as the first Sunday (Christian holy
Calendar and
day) after the first full moon after the vernal equinox navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The date of Easter Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Easter was defined as the first Sunday (Christian holy
Calendar and
day) after the first full moon after the vernal equinox navigation

I provided it did not coincide with the Jewish Passover Incomplete reform

(which is like Bakr-Id), in which case it was shifted to Indian calendar

The Indian
the next Sunday. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The date of Easter Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Easter was defined as the first Sunday (Christian holy
Calendar and
day) after the first full moon after the vernal equinox navigation

I provided it did not coincide with the Jewish Passover Incomplete reform

(which is like Bakr-Id), in which case it was shifted to Indian calendar

The Indian
the next Sunday. calendar reform
committee
I So, to fix the date of Easter required a calendar which
Calendar and
could (a) correctly fix the date of the equinox and (b) religious politics
again
describe also the lunar cycle.
Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The slip in the date of Easter Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The error of 0.01 days in 1 year (in the length of the
Incomplete reform
year on the Roman calendar)
Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The slip in the date of Easter Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The error of 0.01 days in 1 year (in the length of the
Incomplete reform
year on the Roman calendar)
Indian calendar
I meant an error of 1 day in a 100 years. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The slip in the date of Easter Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The error of 0.01 days in 1 year (in the length of the
Incomplete reform
year on the Roman calendar)
Indian calendar
I meant an error of 1 day in a 100 years. The Indian
calendar reform
I Hence, the date of Easter slipped within a century. committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Hilarious reforms Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Various calendar reforms were hence attempted in the Western inferiority

Calendar and
5th c., notably by Pope Hilarius navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Hilarious reforms Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Various calendar reforms were hence attempted in the Western inferiority

Calendar and
5th c., notably by Pope Hilarius navigation

I But those calendar reforms failed. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Hilarious reforms Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Various calendar reforms were hence attempted in the Western inferiority

Calendar and
5th c., notably by Pope Hilarius navigation

I But those calendar reforms failed. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I The church controlled the Roman state then, hence had
The Indian
access to all knowledge in the empire. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Hilarious reforms Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Various calendar reforms were hence attempted in the Western inferiority

Calendar and
5th c., notably by Pope Hilarius navigation

I But those calendar reforms failed. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I The church controlled the Roman state then, hence had
The Indian
access to all knowledge in the empire. calendar reform
committee
I Hence failure of calendar reforms means the then lack Calendar and
of serious knowledge of astronomy in the entire Roman religious politics
again
empire. Conclusions
A Tale of Two
No Claudius Ptolemy Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I Contrary to stories of Greek glorification. the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
No Claudius Ptolemy Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I Contrary to stories of Greek glorification. the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Specifically the Almagest attributed to a 2nd c. Calendar and
Claudius Ptolemy (unrelated to Ptolemy dynasty) did navigation

Incomplete reform
not then exist in its present form.
Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
No Claudius Ptolemy Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I Contrary to stories of Greek glorification. the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Specifically the Almagest attributed to a 2nd c. Calendar and
Claudius Ptolemy (unrelated to Ptolemy dynasty) did navigation

Incomplete reform
not then exist in its present form.
Indian calendar
I It had a slightly better (but still incorrect) length of the The Indian
tropical year, which was never used in the Christian calendar reform
committee
calendar. Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
No Claudius Ptolemy Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I Contrary to stories of Greek glorification. the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Specifically the Almagest attributed to a 2nd c. Calendar and
Claudius Ptolemy (unrelated to Ptolemy dynasty) did navigation

Incomplete reform
not then exist in its present form.
Indian calendar
I It had a slightly better (but still incorrect) length of the The Indian
tropical year, which was never used in the Christian calendar reform
committee
calendar. Calendar and
religious politics
I Thus, failure of 5th c. calendar reforms proves that again

stories of early Greek achievements in astronomy are Conclusions

fraudulent.
A Tale of Two
Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Precise fractions Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I In contrast, Indians had a sophisticated way to state navigation

fractions. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Precise fractions Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I In contrast, Indians had a sophisticated way to state navigation

fractions. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I The duration of the sidereal year was stated by the 5th
The Indian
c. Āryabhat.a as follows (Gitika 3) calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Precise fractions Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I In contrast, Indians had a sophisticated way to state navigation

fractions. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I The duration of the sidereal year was stated by the 5th
The Indian
c. Āryabhat.a as follows (Gitika 3) calendar reform
committee
I using precise fractions with large denominators. Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
GITIKL SECTION I Gitika So.
A Tale of Two
Āryabhat.a
REVOLUTION.NT]MBERS AND ZERO POINI Calendars

Gitika 3gtrttqqx{rr c{Er $flqr


C. K. Raju

qqfiif,l ssQg, 5 ibihigqquq'


,. 1 {ttfi
tE({- \ I Calendar &
religious politics
sift 6&qre, ge I(d'
Colonial education,
GITIKL SECTION
;grr, gs q{ieqsg, uuSq*r! il 1I Gitika
lt
So. the calendar and
Western inferiority
REVOLUTION.NT]MBERS AND ZERO POINI
q;i\€q '{Geu, sq
gtrttqqx{rr c{Er
Calendar and
navigation
$flqr
$$itrga, Ug udlgg,
qqfiif,l ssQg, ibihigfrqrql t Incomplete reform

qraiidlqr, 5
qquq'
,. 1 {ttfi
tE({- \ I
gtsqq
sift 6&qre, ge I(d'
Indian calendar

;grr, gs q{ieqsg,
sqraqqw,TqqTEq qgrtr( ll ?illi The Indian
uuSq*r! 1 lt calendar reform
committee
3.4. lt a yugo, the eestward revolutions of the Sun are 43120,000 3
q;i\€q
of the Moon, '{Geu,ofsqthe Earth,3 1,58,22137,500; of
5,77,53,336; Calendar and
religious politics
Saturn, 1.,46,564; of Jupiterr 3,641224; of Mars, 22196,824;
Yenus, theUg
of Mercury and$$itrga, udlgg, frqrql t
same as those of the Sun ; of the
again

Conclusions
Moon's apogee, qraiidlqr,
gtsqq 4,881219 ; of (the tighrocca of'| Mercury,
sqraqqw,TqqTEq qgrtr(
1.,79,37,&20; of (the lighrocca of Yenus, 70,22,388;
ll ? liof (the
lrghroccas of ) the other planets, the same as those of the
3.4. lt a yugo, the eestward revolutions of the Sun are 43120,000 3
Sun ; of the moon's asceniling node iu the opposite direction
of the Moon, 5,77,53,336; of the Earth,3 1,58,22137,500; of
(i.e., westward), 2,32,226.4 'Ihese revolutions commenced at
Saturn, 1.,46,564; of Jupiterr 3,641224; of Mars, 22196,824;
the of Mercury of
beginning the sign Aries on those of the at
and Yenus, the same asWednesday
sunrise
Sun ; of the
at Lafika (when it was the commencement of the current yuga).
Moon's apogee, 4,881219 ; of (the tighrocca of'| Mercury,
A Tale of Two
Precise fractions Calendars

contd. C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Thus, the 5th c. Āryabhat.a gives the lendgth of the
Incomplete reform
year as a precise fraction
Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Precise fractions Calendars

contd. C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Thus, the 5th c. Āryabhat.a gives the lendgth of the
Incomplete reform
year as a precise fraction
Indian calendar
I
The Indian
1582237500 − 4320000 calendar reform
= 365.25868. committee
4320000
Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Precise fractions Calendars

contd. C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Thus, the 5th c. Āryabhat.a gives the lendgth of the
Incomplete reform
year as a precise fraction
Indian calendar
I
The Indian
1582237500 − 4320000 calendar reform
= 365.25868. committee
4320000
Calendar and
I This is the duration of the sidereal year. religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Āryabhat.a’s value Calendars

Sidereal year C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Thus, Āryabhat.a’s value for a sidereal year was
Calendar and
365.2586 days compared to its modern value of navigation
365.2563 days. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Āryabhat.a’s value Calendars

Sidereal year C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Thus, Āryabhat.a’s value for a sidereal year was
Calendar and
365.2586 days compared to its modern value of navigation
365.2563 days. Incomplete reform

I So Āryabhat.a’s error was in the 3rd place after the Indian calendar

The Indian
decimal point. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Āryabhat.a’s value Calendars

Sidereal year C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Thus, Āryabhat.a’s value for a sidereal year was
Calendar and
365.2586 days compared to its modern value of navigation
365.2563 days. Incomplete reform

I So Āryabhat.a’s error was in the 3rd place after the Indian calendar

The Indian
decimal point. calendar reform
committee
I His value was an order of magnitude more accurate.
Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Āryabhat.a’s value Calendars

Sidereal year C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Thus, Āryabhat.a’s value for a sidereal year was
Calendar and
365.2586 days compared to its modern value of navigation
365.2563 days. Incomplete reform

I So Āryabhat.a’s error was in the 3rd place after the Indian calendar

The Indian
decimal point. calendar reform
committee
I His value was an order of magnitude more accurate.
Calendar and
religious politics
I (Some silly writers have failed to notice that it is the again
sidereal year, which is more than 365.25 days, unlike the Conclusions
tropical year which is less.)
A Tale of Two
Interim summary Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Thus, the calendar provides robust non-textual evidence Calendar and
that navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Interim summary Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Thus, the calendar provides robust non-textual evidence Calendar and
that navigation

Incomplete reform
I early Greeks and Romans were inferior and backward in
Indian calendar
mathematics and astronomy compared to Indians. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Interim summary Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Thus, the calendar provides robust non-textual evidence Calendar and
that navigation

Incomplete reform
I early Greeks and Romans were inferior and backward in
Indian calendar
mathematics and astronomy compared to Indians. The Indian
calendar reform
I This is contrary to all sorts of bosh about Greek committee
achievements claimed on the strength of late (post-12th Calendar and
religious politics
c.) texts (plus numerous biased speculations). again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Step 1: Learning arithmetic from India Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I Western inferiority in mathematics and astronomy Calendar and


navigation
persisted for centuries. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Step 1: Learning arithmetic from India Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I Western inferiority in mathematics and astronomy Calendar and


navigation
persisted for centuries. Incomplete reform
I Realizing that, the West started importing knowledge Indian calendar

from the time of the Crusades (12th c.) The Indian


calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Step 1: Learning arithmetic from India Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I Western inferiority in mathematics and astronomy Calendar and


navigation
persisted for centuries. Incomplete reform
I Realizing that, the West started importing knowledge Indian calendar

from the time of the Crusades (12th c.) The Indian


calendar reform
committee
I Indian knowledge of arithmetic was first imported in the
Calendar and
10th c. through the Hisab al Hind of al Khwarizmi. religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
“Arabic numerals” Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
I The West accepted its arithmetic inferiority by
Colonial education,
abandoning Roman numerals for “Arabic numerals” the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
“Arabic numerals” Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
I The West accepted its arithmetic inferiority by
Colonial education,
abandoning Roman numerals for “Arabic numerals” the calendar and
Western inferiority
I But the full story is this. Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
“Arabic numerals” Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
I The West accepted its arithmetic inferiority by
Colonial education,
abandoning Roman numerals for “Arabic numerals” the calendar and
Western inferiority
I But the full story is this. Calendar and
navigation
I This Indian method of arithmetic was wrongly called
Incomplete reform
“Arabic numerals” because Westerner did not Indian calendar
understand that arithmetic. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
“Arabic numerals” Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
I The West accepted its arithmetic inferiority by
Colonial education,
abandoning Roman numerals for “Arabic numerals” the calendar and
Western inferiority
I But the full story is this. Calendar and
navigation
I This Indian method of arithmetic was wrongly called
Incomplete reform
“Arabic numerals” because Westerner did not Indian calendar
understand that arithmetic. The Indian
calendar reform
I Gerbert (Pope Sylvester) who brought Indian arithmetic committee

from Cordoba in 976 thought there was some magic in Calendar and
religious politics
the shape of the numerals. Hence the term “Arabic again

numerals”. Conclusions
A Tale of Two
“Arabic numerals” Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
I The West accepted its arithmetic inferiority by
Colonial education,
abandoning Roman numerals for “Arabic numerals” the calendar and
Western inferiority
I But the full story is this. Calendar and
navigation
I This Indian method of arithmetic was wrongly called
Incomplete reform
“Arabic numerals” because Westerner did not Indian calendar
understand that arithmetic. The Indian
calendar reform
I Gerbert (Pope Sylvester) who brought Indian arithmetic committee

from Cordoba in 976 thought there was some magic in Calendar and
religious politics
the shape of the numerals. Hence the term “Arabic again

numerals”. Conclusions

I The future infallible pope foolishly built an abacus for


algorithms!
A Tale of Two
The pope’s apices Calendars

Foolishly using an abacus for algorithms! C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Gregorian reform of 1582 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Florentine merchants understood algorithms, navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Gregorian reform of 1582 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Florentine merchants understood algorithms, navigation

Incomplete reform
I but practical mathematics was introduced in the Jesuit
Indian calendar
syllabus by Clavius only around 1572.
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Gregorian reform of 1582 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Florentine merchants understood algorithms, navigation

Incomplete reform
I but practical mathematics was introduced in the Jesuit
Indian calendar
syllabus by Clavius only around 1572.
The Indian
I Clavius also authored the 1582 Gregorian calendar calendar reform
committee
reform Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What the Gregorian reform did Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The Gregorian reform corrected the duration of the Calendar and
navigation
tropical year.
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What the Gregorian reform did Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The Gregorian reform corrected the duration of the Calendar and
navigation
tropical year.
Incomplete reform
I Every 100th year was made not a leap year. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What the Gregorian reform did Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The Gregorian reform corrected the duration of the Calendar and
navigation
tropical year.
Incomplete reform
I Every 100th year was made not a leap year. Indian calendar

I Every 1000th year was made a leap year. The Indian


calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What the Gregorian reform did Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The Gregorian reform corrected the duration of the Calendar and
navigation
tropical year.
Incomplete reform
I Every 100th year was made not a leap year. Indian calendar

I Every 1000th year was made a leap year. The Indian


calendar reform
committee
I So duration of year = 365.25 - 0.01 + 0.001 = 365.241.
Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What the Gregorian reform did Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The Gregorian reform corrected the duration of the Calendar and
navigation
tropical year.
Incomplete reform
I Every 100th year was made not a leap year. Indian calendar

I Every 1000th year was made a leap year. The Indian


calendar reform
committee
I So duration of year = 365.25 - 0.01 + 0.001 = 365.241.
Calendar and
I How did Clavius arrive at this figure? religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Reform based on documents Calendars

Not knowledge C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Gregorian reform was also based on imported Western inferiority

documents. Calendar and


navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Reform based on documents Calendars

Not knowledge C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Gregorian reform was also based on imported Western inferiority

documents. Calendar and


navigation
I Thus, there were no fresh observations involved. Incomplete reform
(Tycho’s masonry instruments were far too erroneous.) Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Reform based on documents Calendars

Not knowledge C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Gregorian reform was also based on imported Western inferiority

documents. Calendar and


navigation
I Thus, there were no fresh observations involved. Incomplete reform
(Tycho’s masonry instruments were far too erroneous.) Indian calendar

I Without observational confirmation, Protestants The Indian


calendar reform
(British, including Newton) rejected the Gregorian committee

reform as a papal plot and accepted it only 1752 (after Calendar and
religious politics
Newton’s death). again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Reform based on documents Calendars

Not knowledge C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Gregorian reform was also based on imported Western inferiority

documents. Calendar and


navigation
I Thus, there were no fresh observations involved. Incomplete reform
(Tycho’s masonry instruments were far too erroneous.) Indian calendar

I Without observational confirmation, Protestants The Indian


calendar reform
(British, including Newton) rejected the Gregorian committee

reform as a papal plot and accepted it only 1752 (after Calendar and
religious politics
Newton’s death). again

Conclusions
I So, Europeans did not know the right length of the year
even in the 17th c.
A Tale of Two
Jesuit spy Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I Clavius’ student and Jesuit spy Matteo Ricci was in the calendar and
Western inferiority
India
Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Jesuit spy Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I Clavius’ student and Jesuit spy Matteo Ricci was in the calendar and
Western inferiority
India
Calendar and
I in Cochin trying to understand Indian methods of navigation

timekeeping. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Jesuit spy Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I Clavius’ student and Jesuit spy Matteo Ricci was in the calendar and
Western inferiority
India
Calendar and
I in Cochin trying to understand Indian methods of navigation

timekeeping. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I We know he sent back material to Clavius
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Jesuit spy Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I Clavius’ student and Jesuit spy Matteo Ricci was in the calendar and
Western inferiority
India
Calendar and
I in Cochin trying to understand Indian methods of navigation

timekeeping. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I We know he sent back material to Clavius
The Indian
I For Clavius published (in 1608) trigonometric tables calendar reform
committee
with ten decimal place precision available only in India. Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Jesuit spy Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I Clavius’ student and Jesuit spy Matteo Ricci was in the calendar and
Western inferiority
India
Calendar and
I in Cochin trying to understand Indian methods of navigation

timekeeping. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I We know he sent back material to Clavius
The Indian
I For Clavius published (in 1608) trigonometric tables calendar reform
committee
with ten decimal place precision available only in India. Calendar and
religious politics
I (And Clavius did not know enough trigonometry to again

determine the size of the earth, which was determined Conclusions

in Europe only in 1672 by Picard.)


A Tale of Two
Ricci’s letter of 1581 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
I In 1581 Ricci was in Cochin and wrote that he was religious politics

looking for “an honorable Moor or an intelligent Colonial education,


the calendar and
Brahmin to tell him about Indian methods of Western inferiority

timekeeping”. Calendar and


navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The practical reason for Gregorian reform Calendars

Needed for navigation C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Though never mentioned in Western history, the Western inferiority

Gregorian calendar reform had a practical motive, Calendar and


navigation
related to wealth.
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The practical reason for Gregorian reform Calendars

Needed for navigation C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Though never mentioned in Western history, the Western inferiority

Gregorian calendar reform had a practical motive, Calendar and


navigation
related to wealth.
Incomplete reform
I A good calendar was needed for navigation, Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The practical reason for Gregorian reform Calendars

Needed for navigation C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Though never mentioned in Western history, the Western inferiority

Gregorian calendar reform had a practical motive, Calendar and


navigation
related to wealth.
Incomplete reform
I A good calendar was needed for navigation, Indian calendar

I since latitude determination through measurement of The Indian


calendar reform
solar altitude at noon requires a calendar with the committee

correct date of equinox to determine solar declination. Calendar and


religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
The practical reason for Gregorian reform Calendars

Needed for navigation C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Though never mentioned in Western history, the Western inferiority

Gregorian calendar reform had a practical motive, Calendar and


navigation
related to wealth.
Incomplete reform
I A good calendar was needed for navigation, Indian calendar

I since latitude determination through measurement of The Indian


calendar reform
solar altitude at noon requires a calendar with the committee

correct date of equinox to determine solar declination. Calendar and


religious politics
again
I Solar altitude at noon, declination, and local latitude
Conclusions
are connected by a formula given by Bhaskara 1 in
Laghu Bhaskarı̄ya.
I s rQhlobqj ,.tPfiu! -tssJ.Hlr.Ea+C$rqJ
l 8t lt ^.
er:EhE:&rES.he.E rrlprr rhhlb rh):tts
I .. trrrrnnb . r:hoh :Sbt :gl!+hrrlhuJ&lg
U
ll t lt lh.b eeto ru8)sn
r.ugtr ,*\rulrE
I i,rr., :q$"autr*rg
ll rt ll ^rnuBuJlig:rn
,rhhnlg
t +B lDB$rrtr&sg'Es{hp€€$ :>xluBrrD
^,qps&!Eluu,^pn
il bt il Qlr.ts.E e$ &$ellht.blr4 ut*u
I :eq+hxfues.bit lh),lg rlh&Lb ol.h
UILEl
A Tale of Two
Determining latitude at sea Calendars

Bhaskara’s method C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
The Rsine of the Sun’s northern declination—when
Colonial education,
less than the Rsine of the latitude—multiplied by the calendar and
Western inferiority
the radius should be divided by the Rsine of the
Calendar and
latitude: the result is the Rsine of the altitude of navigation

the sun when it is on the prime vertical. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
I That is, calendar reform
committee
Rsin δ × R sin δ Calendar and
Rsin a = or sin a = religious politics
Rsin φ sin φ again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Determining latitude at sea Calendars

Bhaskara’s method C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
The Rsine of the Sun’s northern declination—when
Colonial education,
less than the Rsine of the latitude—multiplied by the calendar and
Western inferiority
the radius should be divided by the Rsine of the
Calendar and
latitude: the result is the Rsine of the altitude of navigation

the sun when it is on the prime vertical. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
I That is, calendar reform
committee
Rsin δ × R sin δ Calendar and
Rsin a = or sin a = religious politics
Rsin φ sin φ again

Conclusions
I a = altitude of sun on prime vertical (measured)
A Tale of Two
Determining latitude at sea Calendars

Bhaskara’s method C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
The Rsine of the Sun’s northern declination—when
Colonial education,
less than the Rsine of the latitude—multiplied by the calendar and
Western inferiority
the radius should be divided by the Rsine of the
Calendar and
latitude: the result is the Rsine of the altitude of navigation

the sun when it is on the prime vertical. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
I That is, calendar reform
committee
Rsin δ × R sin δ Calendar and
Rsin a = or sin a = religious politics
Rsin φ sin φ again

Conclusions
I a = altitude of sun on prime vertical (measured)
I δ = solar declination (determined from calendar)
A Tale of Two
Determining latitude at sea Calendars

Bhaskara’s method C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
The Rsine of the Sun’s northern declination—when
Colonial education,
less than the Rsine of the latitude—multiplied by the calendar and
Western inferiority
the radius should be divided by the Rsine of the
Calendar and
latitude: the result is the Rsine of the altitude of navigation

the sun when it is on the prime vertical. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
I That is, calendar reform
committee
Rsin δ × R sin δ Calendar and
Rsin a = or sin a = religious politics
Rsin φ sin φ again

Conclusions
I a = altitude of sun on prime vertical (measured)
I δ = solar declination (determined from calendar)
I φ = local latitude (to be determined).
A Tale of Two
Ahargan.a Calendars

Julian day number C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The declination can be calculated from a knowledge of Calendar and
true equinox (good calendar) navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Ahargan.a Calendars

Julian day number C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The declination can be calculated from a knowledge of Calendar and
true equinox (good calendar) navigation

Incomplete reform
I and a knowledge of the ahargan.a or day number.
Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Ahargan.a Calendars

Julian day number C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The declination can be calculated from a knowledge of Calendar and
true equinox (good calendar) navigation

Incomplete reform
I and a knowledge of the ahargan.a or day number.
Indian calendar
I Day number today used for scientific purposes, The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Ahargan.a Calendars

Julian day number C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The declination can be calculated from a knowledge of Calendar and
true equinox (good calendar) navigation

Incomplete reform
I and a knowledge of the ahargan.a or day number.
Indian calendar
I Day number today used for scientific purposes, The Indian
calendar reform
I but called “Julian day number” as named by Clavius’ committee

contemporary Julius Scaliger, Calendar and


religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Ahargan.a Calendars

Julian day number C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I The declination can be calculated from a knowledge of Calendar and
true equinox (good calendar) navigation

Incomplete reform
I and a knowledge of the ahargan.a or day number.
Indian calendar
I Day number today used for scientific purposes, The Indian
calendar reform
I but called “Julian day number” as named by Clavius’ committee

contemporary Julius Scaliger, Calendar and


religious politics
again
I to glorify the West by attaching Western names to
Conclusions
ideas stolen by the West.
A Tale of Two
Calendar and European navigation Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
I A correct method of navigation was needed for Colonial education,
the calendar and
European dreams of wealth through trade with India. Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Calendar and European navigation Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
I A correct method of navigation was needed for Colonial education,
the calendar and
European dreams of wealth through trade with India. Western inferiority

I The first step was to be able to determine latitude at Calendar and


navigation
sea. Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Calendar and European navigation Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
I A correct method of navigation was needed for Colonial education,
the calendar and
European dreams of wealth through trade with India. Western inferiority

I The first step was to be able to determine latitude at Calendar and


navigation
sea. Incomplete reform

I Vasco da Gama and Columbus did not know how to do Indian calendar

that. (See, CKR, Cultural Foundations of Mathematics, The Indian


calendar reform
chp. on kamāl or rāpalagāi.) committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Calendar and European navigation Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
I A correct method of navigation was needed for Colonial education,
the calendar and
European dreams of wealth through trade with India. Western inferiority

I The first step was to be able to determine latitude at Calendar and


navigation
sea. Incomplete reform

I Vasco da Gama and Columbus did not know how to do Indian calendar

that. (See, CKR, Cultural Foundations of Mathematics, The Indian


calendar reform
chp. on kamāl or rāpalagāi.) committee

Calendar and
I Vasco was brought to India by an Indian navigator, religious politics
again
Kan.aka, whom he calls Cana.
Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Calendar and European navigation Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics
I A correct method of navigation was needed for Colonial education,
the calendar and
European dreams of wealth through trade with India. Western inferiority

I The first step was to be able to determine latitude at Calendar and


navigation
sea. Incomplete reform

I Vasco da Gama and Columbus did not know how to do Indian calendar

that. (See, CKR, Cultural Foundations of Mathematics, The Indian


calendar reform
chp. on kamāl or rāpalagāi.) committee

Calendar and
I Vasco was brought to India by an Indian navigator, religious politics
again
Kan.aka, whom he calls Cana.
Conclusions
I On above formula, determining latitude at sea required
a correct calendar, hence the Gregorian reform.
A Tale of Two
What is the date of equinox? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Yesterday was equinox.
Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What is the date of equinox? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Yesterday was equinox.
Calendar and
navigation
I On the Gregorian calendar, does equinox always come
Incomplete reform
on the same day (21 March)?
Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What is the date of equinox? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Yesterday was equinox.
Calendar and
navigation
I On the Gregorian calendar, does equinox always come
Incomplete reform
on the same day (21 March)?
Indian calendar
I No, the corrected length is valid only on an average. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What is the date of equinox? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Yesterday was equinox.
Calendar and
navigation
I On the Gregorian calendar, does equinox always come
Incomplete reform
on the same day (21 March)?
Indian calendar
I No, the corrected length is valid only on an average. The Indian
calendar reform
I Hence, the equinox still does not come on a fixed date committee

on the calendar. Calendar and


religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
What is the date of equinox? Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Yesterday was equinox.
Calendar and
navigation
I On the Gregorian calendar, does equinox always come
Incomplete reform
on the same day (21 March)?
Indian calendar
I No, the corrected length is valid only on an average. The Indian
calendar reform
I Hence, the equinox still does not come on a fixed date committee

on the calendar. Calendar and


religious politics
I The Gregorian calendar is still faulty. again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
General background Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The Indian calendar has been in continuous use since Calendar and
navigation
the Rgveda, and the Vedānga Jyotis.a Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
General background Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The Indian calendar has been in continuous use since Calendar and
navigation
the Rgveda, and the Vedānga Jyotis.a Incomplete reform
I The latter is a scientific manual on timekeeping (= Indian calendar

jyotis.a) from around -1500 (at least). The Indian


calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
General background Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The Indian calendar has been in continuous use since Calendar and
navigation
the Rgveda, and the Vedānga Jyotis.a Incomplete reform
I The latter is a scientific manual on timekeeping (= Indian calendar

jyotis.a) from around -1500 (at least). The Indian


calendar reform
committee
I My challenge from 15 years ago to show me a single
Calendar and
sentence about astrology in the Vedānga Jyotis.a religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Scientific calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Indian pancañg is a luni-solar calendar (not a lunar Calendar and
calendar): keeps track of both sun and moon. navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Scientific calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Indian pancañg is a luni-solar calendar (not a lunar Calendar and
calendar): keeps track of both sun and moon. navigation

Incomplete reform
I A month always has 30 tithı̄-s since a tithı̄ is defined as
Indian calendar
the time it takes for the sun and moon to move apart
The Indian
by 12 degrees. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Scientific calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Indian pancañg is a luni-solar calendar (not a lunar Calendar and
calendar): keeps track of both sun and moon. navigation

Incomplete reform
I A month always has 30 tithı̄-s since a tithı̄ is defined as
Indian calendar
the time it takes for the sun and moon to move apart
The Indian
by 12 degrees. calendar reform
committee
I However, a tithı̄ does not correspond to a civil day, Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Scientific calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Indian pancañg is a luni-solar calendar (not a lunar Calendar and
calendar): keeps track of both sun and moon. navigation

Incomplete reform
I A month always has 30 tithı̄-s since a tithı̄ is defined as
Indian calendar
the time it takes for the sun and moon to move apart
The Indian
by 12 degrees. calendar reform
committee
I However, a tithı̄ does not correspond to a civil day, Calendar and
religious politics
I and intercalary months are needed. again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Indian astronomy Calendars

Transmission C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Principles of Indian astronomy used by Arab navigation

astronomers Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Indian astronomy Calendars

Transmission C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Principles of Indian astronomy used by Arab navigation

astronomers Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I though they now have a lunar calendar.
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Indian astronomy Calendars

Transmission C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Principles of Indian astronomy used by Arab navigation

astronomers Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I though they now have a lunar calendar.
The Indian
I Indian calendar spread to China by Buddhists. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Indian astronomy Calendars

Transmission C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Principles of Indian astronomy used by Arab navigation

astronomers Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I though they now have a lunar calendar.
The Indian
I Indian calendar spread to China by Buddhists. calendar reform
committee
I Parts of Indian astronomy accreted into the 12th c. Calendar and
religious politics
Almagest. again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Kali era Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Indian calendar and customs similar to Egyptian and Calendar and
Mayan navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Kali era Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Indian calendar and customs similar to Egyptian and Calendar and
Mayan navigation

Incomplete reform
I Indian (scientific) calendar begins with the kali era
Indian calendar
-3102 CE.
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Kali era Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Indian calendar and customs similar to Egyptian and Calendar and
Mayan navigation

Incomplete reform
I Indian (scientific) calendar begins with the kali era
Indian calendar
-3102 CE.
The Indian
calendar reform
I Maya calendar began in -3112 CE. committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Kali era Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Indian calendar and customs similar to Egyptian and Calendar and
Mayan navigation

Incomplete reform
I Indian (scientific) calendar begins with the kali era
Indian calendar
-3102 CE.
The Indian
calendar reform
I Maya calendar began in -3112 CE. committee

I 10 years is a small difference across 5000 years, Calendar and


religious politics
suggesting a common astronomical model being used. again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Indian calendar Calendars

and agriculture C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The two key means of wealth production in India were Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Indian calendar Calendars

and agriculture C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The two key means of wealth production in India were Calendar and
navigation
I agriculture, and Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Indian calendar Calendars

and agriculture C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The two key means of wealth production in India were Calendar and
navigation
I agriculture, and Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I overseas trade.
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Indian calendar Calendars

and agriculture C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I The two key means of wealth production in India were Calendar and
navigation
I agriculture, and Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I overseas trade.
The Indian
I The successful practice of both required a good calendar reform
committee
calendar (to determine the rainy season) and good
Calendar and
knowledge of astronomy (to build a good calendar, and religious politics
again
for celestial navigation). Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Successful science and technology Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I India was very wealthy in the past Calendar and


navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Successful science and technology Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I India was very wealthy in the past Calendar and


navigation
I (attracted invaders like flies). Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Successful science and technology Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I India was very wealthy in the past Calendar and


navigation
I (attracted invaders like flies). Incomplete reform

I This success based on success of science and technology Indian calendar

The Indian
used calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Successful science and technology Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I India was very wealthy in the past Calendar and


navigation
I (attracted invaders like flies). Incomplete reform

I This success based on success of science and technology Indian calendar

The Indian
used calendar reform
committee
I though Western historians lack the commonsense to
Calendar and
admit it. religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Example: Size of the earth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I India is a vast country. the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Example: Size of the earth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I India is a vast country. the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Calendar had to be calibrated for different latitudes and Calendar and
navigation
longitudes.
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Example: Size of the earth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I India is a vast country. the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Calendar had to be calibrated for different latitudes and Calendar and
navigation
longitudes.
Incomplete reform
I That required knowledge of the size of the earth. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Example: Size of the earth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I India is a vast country. the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Calendar had to be calibrated for different latitudes and Calendar and
navigation
longitudes.
Incomplete reform
I That required knowledge of the size of the earth. Indian calendar

I Indian figures in yojana, can be calibrated by using Al The Indian


calendar reform
Biruni’s estimate (using Indian techniques) in Arabic committee

miles. Calendar and


religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Example: Size of the earth Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I India is a vast country. the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Calendar had to be calibrated for different latitudes and Calendar and
navigation
longitudes.
Incomplete reform
I That required knowledge of the size of the earth. Indian calendar

I Indian figures in yojana, can be calibrated by using Al The Indian


calendar reform
Biruni’s estimate (using Indian techniques) in Arabic committee

miles. Calendar and


religious politics
again
I Result very accurate (less than 0.25% error compared
Conclusions
to Columbus’ error of 40%).
A Tale of Two
Saha on the Indian calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I However, after colonialism, Indians developed a Western inferiority

contempt for everything Indian. Calendar and


navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha on the Indian calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I However, after colonialism, Indians developed a Western inferiority

contempt for everything Indian. Calendar and


navigation
I After independence India installed a calendar reform Incomplete reform

committee, headed by Meghnad Saha. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha on the Indian calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I However, after colonialism, Indians developed a Western inferiority

contempt for everything Indian. Calendar and


navigation
I After independence India installed a calendar reform Incomplete reform

committee, headed by Meghnad Saha. Indian calendar

The Indian
I He said, “for calendarical (sic) purpose it is unmeaning calendar reform
committee
to use the sidereal year”.
Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha on the Indian calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I However, after colonialism, Indians developed a Western inferiority

contempt for everything Indian. Calendar and


navigation
I After independence India installed a calendar reform Incomplete reform

committee, headed by Meghnad Saha. Indian calendar

The Indian
I He said, “for calendarical (sic) purpose it is unmeaning calendar reform
committee
to use the sidereal year”.
Calendar and
I He condemned Indian calendars wholesale religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha on the Indian calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I However, after colonialism, Indians developed a Western inferiority

contempt for everything Indian. Calendar and


navigation
I After independence India installed a calendar reform Incomplete reform

committee, headed by Meghnad Saha. Indian calendar

The Indian
I He said, “for calendarical (sic) purpose it is unmeaning calendar reform
committee
to use the sidereal year”.
Calendar and
I He condemned Indian calendars wholesale religious politics
again
I and recommended adoption of the Gregorian calendar. Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha’s mistake Calendars

Most important season C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Saha’s remark that it is obvious that the tropical year Calendar and
navigation
should be used for seasons is wrong.
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha’s mistake Calendars

Most important season C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Saha’s remark that it is obvious that the tropical year Calendar and
navigation
should be used for seasons is wrong.
Incomplete reform
I The most important season in India is the rainy season Indian calendar
for Indian agriculture is monsoon dependent. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha’s mistake Calendars

Most important season C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Saha’s remark that it is obvious that the tropical year Calendar and
navigation
should be used for seasons is wrong.
Incomplete reform
I The most important season in India is the rainy season Indian calendar
for Indian agriculture is monsoon dependent. The Indian
calendar reform
I The Indian calendar has the rainy months of sāwan and committee

bhādon, as every child understands. Calendar and


religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha’s mistake Calendars

Most important season C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Saha’s remark that it is obvious that the tropical year Calendar and
navigation
should be used for seasons is wrong.
Incomplete reform
I The most important season in India is the rainy season Indian calendar
for Indian agriculture is monsoon dependent. The Indian
calendar reform
I The Indian calendar has the rainy months of sāwan and committee

bhādon, as every child understands. Calendar and


religious politics
I The Gregorian calendar has no concept of a rainy again

Conclusions
season.
A Tale of Two
Being superior Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The calendar reform committee just assumed that Incomplete reform

Western practices are superior Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Being superior Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The calendar reform committee just assumed that Incomplete reform

Western practices are superior Indian calendar

The Indian
I So, not having a rainy season makes one “superior”! calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha’s bad physics Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Claiming that only the heat balance (tropical year)
Calendar and
matters for seasons is bad physics. navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha’s bad physics Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Claiming that only the heat balance (tropical year)
Calendar and
matters for seasons is bad physics. navigation

I What is required for the monsoons is the moisture Incomplete reform

balance or the wind regime. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha’s bad physics Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Claiming that only the heat balance (tropical year)
Calendar and
matters for seasons is bad physics. navigation

I What is required for the monsoons is the moisture Incomplete reform

balance or the wind regime. Indian calendar

The Indian
I While hot air rises at the equator it does not go all the calendar reform
committee
way to the poles before descending.
Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Saha’s bad physics Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Claiming that only the heat balance (tropical year)
Calendar and
matters for seasons is bad physics. navigation

I What is required for the monsoons is the moisture Incomplete reform

balance or the wind regime. Indian calendar

The Indian
I While hot air rises at the equator it does not go all the calendar reform
committee
way to the poles before descending.
Calendar and
I It is deflected by the Coriolis force, and descends in the religious politics
again
horse latitudes. Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Coriolis and other forces Calendars

depend upon sidereal motion C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The Coriolis force and other such fictitious forces Incomplete reform
depend upon the earth’s sidereal motion (motion with Indian calendar
respect to the distant stars) The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Coriolis and other forces Calendars

depend upon sidereal motion C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The Coriolis force and other such fictitious forces Incomplete reform
depend upon the earth’s sidereal motion (motion with Indian calendar
respect to the distant stars) The Indian
calendar reform
I on Newtonian physics, because the earth is not an committee

inertial frame. Calendar and


religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Lunar tides Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Tides in the atmosphere are huge compared to the sea Western inferiority
(the relative density of air is very small). Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Lunar tides Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Tides in the atmosphere are huge compared to the sea Western inferiority
(the relative density of air is very small). Calendar and
navigation
I So far as gravitation is concerned, lunar tidal forces are Incomplete reform
stronger than solar tidal forces, since tidal forces vary as Indian calendar
the inverse cube of the distance. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Lunar tides Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Tides in the atmosphere are huge compared to the sea Western inferiority
(the relative density of air is very small). Calendar and
navigation
I So far as gravitation is concerned, lunar tidal forces are Incomplete reform
stronger than solar tidal forces, since tidal forces vary as Indian calendar
the inverse cube of the distance. The Indian
calendar reform
I What is the effect of that on global circulation? committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Lunar tides Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I Tides in the atmosphere are huge compared to the sea Western inferiority
(the relative density of air is very small). Calendar and
navigation
I So far as gravitation is concerned, lunar tidal forces are Incomplete reform
stronger than solar tidal forces, since tidal forces vary as Indian calendar
the inverse cube of the distance. The Indian
calendar reform
I What is the effect of that on global circulation? committee

Calendar and
I That is still a “grand challenge” problem in NASA religious politics
again
terminology. No obvious answer either now or in Saha’s
Conclusions
time.
A Tale of Two
Drought 2004 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The previous news clip is from 2004.
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Drought 2004 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The previous news clip is from 2004.
Incomplete reform
I When I read it I was laughing! Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Drought 2004 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The previous news clip is from 2004.
Incomplete reform
I When I read it I was laughing! Indian calendar
I I received the paper a day late, The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Drought 2004 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I The previous news clip is from 2004.
Incomplete reform
I When I read it I was laughing! Indian calendar
I I received the paper a day late, The Indian
calendar reform
I and it was raining cats and dogs outside. committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Delayed monsoon Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Similar “delayed monsoon” happened in 2005 (as I navigation

recall) Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Delayed monsoon Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Similar “delayed monsoon” happened in 2005 (as I navigation

recall) Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I when the monsoon came on time on the Indian
The Indian
calendar. calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Delayed monsoon Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
I Similar “delayed monsoon” happened in 2005 (as I navigation

recall) Incomplete reform

Indian calendar
I when the monsoon came on time on the Indian
The Indian
calendar. calendar reform
committee
I Another repeat in 2009 Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Delayed monsoon 2009 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform
I and then . . . Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Delayed monsoon 2014 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform
I Another repeat in 2014.
Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Delayed monsoon 2014 Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation

Incomplete reform
I Another repeat in 2014.
Indian calendar
I (Could not collect news clips.) The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Other articles Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Newspaper articles have also been written about
Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Other articles Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Newspaper articles have also been written about
Incomplete reform
I the relation of Indian mathematics to the calendar and Indian calendar
the monsoon. The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Other articles Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

Calendar and
navigation
I Newspaper articles have also been written about
Incomplete reform
I the relation of Indian mathematics to the calendar and Indian calendar
the monsoon. The Indian
calendar reform
I But did not move any authorities to act. committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
=4F34;78kCD4B30H k9D;H &! ! ^_X]X^]'

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^[XcXRP[[TPSTabUa^\cWT2^]VaTbbc^cWT19?P]ScWT;TUcWPeTQTT]`dXRZ 1dccWPcbhbcT\WPbaT_TPcTS[h_a^eTSd]aT[XPQ[TFT\dbc[^^Zc^cWT]PZbWPcaPbU^ab^[dcX^]
? c^ST]^d]RTDB?aTbXST]c1PaPRZ>QP\Pb^QbTaePcX^]cWPc8]SXP]TTSbc^

A
^_T]d_\^aTbTRc^abc^U^aTXV]SXaTRcX]eTbc\T]cP]SP[b^dbWTaX]PUaTbW ccording to the Hindu every year the monsoon arrives
panchang, the month in harmony with the panchang,
fPeT^UTR^]^\XRaTU^a\b8]SXPb_^[XcXRP[R[PbbWPbaTPb^]bc^QTd_bTc=^ of sawan which along though ‘scientists’ keep bleating
^dcbXSTR^d]cahWPbcWT[XQTachc^SXRcPcTfWPcb^ac^UTR^]^\XR_^[XRXTbP]S with bhadon compris- about ‘delays’. Refusing to learn
aTU^a\b8]SXP\dbc_dabdTP]SPcfWPc_PRT3TRXbX^]bX]cWXbaTVPaSPaTcWT es India’s monsoon from experience or history, they
b^[T_aTa^VPcXeT^UcWTR^d]cahbST\^RaPcXRP[[hT[TRcTS6^eTa]\T]cP]SbdRW season, began on July 4; rains have ruined farmers and harvests.
STRXbX^]bPaTcPZT]fXcWcWTPbbXbcP]RT^UPQa^PS_^[XcXRP[R^]bT]bdb0]hTgcTa drenched this parched city on July The keynote of the Hindu
5. Was the monsoon on time, or calendar is the monsoons on
]P[TUU^acc^X]U[dT]RTcWT_a^RTbb^cWTafXbT\dbcQTbca^]V[haTbXbcTS<^aT^eTa ‘'delayed’ as the Met office kept which agriculture rests, and not
8]SXPP[aTPShWPbX]_[PRTP_aTSTUX]TSbhbcT\U^acWTX\_[T\T]cPcX^]^UbdRW lamenting? The Union Ministry of summer or winter which may be
aTU^a\b1d[[S^iX]VcWa^dVWcWPcbhbcT\X]^aSTac^_[TPbT<a>QP\PXbT]cXaT Agriculture was clueless how to relevant in Europe. Monsoons
[hd]]TRTbbPahCWTaTXb^UR^dabT]^ST]hX]VcWPccWTR^d]cah]TTSbXcbbTR reassure farmers who sowed the depend upon the wind regime.
^]SVT]TaPcX^]^UTR^]^\XRaTU^a\bP]ScWPcb^\T^UcWTXbbdTbaPXbTSQh<a kharif crop too early. The global circulation of wind is
CK Raju, who played a key not decided solely by the posi-
>QP\PWPeTP[b^QTT]e^XRTSQh\P]hfXcWX]8]SXPb_^[XcXRP[P]SQdbX]TbbR[Pbb role in building India’s first super- tion of the sun. Hot air rises at
7^fTeTacWTbTRWP]VTbfX[[WPeTc^R^\TcWa^dVW_aTSTcTa\X]TSb^RX^_^[Xc computer, Param, and received the the equator, but does not
XRP[RWP]]T[b¯P]ScWPcc^^PcPcX\T Telesio-Galilei Academy of descend at the poles. Due to the
fWT]cWTaTXb[PaVTbRP[T_^_d[Pabd_ Science’s gold medal for 2010 for Coriolis force, the earth’s rotation
_^ac U^a cWT\ CPZT U^a X]bcP]RT <a discovering and correcting a mis- causes air to be deflected and to
take made by Albert Einstein, says descend before the Horse-
>QP\PbbdVVTbcX^]aTVPaSX]V538X] the monsoon was similarly Latitudes (sub-tropical latitudes
\d[cXQaP]S aTcPX[ ;PcT [Pbc hTPa cWT ‘delayed’ in 2003, 2004, 2006, between 30 and 35 degrees north
D]X^]2PQX]TcWPSSTRXSTSc^P[[^fU^a 2009, and 2010. Each time, the and south). Thus, the monsoons
$ _TaRT]c538QdcbX]RTcWT]WPbWPS rains eventually belied the Met also depend upon the Coriolis
office’s predictions of drought. force, which is an inertial force.
c^_dccWTSTRXbX^]^]W^[SQTRPdbT^U This is because the Since the only possible inertial
bcPd]RW aTbXbcP]RT Ua^\ cWT 19?[TS Gregorian calendar on which the framework is one fixed relative
>__^bXcX^]fWXRWQT[XTeTbcWPcbdRWP scientific community relies is not to the distant stars, the Coriolis
\^eT f^d[S Wdac b\P[[bRP[T suitable for such calculations. force relates to the sidereal
X]SXVT]^dbcaPSTab India must first decide if the motion of the earth, and mon-
monsoon synchronises with the soons relate to the sidereal year.
=^fXUcWTD?06^eTa]\T]cfXbW tropical or sidereal year. The Had monsoons related to the
Tbc^_dbWcWa^dVWcWXb_a^_^bP[XcfX[[ tropical (solar) year is the length tropical year, the cumulative
WPeTc^aTPRW^dcc^cWT>__^bXcX^]P]S of time the sun takes to return difference between the tropical
^cWTabcPZTW^[STabPSSaTbbcWTXaR^] to the same position in the cycle and sidereal year would have put
RTa]bP]SQdX[SR^]bT]bdb^]cWTXbbdT of seasons as seen from earth, the Indian calendar out of phase.
such as from one vernal equinox This never happened.
cWPc fX[[ cWT] R[TPa cWT fPh U^a cWTbT to the next. CE, it had slipped about 10 days Varahamihira and the By forcing farmers to aban-
\dRW]TTSTSaTU^a\b4eXST]c[hP_PacXbP]_a^RTbbbdRWPbcWXbWPbXcb^f] It is not wholly synchronous out of phase in the 1250-odd years PancaSiddhantika, Aryabhata don the ancient nakshatra-gov-
ST\P]SbP]SSXUUXRd[cXTbP]SbdaT[h<a>QP\PXbfT[[PfPaT^UcWT\VXeT]cWT with the earth’s orbit around the since the Council of Nicaea fixed explicitly advocated the sidereal erned seasons in favour of the
_aTePX[X]V_^[XcXRP[Pc\^b_WTaTX]FPbWX]Vc^]32>]cWTXa_Pac<a>QP\Pb sun (sidereal, actual year) due to the date of Easter by fixing the year; Marxist historians concur tropical year, Nehruvian secular-
bd__^acTabWPeT]PcdaP[[h_^X]cTSc^WXbT[TRcX^]hTPaR^\_d[bX^]bPbcWT_aX the precession of the equinoxes, date of the vernal equinox on XII that Indian agriculture was linked ism and scientific temper have
and is around 20 minutes short- calends (March 21). By the end of to the nakshatras. compromised our food security.
\PahaTPb^]QTWX]SWXbbcPcT\T]cb^]Bd]SPhPbfT[[PbWXbTPa[XTacXaPSTPVPX]bc er (the difference can accumulate the 16th century, the vernal Modern India has not seri- An eerie coincidence that has
^dcb^daRX]V^UDBY^Qbc^8]SXPCWTDBTR^]^\hXbbcX[[bcadVV[X]Vc^aTR^e over long periods). Indian astron- equinox fell around March 11 on ously studied the monsoons, facilitated the eclipse of agricul-
TaUa^\cWTUX]P]RXP[RaPbW^U!'P]ScWTbX\d[cP]T^dbSTQcRaXbXbX]4da^_T omy rests on the sidereal year; a the Julian calendar. B7>2:8=6;H though even today good mon- ture from public consciousness
WPb]^cWT[_TSTXcWTa8cXb]^f\^aTcWP]TeTaQTU^aTcWPc0\TaXRPXbST_T] better method of timekeeping as
the sun’s transit against fixed
The Gregorian reform cor-
rected this anomaly by advancing 05C4A soons drive the economy. The
late Meghnad Saha believed heat
is the virtual disappearance of
rural symbols once associated
ST]c^]T\TaVX]V\PaZTcb[XZT8]SXPU^aXcb^f]Va^fcWP]S_a^b_TaXch7T]RT
cWXb eTah _dQ[XR _aTbbdaT ^] =Tf 3T[WX c^ ^_T] d_ Xcb TR^]^\h c^ P[[^f U^a
stars (nakshatras, for example, the calendar by 10 days, and by 8=34?4=34=24 balance alone mattered in con- with major political parties —
X]RaTPbTSQdbX]TbbfXcWcWTDB
Dhruv-tara) is easy to observe
and traditionally determined
making every centennial year not
a leap year unless divisible by 400 C748=380= figuring the monsoons; CK Raju
thinks wind regime is the key,
cow and calf (Congress); plough
and farmer (Janata, Lok Dal),
8]aTRT]chTPabcWTDBWPbSTUX]XcT[hT\TaVTSPb^]T^U8]SXPb\^bcX\_^a sowing and harvesting activities.
Europe was aware that it
(for example, 2000). It thus came
closer to a more accurate figure for
20;4=30A but says major research is nec-
essary to establish a paradigm.
while the sickle of the commu-
nist parties has degenerated into
cP]ccaPSX]V_Pac]TabP]SeXRTeTabP8]! P[^]T8]SXPbV^^SbP]SbTaeXRTb A45>A<
lacked the knowledge to precise- the fractional part of the length of The ancients coped by creating an offensive weapon. This is a
caPSTfXcWcWTDBc^cP[[TSPfW^__X]V'%QX[[X^]CWT^][hfPhQ^cW=Tf3T[WX
P]SFPbWX]Vc^]RP]UdacWTabcaT]VcWT]cWXbaT[PcX^]bWX_XbcWa^dVW\dcdP[d]STa
ly calculate the length of either
the tropical or sidereal year,
the tropical year. The correction
was vital for the practical purpose
2><<8CC44 over 5000 panchangs, each ‘cor-
rected’ to account for latitude
telling comment on the growing
urban bias in our polity and our
bcP]SX]V^UTPRW^cWTabR^]RTa]b8]SXPb_^[XcXRP[R[Pbb\TP]fWX[Tf^d[ScWT] which India knew from at least of fixing latitude from observation 03>?C43C74 (hence the Kerala monsoon distorted understanding of the
S^fT[[c^eXTfcWT?aTbXST]c³bbcPcT\T]cbPVPX]bccWXbQPRZSa^_^UV[^QP[X]cTa the third century. Hence the
Gregorian calendar reform com-
of solar altitude at noon, necessary
for navigation which was then
6A46>A80= arrives much before rains in
Delhi) and longitude. There is a
economy, the adverse effects of
which have already come to
R^]]TRcTS]Tbb8c\PZTb]^bT]bTTXcWTaU^a2^]VaTbb³b[TPSTabc^P[[TVTcWPc
U^aTXV]\d[cX]PcX^]P[UXa\bPaT^_TaPcX]VPRP\_PXV]c^\P[XV]8]SXP^aU^acWT
mittee headed by Christoph extremely important for Europe 20;4=30A0=3 powerful cultural context here — haunt us.
_^[XcXRP[R[PbbX]VT]TaP[c^^eTaaTPRcc^<a>QP\P³b\^cXePcTSaT\PaZb
Clavius tried to consult Indian
calendrical sources; just prior to
which lagged behind the Indians
and Arabs.
B083C74B40B>=B the Indian calendar revolves
around the rainy season (varsha)
Two decades of liberalisa-
tion-globalisation and thousands
the calendar reform of 1582, his Shockingly, after indepen- 34?4=3>=C74 as the year (varsh) relates to rain. of crores of ‘incentives’ later, the
student Matteo Ricci was in
India, scouting calendrical man-
dence, the Indian calendar reform
committee adopted the Gregorian CA>?820;H40A It is eternally relevant for agri-
culture as poor calculations can
service and the manufacturing
sectors have failed to promote

E``]Zee]Ve``]ReV
uals in Cochin! calendar and said the seasons wreak havoc through mistimed growth or made a dent in unem-
The Gregorian calendar depend on the tropical year! agricultural operations. ployment nationwide. The econ-
reform was needed because the Superficially, the tropical year The Nehruvian quest for “sci- omy is gasping for a good mon-
Julian calendar fixed the length of seems supported by astronomical entific temper” led to slavish soon to lift it out of the present
+DOIVWHSVWRUHYLYHHFRQRP\ZRQ¶WZRUN the year very crudely as the
Romans were weak with fractions;
treatises like Surya Siddhanta
and PancaSiddhantika, but the
adoption of the Gregorian calen-
dar for calculating the seasons
morass. Can we at least now
trash the liberalisation-era myth
so the calendar slipped roughly passages have been misunder- and monsoon rhythm, though that there is no link between
eTabX]RT<a?aP]PQ<dZWTaYTT`dXccWTD]X^]2PQX]Tcc^R^]cTbccWT_aTb one day every 128 years. By 1582 stood. Anyway, even prior to objective analysis shows that agriculture and growth?
XST]cXP[T[TRcX^]cWTD?06^eTa]\T]cWPbQTT]cPZX]VPbTaXTb^U\TPbdaTb
A Tale of Two
Alienating calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Just as most people can’t tell their date of birth on the Calendar and
Indian calendar navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Alienating calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Just as most people can’t tell their date of birth on the Calendar and
Indian calendar navigation

Incomplete reform
I they cannot tell Indian holidays many of which depend
Indian calendar
upon lunar phase
The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Alienating calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Just as most people can’t tell their date of birth on the Calendar and
Indian calendar navigation

Incomplete reform
I they cannot tell Indian holidays many of which depend
Indian calendar
upon lunar phase
The Indian
calendar reform
I like Holi (pūrn.ima), or Diwali (amāvasyā), or Buddha committee
pūrn.ima, Mahavira jayanti, Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Alienating calendar Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority
I Just as most people can’t tell their date of birth on the Calendar and
Indian calendar navigation

Incomplete reform
I they cannot tell Indian holidays many of which depend
Indian calendar
upon lunar phase
The Indian
calendar reform
I like Holi (pūrn.ima), or Diwali (amāvasyā), or Buddha committee
pūrn.ima, Mahavira jayanti, Calendar and
religious politics
I and are hence “moveable” on the Gregorian calendar. again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Secular festivals Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I However, our only two secular festivals are Calendar and


navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Secular festivals Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I However, our only two secular festivals are Calendar and


navigation
I Independence day (15 August) and Republic day 26 Incomplete reform
January. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Secular festivals Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I However, our only two secular festivals are Calendar and


navigation
I Independence day (15 August) and Republic day 26 Incomplete reform
January. Indian calendar

I These are defined only on the Christian ritual calendar, The Indian
calendar reform
namely the Gregorian calendar. committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Secular festivals Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
Western inferiority

I However, our only two secular festivals are Calendar and


navigation
I Independence day (15 August) and Republic day 26 Incomplete reform
January. Indian calendar

I These are defined only on the Christian ritual calendar, The Indian
calendar reform
namely the Gregorian calendar. committee

Calendar and
I Why? religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Conclusions Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I The Gregorian calendar is an unscientific calendar. The the calendar and
Western inferiority
months are wrong, and so is the year (except on
Calendar and
average). We should reject it for that reason alone. navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Conclusions Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I The Gregorian calendar is an unscientific calendar. The the calendar and
Western inferiority
months are wrong, and so is the year (except on
Calendar and
average). We should reject it for that reason alone. navigation

Incomplete reform
I The Gregorian calendar provides non-textual evidence of
Indian calendar
persistent Greek and European inferiority in math and
The Indian
astronomy contrary to tall tales based on speculations calendar reform
committee
using late (post-Crusade) texts.
Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Conclusions Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I The Gregorian calendar is an unscientific calendar. The the calendar and
Western inferiority
months are wrong, and so is the year (except on
Calendar and
average). We should reject it for that reason alone. navigation

Incomplete reform
I The Gregorian calendar provides non-textual evidence of
Indian calendar
persistent Greek and European inferiority in math and
The Indian
astronomy contrary to tall tales based on speculations calendar reform
committee
using late (post-Crusade) texts.
Calendar and
I The Gregorian calendar lacks the concept of a rainy religious politics
again
season, hence harms our economic interests. Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Conclusions Calendars

C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
I The Gregorian calendar is an unscientific calendar. The the calendar and
Western inferiority
months are wrong, and so is the year (except on
Calendar and
average). We should reject it for that reason alone. navigation

Incomplete reform
I The Gregorian calendar provides non-textual evidence of
Indian calendar
persistent Greek and European inferiority in math and
The Indian
astronomy contrary to tall tales based on speculations calendar reform
committee
using late (post-Crusade) texts.
Calendar and
I The Gregorian calendar lacks the concept of a rainy religious politics
again
season, hence harms our economic interests. Conclusions
I It is alienating.
A Tale of Two
Conclusions Calendars

contd. C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Indian luni-solar calendar is scientific, and better Western inferiority

than the Gregorian calendar. Calendar and


navigation

Incomplete reform

Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Conclusions Calendars

contd. C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Indian luni-solar calendar is scientific, and better Western inferiority

than the Gregorian calendar. Calendar and


navigation
I Similar astronomy was used also by Buddhists, Chinese, Incomplete reform
and Arabs. Possibly also by Egyptians and Mayans. Indian calendar

The Indian
calendar reform
committee

Calendar and
religious politics
again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Conclusions Calendars

contd. C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Indian luni-solar calendar is scientific, and better Western inferiority

than the Gregorian calendar. Calendar and


navigation
I Similar astronomy was used also by Buddhists, Chinese, Incomplete reform
and Arabs. Possibly also by Egyptians and Mayans. Indian calendar

I Whether or not the Indian calendar gives a correct The Indian


calendar reform
account of the monsoon at present, it was successful in committee

the past, and should not be abandoned without even a Calendar and
religious politics
study and without exploring ways to amend it. again

Conclusions
A Tale of Two
Conclusions Calendars

contd. C. K. Raju

Calendar &
religious politics

Colonial education,
the calendar and
I The Indian luni-solar calendar is scientific, and better Western inferiority

than the Gregorian calendar. Calendar and


navigation
I Similar astronomy was used also by Buddhists, Chinese, Incomplete reform
and Arabs. Possibly also by Egyptians and Mayans. Indian calendar

I Whether or not the Indian calendar gives a correct The Indian


calendar reform
account of the monsoon at present, it was successful in committee

the past, and should not be abandoned without even a Calendar and
religious politics
study and without exploring ways to amend it. again

Conclusions
I Our two secular festivals should not be defined solely on
the Christian ritual calendar.
Reading list

1. The thesis about the Indian calendar was first put forward in C. K. Raju, Cultural Foundations
of Mathematics (Pearson Longman, 2007, chp. 4, Box 4.1 “The not-too-soon monsoon of
2004”, and Box 4.2 “Could India's failed monsoon have been predicted by the right calendar?”.
The boxes are put up online at http://ckraju.net/papers/Calendar-from-Cultural-Foundations-of-
Mathematics.pdf.
2. Part of it was also earlier reported online at
http://www.infinityfoundation.com/mandala/t_es/t_es_raju_monsoon.htm.
3. The thesis now includes the question of lunar tides. The other books cited, related to the
Gregorian calendar and Easter, are as follows.
4. C. K. Raju, Euclid and Jesus: how and why the church changed mathematics and Christianity
across two religious wars, Multiversity, Penang, 2012.
5. C. K. Raju, The Eleven Pictures of Time: The Physics, Philosophy, and Politics of Time Beliefs,
Sage, 2003.
6. The quote from the calendar reform committee is Government of India, Report of the Calendar
Reform Committee (M. N. Saha et al.), CSIR, New Delhi, 1955, p. 158.
7. Part of the above report is also published as M. N. Saha and N. Lahiri, History of the Calendar,
CSIR, New Delhi, 1992.
8. The fragment from Matteo Ricci's letter is in Matteo Ricci, Letter to Petri Maei on 1 Dec 1581.
Goa 38 I, 129r-130v, corrected and reproduced in Documenta Indica, XII, 472-477 (p. 474).
Also reproduced in Tacchi Venturi, Matteo Ricci S.I., Le Lettre Dalla Cina 1580-1610, vol. 2,
Macareta, 1613.
9. For more details of Ptolemy, see Cultural Foundations of Mathematics, above, or C. K. Raju, Is
Science Western in Origin? Reprint 2014, Daanish Books Delhi, and Other India Bookstore,
God.
10. The quotation from Aryabhata is from K. S. Shukla, and K. V. Sarma, K. V. (ed. and trans.) The
Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata, INSA, New Delhi, 1976.
11. The picture of the apices is from Euclid and Jesus, cited above. It dates to 976 CE.
12. “Clavius'” trigonometric tables are in Clavii, Christophori Bambergensis, Tabulae Sinuum,
Tangentium et Secantium ad partes radij 10,000,000. . . , Ioannis Albini, 1607.
13. The quote from Laghu Bhaskariya is from K. S. Shukla, (ed. and trans.), Laghu Bhaskariya,
Department of Mathematics and Astronomy, Lucknow, 1963.
14. A discussion of European knowledge/ignorance of navigation, and Indo-Arabic techniques of
navigation is in chp. 4 and chp. 5 of Cultural Foundations of Mathematics.
15. A more recent (but not necessarily better) account of this thesis is in C. K. Raju, “A Tale of Two
Calendars” in Claude Alvares ed., Multicultural Knowledge and the University, Multiversity,
2013, pp. 112-119. This is posted online at http://ckraju.net/papers/ckr-calendar.html.

Minat Terkait