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Question 1:

Give ame of ten primitivies provided by Open GL libraries.












Question 2:

Illustrate the communication mechanism between CPU (central processing

unit) and GPU (graphic processing unit ).
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Best Website To Help VU Students


Communication between CPU and GPU

CPU Main Memory


Rendering commands


Vertex data Pixel

Graphic Driver

Image Depth / Textur

GPU buffer Stencil e Maps
s Buffer
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Best Website To Help VU Students

Question 3:

Briefly describe the operation performed before a fragment is written to the

image buffer in GPU.


The first fragmented operation perfumed and the only one that cannot be
disabled is the pixel ownership test. The pixel owner ship test simply
determines whether a fragmented lies in the region of the view port that
is currently visible on the display. a possible reason that the pixel
ownership test fails is that another window is obscuring a portion of the
viewport in this case fragments falling behind the obscuring window are
not drawn.

Next the scissor testis performed and application may specify a rectangle
in the viewport called the scissor rectangle to which rendering g should
be restricted any fragments falling outside the scissor rectangle are
discarded a particular application of the scissor rectangle in the context
of the stencil shadow algorithm is in section
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Best Website To Help VU Students

If the scissor test passed a fragment undergoes the alpha test when fin al
color of the a fragment is calculated and application may also calculate
an alpha value that usually represents the degree of transparency
associated with the fragment the alpha test compares the final alpha
value of the fragment to a constant value that is preset by the application
the application specifies what relationship between the two values such
as (less then greater than or equal to) causes the test to pass if the
relationship is not satisfied then the fragment is discarded.
After alpha test passes a fragment moves on to the stencil test the stencil
test reads the value stored in thee stencil buffer at a fragments location
and compares it to a value previously specified by application. The
stencil test passes only if a specific relation is satisfied eg the stencil
value is equal to particular value otherwise the stencil test fails, and the
fragment is discarded and application is able to specify action to be
taken in the stencil buffer when the stencil test passes or fail.
Additionally if the stencil test passes the value in the stencil buffer may
be affected in the way that depends on the result of the depth test
(describe next) for instance an application may choose to increment the
value in the stencil test passed and depth test fails. This functionality is
used extensively by the shadow rendering technique.
The final test undergone by fragment is depth test. The depth test
compares the final depth associated with a fragment to the value
currently residing in the depth buffer. If the depth does not satisfy an
application specified relationship with the value in the depth buffer then
the fragment is discarded. Normally, the depth test is configured so that
a fragment passes the depth the depth test only its depth is less than or
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Best Website To Help VU Students

equal to the value in the depth buffer. When the depth test passed the
depth buffer is updated with the depth of the fragment to facilitate
hidden surface removal for subsequently rendered primitives.

One pixel ownership test alpha test stencil test and depth test have all
passed a fragment final color is blended on to the image buffer. The test
have passed a fragments final color is blended in to the image buffer the
blending operation calculates a new color by combining the fragments
final and the color already stored in the image buffer at the fragments
The fragments alpha value and alpha value stored in the image buffer
may also be used to determine the color that ultimately appears in the
view port the blending operation may be configured to simply replace
the previous color in the image buffer or it may produce special effects
such as transparency.

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