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LAMPIRAN

Lembar Perhitungan
Alat Heat Exchanger Kode

Fungsi

Tipe

Perhitungan heat exchanger dilakukan menurut metode Kern (1950).

Data Perhitungan :
Fluida panas
Laju alir, F = 38, 68 kg/jam = 77360 lb/jam
Tmasuk, T1 = 120,8 ˚C = 249,44 ˚F
Tkeluar, T2 =118 ˚C = 244,4 ˚F

Fluida dingin
Laju alir, F = 2204,11 kg/jam = 4408220 lb/jam
Tmasuk, t1 = 78˚C = 172,4˚F
Tkeluar, t2 = 87,43 ˚C = 189,374 ˚F
Fluida panas(steam) di Shell
Beban panas (Q1) hot steam = 85.444,83 kj/jam = 73418384,22 btu/h
Beban dingin (Q2) cold water = 80.333,09 kj/jam = 74825126,28 btu/h

1. Menghitung LMTD ( Log Mean Temperature Difference )


Hot Fluida Cold Fluid Selisih Delta tc/ th
T1 (oF) 120,8 - t1 87,43 33,37 1,19868
T2 (oF) 118 - t2 78 40
Selisih 2,8 - 6,63

∆𝑡 6,63
LMTD = ∆𝑡1 = 40 = 36,58492952 Co = 97,85287313 Fo
𝑙𝑛 ln( )
∆𝑡2 33,37

2. Temperatur Rata – Rata ( Tc dan tc )


Tc = ½ (T1 + T2) = ½ (128,8 + 118 ) = 119,4 Co = 246,92 ˚F
tc = ½ (t1 + t2) = ½ (78 + 87,43) = 82,715 Co = 180,887 ˚F
3. Luas perpindahan panas, A
Viskositas fluida panas
A B C T n (micropoise) n (centipoise)
36,826 4,29E-01 -1,62E-05 392,4 1,29E+02 0,01290192

Viskositas fluida dingin


A B C D T log 10 n n (centipoise)
- -1,26E- -4,68E-
10,2158 1,79E+03 1,77E-02 05 355,715 01 0,340356

Viskositas fluida panas = 0,013 cP


Viskositas fluida dingin = 0,33 cP
Nilai UD untuk Air = 250 – 500 Btu/hr ft2˚F
Asumsi UD = 350 Btu/hr ft2˚F

Untuk luas perpindahan panas (A) > 200 ft2 digunakan shell & tube heat exchanger (Kern,
1950)
Koreksi Δt :
Koreksi delta T
S = ( 189,374 - 172,4 )/(249,44 -172,4) = 0220327103
R = ( 249,44 – 244,4 ) /( 189,374 – 172,4 ) = 0296924708
FT = 1 (gambar halaman 828 kern 1950
∆𝑡 = FT + LMTD = 1 x 36,58492952 = 36,58492952 oF

Luas transfer panas aktual


𝑄 73418384,22
Aa = 𝑈𝐷 ∆𝑡 = 350 = 2143,695993 Ft2 = 199,1493578 m2
𝑥 97,85287313

Diameter luar (OD) pipa 0,75 in, luas (a”) 0,1963 ft2/ft dan panjang tube 275,8 ft.

𝐴𝑎
Jumlah pipa (NT) =
𝑎" 𝑥 𝐿
2143,695993
NT = 0,1963 𝑥 275,8 = 39,59575559

(Tabel 9, hlm. 841, Kern, 1950)


Dipilih jumlah tube 3000 dengan susunan square pitch.

Shell Tube
ID 70,92 inci OD 0,6304 in
Baffle space 36,642 inci N 3000
Pass 1 Passes 1
L 275,8
C” 0,2364
BWG 18
Pitch 0,8668

Hot Fluid Cold fluid, tube side


Flow area , as Flow area, at
as = ID x C" x (B/144) x Pr at = NT x (F;ow area per tube /144) x passes
4 as = 70,92 x 0,2364 x (36,642/144) x 4
0,8668) at = 3000(0,334/144) x 1
as = 4,921686818 ft2 at = 6,9583333 ft2
Mass Velocity Mass velocity, Gt
Gs = F/as Gt = F/at
5 5
Gs = 77360/4,9216868 Gt = 4408220 x 6,958333
Gs = 15718,18827 ft2 Gt = 6335116,6467 ft2
Bilangan Reynold, Res D = ID = 0,652
Ta = 246,92 f D = 0,625/12 = 0,0543333 ft
μ = 0,03146 lb/ft h ta = 180,887
de= 0,95 μ = 0,33 centipoise
6 De = 0,95/12 = 0,0791666667 ft 6 μ = 0,33 x 2,42 = 0,7986 lb/ft h
Ret = (0,054333 x 633616,6467) /0,7986
Res = 0,0825 x (23,130/0,03146) =43101,76701
= 60,65741967
gambar 28,hal 838,kern 1950
jH = 120
7
gambar 28,hal 838,kern 1950
c = 0,46
k = 0,0151312
8 (cμ/k)^1/3 = (0,46 x 0,03146)
/0,0151312)^1/3)
= 0,98525291
ho = 120 x (0,0151312/0,079166667) x
0,98525291 Correction factor
= 22,59747864 Velocity Coeficient
mencari nilai k 9 2800
9 suhu k 10 3000
100 0,0142 9 2,905871487 1581,174297
119,4 0,0151312 hi = 1120
125 0,0154 hio = (1120 x 0,652) /0,5304
= 1158,375635
10,11,12 the smalldifference in the average temperatures eliminates the need for a tube - wall
correction , and = 1
ℎ 𝑥 ℎ𝑜 1158,174297 𝑥 22,59747864
13. Uc = = = 22,16508434 Btu/hr ft2 f
ℎ+ℎ𝑜 1158,375635+22,59747864

14. Design overal coefficient,UD


a” = 0,1963
A” = 3000 x 275,8 x 0,1963 = 162418,62 ft2 =15088,6898 m2
UD = 74825126,28/162418,62 x 0,1963
= 12,59242635
15. Dirt factor, Rd
𝑈𝑐−𝑈𝐷 22,16508434−12,59242635
Rd = 𝑈𝑐 𝑥 𝑈𝐷 = = 0,034296811 ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡2/𝑏𝑡𝑢
22,1650834 𝑥 12,59242635

= 0,194746322 m2.C/W

Pressure Drop
Hot fluid , shell side Cold fluid ,Tube Side
For Res = 39553,61002 for Ret = 43101,767 ft2/in2
1 f = 0,0016 ft2/in2 1 figure 26
figure 29
∆pt = (0,00019x(633516,6467^2)x275,8 x 1
2
2 no. Of crosses,N+1 = 12*(275,8/36,642) = 90,32258065 /(5,22 x(10^10) x 1 x 1
Ds = 70,92/12 = 5,91 ft = 0,4028964 psi
∆ps = (0,0035 x(23,1306^2)x5,9055x5,243
3 /(5,22 x ( 10^10) x 0,0825) x 1 x 1 V2/2g’ = 0,052
3
=0,0000000134657 ∆pr = (4 x 1/1) x 0,052 = 0,208 psi
∆PT = 0,4028964 + 0,208 = 0,6108964 psi
4
0,6108964 /14223 = 0,0429513 kg/cm2