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"Design, Fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove"

Experiment Findings · February 2016

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1542.1202


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4 authors, including:

Tri Ratna Bajracharya Bishan Thapa

Tribhuvan University University of North Carolina at Charlotte


Ghanashyam Chauhan



Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Renewable Energy in Nepal View project

Study on Conical Basin for Water Vortex Powerplant View project

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Centre for energy studies (CES)
Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis
Centre for energy studies (CES) was established on January 21, 1999. The Main
Objective of the centre is to enhance promotion and development of Renewable
Energy Technologies through study, research, human resource development at Research Book Series
various levels, and information dissemination for the sustainable development. Energy Systems Planning and Analysis
As an institution within IOE/TU, capacity building of local manpower is the main
focused activities of CES. CES has supported and provided assistance to the
courses on; Master of Science Engineering in Renewable Energy Engineering
(MSREE) and Master of Science Engineering in Energy Systems Planning and Design, Fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove
Management (MSESPM). Zero Energy House (ZEH), and energy Park (EP) are the
parts of CES. Both ZEH and EP are being used as a living laboratory for research Tri Ratna Bajracharya
students and also demonstration sites for all concerned in the application and
development of Renewable Energy Technologies. Study Team members: Bishal Shahi, Bishan Thapa, and
Ghanashyam Chauhan

For more information visit


APPEAR project “Development of Academic Program on Energy Systems Planning

and Analysis at Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University” is jointly
implemented by Centre for Energy Studies (CES) at the Institute of Engineering
(IOE) of Tribhuvan University, Nepal and Institute for Energy Systems and
Thermodynamics (IET) at Vienna University of Technology, Vienna and funded by Centre for Energy Studies (CES)
the Austrian Development Cooperation under the APPEAR programme. The Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
“appear Project 42” is expected to directly contribute in building capacity of
energy systems planning and analysis for developing sustainable energy policies Supported by the Austrian Development Cooperation under
in the Nepal and creating awareness for the universal access to electricity in the the APPEAR programme
21 century.
ISBN 978-9937-0-0053-6
Copyright © 2014, Center for Energy Studies (CES)

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Published by
Center for Energy Studies (CES)
Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University,
Published by Zero Energy House, Pulchowk, Lalitpur
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Supported by the Austrian Development Cooperation under the
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1. Introduction ______________________________________ 1
1.1 Background ......................................................................................... 1
1.2 Problem Statement and Rationale................................................... 4
1.3 Objective ............................................................................................. 6
1.4 Scope of work……………………………………………… . 6
1.5 Expected Outcome ………………………………………… 7
1.6 Limitation…………………………………………………... . 7

2. Literature Review __________________________________ 8

3. Methodology ______________________________________ 22
3.1 Study of the existing gasification cookstove ................................. 22
3.2 Construction of tin can model of bio-char stove ......................... 22
3.3 Design of bio-char stove prototype................................................ 22
3.4 Fabrication of Bio-char Stove.......................................................... 23
3.5 Performance testing of the Bio-char Stove ................................... 23
3.6 Cost estimation and financial analysis ............................................ 25

4. Design ______________________________________ 26
4.1 Design ................................................................................................. 26
4.1.1 Inner cylinder design............................................................ 26
4.1.2 Syngas burning and oxygen requirements ........................ 27
4.1.3 Syngas opening holes ........................................................... 27
4.1.4 Oxygen, air supply and outer bottom holes..................... 28
4.1.5 Air + syngas mixture and inner top holes ........................ 28
4.1.6 Vertical clearance between cylinders ................................. 28
4.1.7 Outer cylinder design ........................................................... 29

5. Fabrication ______________________________________ 30
5.1 Material selection ............................................................................... 30
5.2 Detailed description of the components of stove........................ 31
5.3 Fabrication costs ................................................................................ 33 LIST OF TABLES
6. Result, Analysis and Outcomes _______________________ 34 Table 1.1 Preliminary data on fuel consumption of gasification stoves ….. 3
6.1 Water boiling test results................................................................... 34 Table 2.1 Some of Natural draft gasifier stoves developed worldwide …... 10
6.2 Controlled Cooking Test Results .................................................... 38
6.3 Char Test ............................................................................................. 39 Table 2.2 Typical gas composition for different fuels and reactor types ..... 19
6.4 Outcomes ............................................................................................ 41 Table 5.1 Material comparison ………………………………………….... 31
Table 5.2 Fabrication cost of stove ……………………..…………….…... 33
7. Cost Estimation and Financial Analysis _________________ 47
Table 6.1 WBT constant input data for initial design ………..……….…... 34
7.1 Cost estimation of Bio-char stove for mass production ............. 47
7.2 Financial Analysis ............................................................................... 47 Table 6.2 WBT input data for initial design ………………………..……... 34
7.3 Discussion and Analysis.................................................................... 50 Table 6.3 WBT output data for initial design ……………………………... 35
Table 6.4 WBT constant input for first modification ……………………... 36
8. Conclusion and Recommendations ____________________ 51 Table 6.5 WBT input for first modification ………………………..….….. 36
References ............................................................................... 53 Table 6.6 WBT Output for first modification ………………………….…. 36
Appendix .................................................................................................. 56
Table 6.7 WBT constant input for second modification ……………….…. 37
Table 6.8 WBT input for second modification ………………..……….…. 38
Table 6.9 WBT output for second modification …………………………... 38
Table 6.10 Test Results of CCT …………………………………………... 39
Table 6.11 Proximate Analysis Result of Pine Char ……………………... 40
Table 6.12 Stove output of initial stove and its modifications ….…..…….. 41

Figure 1.1 Grams of CO2 equivalent per liter of water boiled and simmered for 30 Aa Total Airflow Area
minutes for five different stoves in year 2009………………... ….………….. 2 Ag Total Syngas Flow Area
Figure 2.1 Wood Gas Stove developed by Reed and Larson ………………... 10 Am Total Mixture Flow Area
Figure 2.2 Charcoal Making Wood Gas Stove ………………………..…….. 10 d Inner Cylinder Diameter
Figure 2.3 IISC’s Gasifier Stove …..………………………………………... 11 D Outer Cylinder Diameter
Figure 2.4 Briquette Stove ..………………………………………..……….. 11 E Total Energy Input
Figure 2.5 Rice Husk Gasifier Stove ……………………………..……..….. 12 h Minimum Inner Height
Figure 2.6 Updraft Gasifier …………………………………………………. 15 k Cylinder Aspect Ratio
Figure 2.7 Downdraft Gasifier principle in use of Bio-char Stove …………. 16 kv Wood Chips Void Factor
Figure 2.8 Cross draft Gasifier ..…………………………………………….. 17 Q Power Input
Figure 2.9 Producer gas and its constituents ………………..………………. 18 t Estimated Cooking Time
Figure 6.1 Thermal efficiency of initial stove and its modifications ..……... 42 V Minimum Inner Cylinder Volume Required
Figure 6.2 Char yield of initial stove and its modifications ………………... 43 Va Air Supply Rate
Figure 6.3 Flame sustainability of initial stove and its modification ..…….. 44 Vg Syngas Volume Required
Figure 6.4 Variation of water temperature with time for first modification .. 45 Vm Mixture Volume
Figure 6.5 Variation of water temperature with time for second modification 46 vm Initial Mixture Velocity
W Watts
TLUD Top Lit Updraft Gasifier
AEPC Alternative Energy Promotion Center TNMOC Total Non-Methane Organic Compound
AIT Asian Institute of Technology TSP Total Suspended Particle
ASTM American Society for Testing Materials TU Tribhuvan University
CCT Controlled Cooking Test WBT Water Boiling Test
CES Center for Energy Studies
CEEN Center for Energy Environment, Nepal
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
HEH Household Energy and Health
HHV Higher Heating Value
IAP Indoor Air Pollution
ICS Improved Cooking Stove
IDD Inverted Downdraft Gasifier
IRR Internal Rate of Return
IOE Institute of Engineering
IPOBIS Indian Institute of Science Portable Biomass Stove
JIS Japanese Industrial Standard
KPT Kitchen Performance Test
LHV Lower Heating Value
LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas
MJ Mega Joules
Msc. Masters in Science
NAST Nepal Academy of Science and Technology
NESS Nepal Environmental & Scientific Services
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NPV Net Present Value
PIC Products of Incomplete Combustion
RECAST Research Center for Applied Science and Technology
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 1 2 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

1. INTRODUCTION world. These results to the development of bio-char stove which can produce both
heat for cooking and bio-char for carbon sequestration and soil building.
1.1 Background Following figure illustrates the paramount importance of gasifier stove (bio-char
Energy is an important development indicator, which provides vital inputs for stove) in context of carbon emission in contrast to improved stove which is
survival and economic development. Energy supply and consumption is still in a currently in practice in Nepal. (Garrett 2010)
traditional state in Nepal. The energy resource base in Nepal consists of biomass,
hydroelectricity, petroleum products, and natural gas and coal reserves. Among
these entire base, it is the evident fact that biomass is still the dominant form of
energy resources of the country with respect to its utilization especially in rural

Biomass energy: fuelwood, agro-residue and animal dung is used for cooking and
heating purposes. Use of traditional stoves such as open fire stove and "chulo"
(rudimentary stoves) consumes more fuel wood and increases the burden on
women. Women are mainly responsible for cooking and collection of biomass,
mainly fuelwood from the forest. Use of biomass energy and low-grade biomass
fuels lead to excessive levels of indoor smoke/air pollution. These inefficient
technologies emit air pollution that can harm respiratory and cardiac health and
exacerbate global warming. Women and children in particular are exposed to the
smoke emission. Women who cook on traditional biomass stoves are up to four
times more likely to suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, such as
chronic bronchitis, than women who cook using clean fuels (Warwick H, Doig, Source: Garrett 2010
2004). This is one of the reasons for higher rates of infant mortality and morbidity
Figure 1.1 Grams of CO2 equivalent per liter of water boiled and simmered
and other unhealthy living conditions. Release of incomplete carbon gas and other
for 30 minutes for five different stoves in year 2009
harmful particles in the atmosphere due to poor combustion of biomass fuels in
rudimentary stoves results in aggravation of respiratory and cardiac health and The bio-char stove technology is new in context of Nepal but the research and
exacerbate global warming. More than 80% of the energy needs are met by advancement has been conducted worldwide especially in developing countries
fuelwood thus exerting immense pressure on the forest resources of the country like Cambodia, Africa, Srilanka and some state of India. Experiment suggests that
with negative impacts on environment. (Source AEPC) fuel reduction in using gasification stove in the order of 30-50% than traditional
stoves. The table shows some of the gasification stoves and their comparison with
In order to achieve reduction in indoor smoke / air pollution and increased fuel traditional stoves.
efficiency and protect the forest resources and environment, different efforts have
been made to improve efficiency of cook stove which result to advancement of
improved cooking stove and metallic cooking stove currently in practice in Nepal.
But the efficiencies of such stoves are within 20 % and there is still a significant
amount of carbon emission. Now concerns over global warming have added a new
reason to accelerate the transition to cleaner biomass energy use in the developing
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 3 4 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Table1.1Some preliminary data on the fuel consumption of gasification stoves 1. Ensuring that biomass consumption is lowered.
2. Producing an affordable, durable stove that is easy to operate and
Name of Stove Developer/ Designer Estimated fuel consumption maintain.
or reduction compared to 3. Producing a stove whose efficiency doesn’t decrease over time.
traditional stove 4. Understanding the potential added burdens of producing and distributing
PekoPe PaalWendelbo 768g wood pellets for 5L bio-char especially for women.
WBT 5. Understanding behavioral and sociological barriers to new technologies.
Oorja First Energy 30% reduction
Philips natural draft Philips 50% reduction Potential benefits of Bio-char producing stoves
Vesto New Dawn Engineering 35% reduction Health: Bio-char producing stoves are potentially much cleaner, with lower
BioLite -------------- 42% reduction emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and fine particles.

The bio-char stove that we have designed is basically consists of two chambers: Climate: Bio-char-producing stoves have lower greenhouse gas (carbon
combustion chamber and outer chamber. The combustion and pyrolysis occurs in dioxide and methane) and black carbon emissions, create bio-char that can be
the combustion chamber. Bio-char stoves involve two processes. First, solid used to sequester carbon in soils, and reduce the use of fossil-fuel based
biofuel is pyrolysed into a mixture of hydrocarbon-containing gases and charcoal. fertilizers.
Second, the gases are burnt with a clean (smokeless) flame. When the stove is used
to make charcoal, the operation of the stove is stopped at this stage and the Deforestation: Bio-char producing stoves use less fuel, can use a wider variety
charcoal is removed as a by-product. If the charcoal is left in the stove, it will of fuels, and can replace inefficient charcoal production technologies.
usually burn releasing more heat and leaving ash. A primary air flow is required
for pyrolysis, while a secondary air flow is introduced into the hot gas above the Soils: Bio-char producing stoves create bio-char that sequesters carbon in
fuel in order to assist the gas burn. Organic matter used as fuel in stoves is soils, may in some cases reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (a powerful
converted thermally into syngas, solid residue (including bio-char and ash) and greenhouse gas) from soils, improves fertility, and increases productivity in
liquid (including tars). Similar processes occur in large-scale gasifiers, and are degraded soils.
designed to maximize the gas production which can be captured and then used for
electricity or heat generation. However these conditions are generally created in Income Generation: Bio-char producing stoves can accommodate many forms
stoves using simple technology to maximize heat production for cooking. of agricultural residues-some without further treatment. Collecting this residue
Depending on the type of stove, a mixture of processes will occur at any one time is another income generating opportunity not presently available for most
during use of the stove. other stoves since they cannot utilize that type of fuel.

The stove is one-pot to allow cooking rice and vegetable dishes. The wood pallets 1.2 Problem Statement and Rationale
or wood chips are fed into the combustion chamber from the top. Design is A major cause of poor health in low-income communities, and especially amongst
basically based for five people. There are many challenges faced to design a stove. women, is indoor air pollution (IAP) arising from inhaling smoke from cooking
These include: fires. Over a third of humanity - 2.4 billion people - burn biomass (wood and non-

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 5 6 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

woody materials such as dung and agro-residues) to supply their domestic energy micro-nutrients (reflecting the composition of the original feedstock). Hence the
requirements mostly cooking and heating. (Warwick H, Doig A, 2004) development of bio-char stove is essential and this stove technology is new in
Nepal’s climatic condition varies with topography including wide distribution of context of Nepal. In the present context, many metallic improved cooking stoves
fauna in mountain and hilly region. In the Terai, summer temperatures exceed 37° manufactured by different agencies are being used in the residential areas of hilly
C while winter temperatures range from 7°C to 23°C in the Terai. In mountainous and mountainous region. Each of those stoves has their own thermal efficiencies.
regions, hills and valleys, summers are temperate while winter temperatures can The bio-char stove is expected to have much clean combustion and higher thermal
plummet under subzero.( The fuel woods in these efficiency.
regions are consumed mainly for the purpose of cooking and space heating in
winter. An inefficient cooking practice not only increases the fuel wood 1.3 Objective
consumption pattern but also leads to deforestation and deterioration of women’s
health in rural areas. Several studies have shown that particulate matter (PM 10) 2.1 1.3.1 General
concentration on cooking place was about 8000 μg/m 3 against the national Design, Fabrication and Performance test of Bio-char stove
standard of 120 μg/m3 in 24 hours average time. Similarly, the total suspended
particle (TSP) was about 8,800 μg/m3 against national standard of 230 μg/m3,21 2.2 1.3.2 Specific
ppm of carbon monoxide (CO) against national standard of 9 ppm in 8 hour The specific objectives are
average was found where biomass was used as fuel.(Lohani, 2010). Acute  To Plan and Design bio-char stove
respiratory infection (ARI), tuberculosis and other chronic obstructive pulmonary  To fabricate one pot bio-char stove
disease (COPD), complication in child birth continue to exist at high rate. The  To conduct performance test which includes the thermal efficiency test
survey conducted in 1996, showed that 34% of children under five were infected and controlled cooking test.
with ARI ( One of the major  To assay the amount of bio-char yield from bio-char stove
causes behind it is indoor air pollution. The infant mortality rate was around 64 per  To conduct char test which includes proximate analysis and calorific
thousand in 2001. However, this figure comes down to 9.14 deaths per thousand in value.
2007(Ministry of health and population 22 December 2010). Among several  To identify the drawback of tested bio-char stove.
factors ARI has been identified as one of the major factors in high infant and under
five mortality rates in Nepal. Moreover, The UN Food and Agriculture 1.4 Scope of work
Organization estimate that about 25% of Nepal is forested. Between 1990 and Cooking practice in Nepal especially in most of the rural areas are still traditional.
2005, Nepal lost 24.5% of its forest cover; the rate of deforestation is about 1.35% An average household in villages of district like Humla uses 20 - 40 kg firewood a
per year. A primary reason for this deforestation is the use of wood for fuel and day for cooking, heating and lighting. (
the lack of alternatives such as more fuel-efficient cook metal-stove-SMS.html). Thus a huge quantity of biomass is needed only for
stoves. ( ). cooking traditional meal, ‘daal-bhat’ (rice and lentil, vegetables). These practices
not only lead to the ample amount of firewood consumption but also yield high
So, developments of ideas and projects to minimize the consumption of fuel wood indoor air pollution level. It is not a hidden fact that governmental organizations
in these areas are required. A properly designed bio-char cooking stove reduces the like Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC) and other NGO’s and INGO’s
fuel wood consumption by increasing the cooking efficiency as well as it serves promoted improved cooking and metallic stoves. It was the great advancement in
the purpose for soil amendment because of bio-char yield as bio-char provides the field of stove technology and was a boon for rural housewife. However these
some nutrients to soil, including phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and other stoves still have significant amount of carbon emission and fuel consumption.

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 7 8 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

These leads us in search of much promising stove like bio-char stove which has 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
much clean combustion, fuel efficiency and carbon sequestration. The enactment
of our proposal was held on February 2013. The project duration was around seven 2.1 Background
months. Design of stove is mainly based on average five person family. After that Gasification is the process that converts carbon containing feedstock into carbon
we have gone through the fabrication of bio-char stove. monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide which can be achieved by reacting the
material at high temperature without combustion, with controlled amount of
As expected, the deliverable of our project will be clean and efficient biomass oxygen. The resulting gas is a syngas or producer gas and is itself a fuel. The
combustion stove. And not only that, our stove also produce a bio-char which is a process of producing energy using the gasification method has been in use for
“porous carbonaceous solid produced by thermo-chemical conversion of organic more than 180 years. At the turn of the century, petroleum gained wider use as a
materials in an oxygen depleted atmosphere which has physiochemical properties fuel but during World War II, shortage in petroleum supplies led to wide re-
suitable for the safe and long-term storage of carbon in the environment and, introduction of gasification. By 1945 the gas was being used to power trucks,
potentially, soil improvement”. Bio-char stove technology is new in context of buses and agricultural and industrial machines. But the need for liquid fuels
Nepal so the constraint of our project is inaccessible of its appropriate data in remained and German engineers devised a way to make synthetic liquid fuel from
Nepal and wood pallets required for clean combustion. And it is obvious that some gasified coal.
of the information are uncertain so we did some of assumptions like the air flow
rate from primary and secondary holes for proper ignition, syngas is emitted as The first gasification stove was developed in 1985 by Dr. Thomas B. Reed which
constant flow rate from the bottom of combustion chamber and air is mixed is now called Top-Lit Up Draft gasification stove, shortened to “TLUD”. However
thoroughly with syngas inside passage between two chamber for combustion. it is also came to known that there was also the independent work of Paal
Wendelbo, a Norwegian working in Uganda in 1990s. Reed and Wendelbo are the
1.5 Expected Outcomes independent co-originators. Others who have done significant work with the
 Analogously more clean combustion and less fuel wood consumption gasification stoves up through 2007 are the “Pyroneers” (a person expert in
than improved and metallic cooking stoves. pyrolysis and gasification technology).In 1995 Dr. Ronal Larson joined the effort
 Ascertainable amount of thermal and combustion efficiency with a focus on the gasifier’s capacity for producing charcoal as a valuable by-
 Gratifying amount of bio-char production. product in a household stove. After testing and publications, but no real success for
applications, they stopped that work in 1996. However, in 1998 Dr. Reed began
1.6 Limitation work on a smaller, forced convection model with a fan with the intention to make
 The assumptions and conditions carried out during calculations deviate a stove for the affluent North American camper market. He had successfully
from the real ones. produced the “Wood-Gas Camp Stove” for marketing in 2003 and can produce
 Lack of appropriate data and information of bio-char stove and its design impressive heat for sustained periods however some modifications are necessary
criteria in context of Nepal. for applications in developing countries. (Anderson, 2010)
 Inaccessible of wood pallets for bio-char stove for clean and efficient
combustion. The gasification stoves (including both top-lit updraft TLUD and inverted
downdraft IDD) refer to a method of combustion that is essentially pyrolytic
gasification of dry biomass, followed by the combustion of those gases, with a co-
product of charcoal that can be saved or combusted. TLUD and IDD are public
domain terms that describe a method or process. They are not the names of a
specific stove or device. The solid material obtained from the carbonization of
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 9 10 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

biomass is the bio-char which have a high carbon sequestration value and can be Some of the natural draft stoves (based on combustion of gas produced from
used as a fertilizer. biomass) developed so far is listed in Table 2.1. The capacity of these stoves
The use of bio-char for soil nutrient retention and improvement is thought to have ranges from 3kWth to 20kWth, making them suitable for domestic as well as
originated over 2,000 years ago in the Brazilian Amazon. Archeological studies community cooking applications.
indicate population of native Amazonians prospered in agrarian civilizations
sustained by amending nutrient-poor tropical soils with application of charcoal Table 2.1 Some of Natural draft gasifier stoves developed worldwide for
(aka bio-char) and organic matter. At present, thousands of hectares of cooking applications
anthropogenic, nutrient-rich bio-char soils remain in the Xingu region of the No. Name of Stove Developed by
Amazon, distinguished from the generally depleted tropical soils. These unique 1 Wood-Gas Cook Stove Thomas Reed and Ron larson
soils have provided scientists, horticulturalists and environmentalists with 2 Charcoal Making Wood Gas ElsenKarstad
evidence of the enduring beneficial effects of bio-char and verified it as a stable, Cooking Stove
sequestered form of carbon with the potential to mediate modern greenhouse gases 3 Natural draft cross flow stove Asian Institute of Technology
concentrations. ( model IGS2, DGS2 and CGS3 Thailand (AIT)
4 Briquette gasifying stove Richard Stanley (Legacy
2.2 Biomass Gasification for Cooking Purposes
Foundation, USA) and Kobus
Gasifier stoves can be adopted by households for cooking purposes. A gasifier
Venter (Venter Forestry Services,
stove is a metallic biomass fuelled cooking stove designed in such a way that the
South Africa)
fuel is first converted into combustible gases through intense heating which then
5 IISC Gasifier Stove Indian Institute of Science
burns with a clean flame. The stove can be fuelled with dry firewood, sawdust,
6 San San Rice husk Gasifier U Tin Win (under guidance of
agricultural wastes, wood shavings, chunks or twigs (DEEP, 2010).
stove P.D Grover and G.R Quick )
The stoves are very compatible to the cooking habits of the rural majority that
(Source: S.C. Bhattacharya and M. Augustus Leon, Energy Field of Study, AIT)
currently rely on firewood as fuel, and could be used as substitute for other
conventional stoves such as metallic improved cook stove. The gasifier stove is
currently being applied in preparation of food and heating water for countries like
Cambodia, Africa, Vietnam, Srilanka and some state of India. Moreover, these
types of stove involve less complication in their construction. The stove requires
basic raw materials such as sheet metal, tins, screw, rivets, and can be made with
simple tools such as metal snip, drill machines and hammer.
In comparison to the traditional cooking stoves the gasifier stoves are not only fuel
efficient but also emission efficient. Owing to their low efficiency, the traditional
cook stoves emit more than 10% of their carbon as products of incomplete
combustion (PIC) comprising varying amount of tars. In addition, about 100-180 g
of carbon monoxide and 7.7 g of particulate matter are also emitted per kg of
wood. Gases such as methane, total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOC)
and N2O are added to this. These PIC emissions are even higher in the case of
loose biomass or cow dung used as fuel in these stoves (Grover, 2003). Figure 2.1 Wood Gas Stove Figure 2.2 Charcoal Making Wood
developed by Reed and Larson Gas Stove
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 11 12 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

of gasifer stoves. The forced draft type gasifier stove use a small battery operated
blower to supply primary air.

Figure 2.3 IISC’s Gasifier Stove Figure 2.4 Briquette Stove

Figure 2.5 Rice Husk Gasifier Stove

Elsen Kartstad’s Charcoal Making Wood Gas Cooking Stove (Figure 2.2) is a
simple stove developed for the East African households (Karstad, 1997). The IISc 2.3 Project Works and Study Related to Gasifiers in Nepal
Gasifier stove (Figure 2.3) employs small wood sticks and pelletized waste, and Cooking practice from wood gasification technology is still new in context of
has a thermal output of 3-4 kW. It offers a water-boiling efficiency of 25-35% and Nepal. Although gasification system has been utilized in a couple of industries but
the stove can operate continuously for about 2 hours for a single fuel loading. The there is no significant progress in domestic sector. In fact various involved parties
emission from the stove has been found to be low. (IPOBIS, 2004) The Rice husk are still dwelling in the testing phases for the feasibility of the gasifier stove.
gasifier stove (Figure 2.5) offers smokeless combustion of rice husk in an efficient Instead of having such an extensive benefits of gasifier stove like fuel efficient,
manner. Stove performance can be improved by using external fan source. emission efficient and bio-char production, organizations like AEPC still
providing metallic improved stoves in rural sector for cooking purpose.
Although the simplest way to get air into the combustion and fuel chamber is However in recent trend organizations like AEPC, STARIC, RECAST, NAST, etc.
through ‘natural draft’ where fresh air is sucked in as the hot air rises and is are conducting feasibility test and also promoting the gasification technology in
appropriate in the rural areas of many developing countries like ours, some of the Nepal. Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) has developed a
difficulties associated with their operations. These difficulties mainly are starting briquette gasifier stove by adopting the design for Asian Institute of Technology
the gasifier and controlling the flame. Also before the starting of pyrolysis phase in (AIT), Thailand (Singh and Shakya, 2001). But this stove is bulky in size for
stove, stove operation is through purely combustion so some emissions occurs at domestic cooking purpose and the cost of fabrication is too high for low income
this phase. To overcome these difficulties some of designer uses forced draft type people.

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 13 14 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Also different studies and research has been conducted in Center for Energy Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass fuels in the absence of oxygen.
Studies (CES) regarding to the gasification technology. A thesis work for MSc, Pyrolysis involves release of three kinds of products: solid, liquid and gases. The
Basnyat (2004) has performed on updraft gasifier used for drying cardamom that is ratio of products is influenced by the chemical composition of biomass fuels and
in use in Illam district. A thesis work for MSc, Mr. Kul Prasad Simkhada had the operating conditions. The heating value of gas produced during the pyrolysis
fabricated a domestic gasifier stove. It is a downdraft type gasifier. However it is process is low (3.5-8.9 MJ/m3). It is noted that no matter how gasifier is built,
also bulky in size and rather applicable for institutional cooking application. there will always be a low temperature zone, where pyrolysis takes place,
Similarly, AEPC in collaboration with STARIC was testing the performance of generating condensable hydrocarbon. (University of Flensburg, 2004).
‘TLUD’ model updraft gasifier for its use as a cooking stove.
2.4.3 Oxidation
2.4 Gasification Process Introduced air in the oxidation zone contains, besides oxygen and water vapors,
The process to convert biomass solid raw material into fuel gas or chemical inert gases such as nitrogen and argon. These inert gases are considered to be non-
feedstock gas (syngas) is called gasification or thermo-chemical gasification. In
reactive with fuel constituents. The oxidation takes place at the temperature of
order to convert solid biomass into inflammable gas, a substance to promote the
700-2000oC. Heterogeneous reaction takes place between oxygen in the air and
chemical reaction is necessary. This substance is called gasification agent, and
solid carbonized fuel, producing carbon monoxide. Plus and minus sign indicate
mainly air (N2, O2), oxygen (O2), H2O, or CO2 are applied as an appropriate the release and supply of heat energy during the process respectively. (Chiptec,
mixture. Air (only O2 reacts) and O2 generate by oxidation, and increased O2 2003)
decreases the effective amount of inflammable gas. In gasification cooks stoves, it
is the syngas which is burned to produce the heat. The gas consists of carbon C + O2 = CO2 + 406 [MJ/kmol]………………………………………...Equation 3
monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide and others, depending on process conditions.
2.4.4 Reduction
2.4.1 Drying
In reduction zone, a number of high temperature chemical reactions take place in
Biomass fuels consist of moisture ranging from 5 to 35%. At temperature above the absence of oxygen. The principal reactions that take place in reduction are
1000c, the moisture is removed and converted into steam. In the drying stage, fuels
mentioned below.
do not experience any kind of decomposition. (Taure, 2004)
Boudourad reaction
2.4.2 Pyrolysis
CO2 + C = 2CO – 172.6 [MJ/kmol]…………………………………….Equation 4
Biomass is consisted mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The photosynthesis
and pyrolysis can be simply describes as the following formulas. Water-gas reaction
Pyrolysis reaction takes place at temperature about 500-6000C C + H2O = CO + H2 – 131.4 [MJ/kmol]………………………………...Equation 5
(C6H12O6)m (Biomass) (H2 + CO + CH4 + ………+ C5H12)
↑ (Gas) + (H2O +……+CH3OH+ CH3COOH + ….) Water shift reaction
(Liquid) + C (Char)……….Equation 1 CO2 + H2 = CO + H2O + 41.2 [MJ/kmol]………………………………Equation 6
Photosynthesis reaction takes place in presence of light
Methane production reaction
m(6CO2+6H2O) (Carbondioxide and Water) (C6H12O6)m(Biomass)+ C + 2H2 = CH4 + 75 [MJ/kmol]………………………………………...Equation 7
6mO2(Oxygen)………………………………………………………Equation 2

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 15 16 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Main reactions show that heat is required during the reduction process. Hence, the 2.4.2 Downdraft Gasifier
temperature of gas goes down during this stage. If complete gasification takes Downdraft gasifiers are fuel specific. Downdraft wood gasifier can operate on
place, al the carbon is burned or reduced to carbon monoxide, a combustible gas wood like biomass materials and biomass briquettes with a minimum bulk density
and some organic matter is vaporized. The remains are ash and some char of 250 kg/m3 and ash content of less than 5 %. (
(unburned carbon) (University of Flensburg, 2004). In downdraft gasifiers, gas is drawn from the bottom of the reactor while the
hottest reaction zone is in the middle. The volatile matter in the fuel gets cracked
2.4 Gasifier and its types
within the reactor and therefore the output gas is almost tar-free. However, the gas,
Design of gasifier depends upon type of fuel used and whether gasifier is portable
as it comes out of the reactor, contains small amounts of ash and soot. The gas
or stationary. Gas producers are classified according to how the air blast is
comes out of the gasifier at 250-450oC. In downdraft, the air and syngas may
introduced in the fuel column. History of gasification reveals several design of
enter and exit at different locations. This gas can also be used either in hot
gasifier. The most commonly built gasifier is classified as:
condition (after preliminary cleaning) or in cold-clean condition (after appropriate
Updraft Gasifier
gas clean-up arrangement).The gas from the downdraft gasifiers can be cleaned to
Downdraft Gasifier
very high purity such that it can be used in IC engines or for direct heating
Cross draft Gasifier
applications where purity of gas is critical requirement.
2.4.1 Updraft Gasifier
An updraft gasifier has clearly defined zones for partial combustion, reduction, and
pyrolysis. Air is introduced at the bottom and act as countercurrent to fuel flow.
The gas is drawn at higher location. The updraft gasifier achieves the highest
efficiency as the hot gas passes through fuel bed and leaves the gasifier at low
temperature. The sensible heat given by gas is used to preheat and dry fuel.
Disadvantages of updraft gasifier are excessive amount of tar in raw gas and poor
loading capability.

Figure 2.7 Downdraft Gasifier principle in use of Bio-char Stove

Figure 2.6 Updraft Gasifier

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 17 18 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

2.4.3 Cross draft Gasifier 2.5 Producer gas and its constituents
Cross draft Gasifier, although they have certain advantage over updraft and
downdraft gasifier, they are not of ideal type. The disadvantages such as high exit Producer gas is the mixture of combustible and non-combustible gases. The
gas temperature, poor CO2 reduction and high gas velocity are the consequence of quantity of gases constituents of producer gas depends upon the type of fuel and
the design. Unlike downdraft and updraft gasifier, the ash bin, fire and reduction operating condition.
zone in cross draft are separated. These design characteristics limit the type of fuel
for operation to low ash fuels such as wood, charcoal and coke.

Figure 2.9 Producer gas and its constituents

The heating value of producer gas vary from 4.5 to 6 MJ/m 3 depending upon the
quantity of its constituents. Producer gas from different fuel and different gasifier
Figure 2.8 Cross draft Gasifier
types may vary in composition (Table 2.2), but it always consist of a mixture of
combustible gases hydrogen (H2), Carbon monoxide (CO), and Methane (CH4) and
The load following ability of cross draft gasifier is quite good due to concentrate a
the incombustible gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and Nitrogen (N2)
partial zone which operates at temperatures up to 2000oC. Start up time (5-10
minutes) is much faster than updraft units. The relatively higher temperature in
Hydrogen is also a product of reduction process in the gasifier. Hydrogen
cross draft gasifier has an obvious effect on gas composition such as high carbon
possesses the octane number of 60-66 and it increases the ignition ability of
monoxide, and low hydrogen and methane content when dry fuel such as charcoal
producer gas. Methane and hydrogen are responsible for higher heating value of
is used. Cross draft gasifier operates well on dry air blast and dry fuel. (University
producer gas. Amount of methane present in producer gas is very less (up to 4 %).
of Flensburg, 2004)
Carbon dioxide and nitrogen are non-combustible gases present in the producer
gas. Compared to other gas constituents, producer gas contains highest amount
(45-60 %) of nitrogen. The amount of carbon dioxide varies from 5 to 15 %.
Higher percentage of carbon dioxide indicates incomplete reduction. Water vapor
in the producer gas occurs due to moisture content of air introduced during

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 19 20 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

oxidation process, injection of steam in gasifier or moisture content of biomass 4) Dust content
fuels. ( 6) Ash and slagging characteristics

Table 2.2 Typical gas composition for different fuels and reactor types These parameters can be described as follow
Gasifier Types Updraft: Down Cross 1) Energy content
draft draft The higher the energy content and bulk density of fuel, the similar is the gasifier
(Moisture- % Wet Basis) Wood Wood Wood volume since for one charge one can get power for longer time. Fuel with high
(10-20) (10-20) (5-10) energy content provides easier combustion to sustain the endothermic gasification
Hydrogen 8-14 12-22 5-10 reactions because they can burn at higher temperatures
Carbon monoxide 20-30 15-22 20-30
Methane 2-3 1-3 0.5-2 Energy content of fuel is obtained in most cases is an adiabatic, constant volume
Carbon dioxide 5-10 8-15 2-8 bomb calorimeter. The values obtained are higher heating values which include the
Nitrogen 45-55 45-55 55-60 heat of condensation from water formed in the combustion of fuel. The heating
Oxygen 1-3 1-3 1-3 values are also reported on moisture and ash basis. Fuel with higher energy content
3 3
Moisture in Gas (Nm H2O/Nm dry 0.20-0.30 0.06-0.12 <0.3 is always better for gasification. The most of the biomass fuels (wood, straw) has
gas) heating value in the range of 10-18 MJ/kg, whereas liquid fuel (diesel, gasoline)
Tar in Gas (g/Nm3 dry gas) 2-10 0.1-3 <0.3 posses higher heating value (Chandrakant, 2002)
Lower Heating Value(MJ/Nm3 dry gas) 5.3-6.0 4.5-5.5 4.0-5.2
2) Bulk Density of Fuel
Source: Stassen, 1995, pp.7
Higher the bulk density, smaller is the gasifier volume. Bulk density is defined as
2.6 Gasifier stove Fuel Characteristics the weight per unit volume of loosely tipped fuel. Bulk density varies significantly
Almost any carbonaceous or biomass fuel can be gasified under experimental or with moisture content and particle size of a fuel. Volume occupied by stored fuel
laboratory conditions. However the real test for a good gasifier is not whether a depends on not only the bulk density of fuel, but also on the manner in which fuel
combustible gas can be generated by burning a biomass fuel with 20-40% is piled. It is also recognized that bulk density has considerable impact on gas
stoichiometric air but that a reliable gas producer can be made which can also be quality, as it influences the fuel residence time in the fire box, fuel velocity and gas
economically attractive to the customer. Towards this goal the fuel characteristics flow rate.
have to be evaluated and fuel processing done. Many gasifier manufacturers claim
that a gasifier is available which can gasify any fuel. There is no such thing as a 3) Moisture content
universal gasifier. A gasifier is very fuel specific and it is tailored around a fuel In most fuels there is very little choice in moisture content since it is determined
rather than the other way round. by the type of fuel, its origin and treatment. It is desirable to use fuel with low
moisture content because heat loss due to its evaporation before gasification is
Thus a gasifier fuel can be classified as good or bad according to the following considerable and the heat budget of the gasification reaction is impaired. For
parameters: example, for fuel at 25oC and raw gas exit temperature from gasifier at 300 C,
1) Energy content of the fuel 2875 KJ/kg moisture must be supplied by fuel to heat and evaporate moisture.
2) Bulk density Besides impairing the gasifier heat budget, high moisture content also puts load on
3) Moisture content cooling and filtering equipment by increasing the pressure drop across these units
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 21 22 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

because of condensing liquid. Thus in order to reduce the moisture content of 3. METHODOLOGY
fuel some pretreatment of fuel is required. Generally desirable moisture content
for fuel should be less than 20%. The primary purpose of this project is to design and test the Nepali bio-char stove
for domestic cooking purpose and our secondary purpose is bio-char production
that is suitable in context of Nepal. So, for the successful deliverable bio-char
4) Dust content
stove and to have its desirable outcome, following methodological approach has
All gasifier fuels produce dust. This dust is a nuisance since it can clog the internal
been adopted.
combustion engine and hence has to be removed. The gasifier design should be
such that it should not produce more than 2-6 g/m of dust (Rajvansi, 1990). The 3.1 Study of the existing gasification cookstove
higher the dust produced, more load is put on filters necessitating their frequent Different books, journals, reports and websites have been accessed to learn about
flushing and increased maintenance. the theory behind combustion, gasification and pyrolysis of gas stove.

5) Tar content 3.2 Construction of tin can model of bio-char stove

Tar is one of the most unpleasant constituents of the gas as it tends to deposit in After the ample literature review, a tin can model of bio-char stove model was
the carburetor and intake valves causing sticking and troublesome operations. It is fabricated using locally available material based on the principle of downdraft
a product of highly irreversible process taking place in the pyrolysis zone. The gasification principle. So constructed tin can model verify the downdraft principle
physical property of tar depends upon temperature and heat rate and the as per our expectation. After the satisfactory result given by the model we
appearance ranges from brown and watery (60% water) to black and highly proceeded towards the formal design of bio-char stove.
viscous (7% water). There are approximately 200 chemical constituents that have
3.3 Design of bio-char stove prototype:
been identified in tar so far.
After the successful result from bio-char stove model, the formal designing of bio-
char stove was started. The design of stove is based on following criteria
6) Ash and Slagging Characteristics
The mineral content in the fuel that remains in oxidized form after complete 3.3.1 General
combustion is usually called ash. The ash content of a fuel and the ash composition
have a major impact on trouble free operation of gasifier.  Safety
 Smoke reduction
Ash basically interferes with gasification process in two ways:  Cleanliness / hygiene
a) It fuses together to form slag and this clinker stops or inhibits the downward  Fuel reduction
flow of biomass feed.  Durability (spare parts availability and ease maintenance)
b) Even if it does not fuse together it shelters the points in fuel where ignition is  Portability
initiated and thus lowers the fuel’s reaction response.  Time saving in total

Ash and tar removal are the two most important processes in gasification system 3.3.2 Stove production considerations:
for its smooth running. Various systems have been devised for ash removal. In fact  Accessibility
some fuels with high ash content can be easily gasified if elaborate ash removal  Affordability
system is installed in the gasifier.  Production possible by mechanical workshop

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 23 24 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

 Access for future modification

This phase follows immediately the first test while the stove is still hot. Again, the
3.3.3 Cooking considerations tester uses a pre-weighed bundle of wood to boil a measured quantity of water in a
 Burn time (time of flame for cooking) standard pot. Repeating the test with a hot stove helps to identify differences in
 Time suitable for simmering performance between a stove when it is cold and when it is hot.
 Flame consistency Phase III: Low Power (Simmering)
 Can use a variety of feedstock
The third phase follows immediately from the second. Here the tester determines
The modeling was performed in solid works. The details of designing and
the amount of fuel required to simmer a measured amount of water at just below
dimensioning are discussed in chapter four.
boiling point for 45 minutes. These steps simulate the long cooking legumes or
3.4 Fabrication of Bio-char Stove pulses common throughout much of the world.
Fabrication was started upon the finalization of design. The details of fabrication The major outputs from the WBT are as follows:
are discussed in chapter five.  Thermal Efficiency
 Time to boil
3.5 Performance testing of the Bio-char Stove  Burning rate
For the testing of the performance of our fabricated bio-char stove, we have relied
on two major tests. They are Water Boiling Test (WBT) and Controlled Cooking While performing WBT, it should be noted that the direct calculation of thermal
Test (CCT). A thorough analysis can be performed with the WBT and CCT which efficiency derived from the WBT is not a good indicator of the stove’s
not only evaluates the performance of the stove but also makes it eligible for performance because it rewards the excess production of steam. Under normal
comparison with other stoves. cooking condition, excess steam production wastes energy because it represents
energy that is not transferred to the food.
3.5.1 The Water Boiling Test
The The Water Boiling Test (WBT) was performed as per instructions and The Thermal Efficiency is calculated as
manuals provided by Approvecho Research Centre using version 3.0. WBT is a ……………………………...………. Equation 8
rough simulation of the cooking process that is intended to help stove designers
understand how well energy is transferred from the fuel to the cooking pot. It can
be performed on most stoves throughout the world. This test can be used to Mass of water initially in cooking vessel, kg
Specific heat of water, kJ/kg0C
compare the performance of two or more stoves under similar controlled
conditions or the same stove under different condition. Mass of water evaporated, kg
The WBT consist of following phases that immediately follow each other Mass of fuel burned, kg
Phase I: High Power (Cold Start) Temperature of boiling water, 0C
In this phase, the tester begins with the stove at the room temperature and uses a Initial temperature of water in pot,0C
pre-weighed bundle of wood to boil a measured quantity of water in a standard Latent heat of evaporation at 100 0C and 105 Pa, kJ/kg
pot. The tester then replaces the boiled water with a fresh pot of cold water to Calorific value of fuel, kJ/kg
perform second phase of the test.
Phase II: High Power (Hot start)….. (OPTIONAL)

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 25 26 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

3.5.2. Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) 4. DESIGN

The WBT output data gives a thermal efficiency of the stove which is necessary to
4.1 Design
determine the general performance of the stove with respect with other stoves but
The design of component parts of our stove is based on the input energy
having thermal efficiency high does not guarantee the better real time cooking and
equivalence consumption of the metallic improved cooking stove for cooking one
vice-versa. Hence, cooking of favorite set of meal is to be carried out in controlled
kg of rice. (Anoopa et al. 2006) The stove is designed for average five people for
environment which is called Controlled Cooking Test in order to find out how the
one time meal.
stove performs when real time cooking is done. Though it is carried out in
controlled environment, it gives hint of the real time cooking done in kitchen.
4.1.1 Inner cylinder design
We also performed the controlled cooking test in the stove to evaluate the
performance of the stove cooking a set of favorite Nepali meal (rice and pulse) for Wood consumption = 624 gm/kg rice
a family of 5 members. Rice requirement = rice + rice equivalent of curry
Various outputs from the CCT are as follows: = (1500 + 2500) gm
= 4000 kg
 Specific fuel consumption
= 4.0 kg
 Total cooking time
Total wood required = 624 × 4 gm
 Weight of char remaining
= 2496 gm
For all the variables involved in the CCT and their respective calculations refer to = 2.496 kg
Appendix D Wood density = 670 kg/m3
Wood volume = 2.496/670
3.5.3. Total Burning Time = 0.003725 m3
= 3725.373 cm3
We recorded the total burning time for the stove with initial design and its
Wood pellet void factor, kv = 1.3
modifications carried out henceforth. Further, the total burning period is sub-
Minimum inner volume required, V = 3725.373 × 1.3
divided into two phase viz. combustion period and gasification period.
= 4842.985 cm3
3.6 Cost estimation and financial analysis Cylinder aspect ratio, k (=h/d) =1.2
In this chapter we estimated the cost of the stove when it goes for the mass Inner diameter, d = (4V/πk) 1/3
production based upon the price rate provided by the commercial workshop in = (4×4842.985/ (π×1.2)1/3
Sanepa. After the cost estimation basic financial analysis for the feasibility of the = 17.2592 cm
stove was carried out which included calculation of payback period, NPV and IRR Minimum inner height, h = k×d = 1.2×17.2592
of the stove. = 20.71104 cm

Lid clearance = 1 cm
Mixture hole diameter = 1 cm
Total inner cylinder height = 20.71104 + 1 + 1
= 22.71104 cm

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 27 28 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

4.1.2 Syngas burning and oxygen requirements = 0.3312102 m/s

Syngas composition = mCO + nH2
Burning reaction:- 4.1.4 Oxygen, air supply and outer bottom holes
mCO + nH2 + (m+n)/2 O2 = mCO2 + nH2O Oxygen supply rate = Vg/2
(m+n) volume syngas requires (m+n)/2 volume of O2 = 0.00156/2
1 volume syngas requires ½ volumes O2 = 0.00078 m3/s
1 volume syngas requires 4.76 × ½ volume air Air supply rate, Va = 4.76×0.00078
= 0.0037128 m3/s
4.1.3 Syngas opening holes Outer bottom holes
Estimated cooking time, t = 80 min. No. of holes for air = 35
= 80 × 60 Diameter of each hole = 12 cm = 0.12 m
= 4800 sec. Hole area each = π × 0.0122/4 = 0.000113 m2
Wood calorific value = 18 MJ/kg Total air flow area = 35×0.000113 = 0.0039564 m2
= 18 × 670 MJ/m3 Velocity of air flow = Va/Aa
= 12060 MJ/m3 = 0.0037128/0.0039564
Total energy input, E = calorific value × wood volume required = 0.9384289 m/s
= 12060 × 0.003725
= 44.928 MJ 4.1.5 Air + syngas mixture and inner top holes
Power input, Q = E/t (to meet the power input of MICS) Mixture volume, Vm = Vg+Va
= 44.928×106/4800 = 0.00156 + 0.0037128
= 9360 W = 0.0052728 m3/s
= 9.36 kW Inner top holes
Syngas lower calorific value, LHV g = 6 MJ/m3 No. of holes = 38
Syngas volume required = Q/LHVg Diameter of each hole = 10 mm = 0.01 m
= 9.36×103/ (6×106) Hole area each = π × 0.012/4= 0.0000785 m2
= 0.00156 m3/s Total mixture flow area = 38×0.0000785
Inner cylinder base holes = 0.002983 m2
No. of holes = 60 Velocity of mix flow = Vm/Am
Diameter of each hole = 10 mm = 0.0052728/0.002983
= 0.01 m = 1.7676 m/s
Hole area each = π × 0.012/4
= 0.0000705 m2 4.1.6 Vertical clearance between cylinders
Total syngas flow area, Ag = 60×0.0000705 Total syngas flow area, Ag = 0.00471 m2
= 0.00471 m2 = 47.1 cm2
Velocity of syngas flow = Vg/Ag Inner cylinder diameter, d = 17.259203 cm
= 0.00156/0.00471 Minimum clearance = Ag / (π×d)
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 29 30 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

= 47.1/ (π×17.259203) 5. FABRICATION

= 0.869101 cm
= 8.69101 mm
After the mathematical calculation and design of various parts of stove, the stove
4.1.7 Outer cylinder design now has to be materialized. Before fabrication, the factors affecting it should be
Mixture volume, Vm = 0.0052728 m3/s considered. One of the most important factors to be considered is material
Initial mixture velocity, vm= 0.3312102 m/s selection. Rest of the factors is intertwined with this pivotal factor.
Minimum area of mix flow, A = Vm/ vm
5.1 Material selection
= 0.0052728/0.3312102
It is very important criteria for the fabrication .The selection of an engineering
= 0.0159198 m2
material is an integral process that requires an understanding of interactions
= 159.198 m2 between many factors. These factors include the following:
Outer diameter, D = (4A/π + d2)1/2
 Functional requirements and constraints.
= (4×0.0159198/3.14 + 17.25922)
 Material properties.
= 22.375882 cm
 Manufacturing process considerations.
Outer cylinder height
 Fabric ability.
Total inner cylinder height = 22.71104
Vertical clearance = 0.8691015 cm  Design configuration.
Total outer height = 22.71104+0.8691015  Available and alternate materials.
= 23.580145 cm  Corrosion and degradation in service.
 Thermal stability.
 And finally and importantly, Cost.
Different material has different properties. Some of the material considered for our
design and their properties are:

The Table 5.1 shows the various properties of various materials. But all the
properties listed above cannot be satisfied by a single material hence we had to
compromise with some of the non-important properties for fabrication without
compromising the primary purpose of the stove. We selected cast iron for the
fabrication purposes. Following are the criteria considered before selecting a
 High melting point for combustion
 Weld ability
 Anti-rusting
 Cost effectiveness

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 31 32 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Table 5.1 Material comparison From the design point of view, the thickness of inner cylinder was selected to be 5
S.N. Properties Mild Steel Cast Iron High mm but while consulting with the workshop personnel, material available and
Carbon fabrication difficulty 2.5 mm thick material was suitable for the fabrication.
Steel Moreover, the material for the inner cylinder has to be robust enough for
1. Carbon 0.1-0.29% 0.5-1.5% 2-4% withstanding the pyrolysis and combustion process which could be efficiently
content achieved even by 2.5 mm thick material so the thickness of the inner cylinder was
2. Structure Bright fibrous Crystalline coarse Fine granular changed to 2.5 mm.
granular structure
There are 38 holes of diameter 10 mm at top of the inner cylinder for the mixture
Tougher and Less tough and Tough and
of gas and air to ignite.
elastic than cast less elastic elastic than
iron mild steel
5.2.2 Base plate of inner cylinder
Malleable and Hard and brittle Brittle and
3. Mechanical ductile less ductile The base plate serves the two purposes for the stove, one is as the name indicates
properties than mild base for the hollow inner cylinder and other is if holes are created in it, those holes
Readily forged Cannot be forged Cannot be serve as the outlet for the gas formed by the pyrolysis process. 60 holes of 10 mm
and welded and welded forged and diameter were created in the base plate of the inner cylinder which is welded in the
welded inner cylinder after the manufacture.
5.2.3 The L-support
4. Melting 1400°C 1200°C 1300°C
point As the name indicates the shape of the support is L and supports the inner cylinder
with the outer base plate and has dimension of 2.5 x1.5x1cm3. It is 3 in number
5. Rusting Rusts readily Does not rust Rusts rapidly and placed at 120 degrees to each other.
5.2.4 Outer cylinder of the stove
6. Shock Absorb shock Cannot absorb Absorb
absorbing shock The outer cylinder is to be designed such that the emission from the inner cylinder
and the air from the surrounding should mix, flow efficiently and reach to the top
of inner cylinder for the burning purpose. Hence with 2.5 cm gap radially the
5.2 Detailed description of the components of stove diameter of the outer cylinder is calculated to be 23 cm. the thickness for the outer
cylinder is 2 mm. Height of the outer cylinder is 26 cm. Thirty-five holes of 12
5.2.1 Inner cylinder of the stove mm diameter were punched in outer cylinder for the entry of the air.
It is the most important design of the stove components. Cooking meal for a family
5.2.5 Outer cylinder base plate
of 5 requires weight of wood to be 2.5 kg approximately. Density of wood is taken
to be 670 kg/m3 (Pinus roxburgii). Hence the volume of the inner cylinder is The outer cylinder base plate is 29 cm in diameter and 2.5 mm in thickness. It is
3725.373 cm3.With void factor taken 1.3 the final volume for the inner cylinder welded at the base of the outer cylinder and supports the whole assembly.
design is 4842.985 cm3. Hence with above considerations the diameter for the
cylinder is 18 cm and with aspect ratio 1.2 the height for the cylinder is 23 cm.
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 33 34 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

5.2.6 Top plate of stove 6. RESULT, ANALYSIS AND OUTCOMES

The top plate of stove is also 29 cm in diameter and 2.5 mm in thickness only
The following tests were carried out for different stove design variations. The
difference in the base plate and top plate is top plate consists of 12 cm hole at the
wood we had used was commonly available Pinus roxburgii (Salla) which is a
center which serves the purpose of flame outlet.
typical softwood with gross calorific value of 18 MJ and moisture content of 15 %
5.2.7 Stand of the stove taken as standard.

It is 3 in number and supports the whole stove as well as clasps the two plates 6.1. Water boiling test results
along with two cylinders. It is a rod of 10 mm in diameter and 30 cm in height.
6.1.1. WBT input/output for initial stove design
5.3 Fabrication costs
Fabrication work of stove was carried out at Om Shiva Shakti Grill and Shutter
Table 6.1 WBT constant input data for initial design
Workshop, Sanepa. The fabrication cost per stove is given below:
SN Particulars units Value
Table5.2. Fabrication cost of stove 1 Weight of empty stove gm 9100
S.N. Particulars Amount(Rs) 2 Air temperature 0
C 28
1. Inner cylinder with base plate 1100
3 Moisture content % 15
2. Outer cylinder 1000
4 Dry weight of pot gm 500
3. Top plate 150
4. Bottom plate 150 5 Local boiling temperature of water C 96
5. Stands( Three in quantity) 100
6. Total 2500
Source: Om Shiva Shakti Grill and Shutter Workshop, Sanepa Table 6.2 WBT input data for initial design
cold start simmering
SN Particulars
Initial Final Initial final
1 Weight of wood(gm) 750 0 - -
2 Water temperature(0C) 26 92 - -
3 Weight of pot+water(gm) 2400 2000 - -
4 Charcoal weight(gm) - 25 - -
5 Time(min) 0 33 - -

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 35 36 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Table 6.3 WBT output data for initial design 6.1.2 WBT input/output for first modification
SN Particulars Units start Simmer Table 6.4 WBT constant input for first modification
1 Thermal efficiency % 17 - SN Particulars Units Value
2 Char weight gm 25 - 1 Weight of empty stove gm 8350
3 Time to boil min 33 - 0
2 Air temperature C 28
4 Burning rate g/min 18 -
3 Moisture content % 15
5 Specific Fuel Consumption g/liter 415 -
4 Dry weight of pot gm 500
6 Fire Power Watts 5748 -
5 Local boiling temperature of water C 96 Observation Table 6.5 WBT input for first modification

 Full combustion with red flame
 Smoke formation
cold start Simmering
 Combustion doesn’t leads to pyrolysis therefore; SN Particulars
 Complete ash formation initial final Initial final
1 Weight of wood(gm) 800 0 800 0 Possible reasons Water
 Air flow through primary outlet so it affects pyrolysis temperature(0C) 25.15 96 96 67.4
 Low effective height of the pot holder 3
Weight of
pot+water(gm) 3000 2822.5 2822.5 2462.5 First modification 4 Charcoal weight(gm) - 290 - 87.5
 Holes at the bottom of combustion chamber are transferred on 5 Time(min) 0 19.5 19.5 66.5
circumferential side at 2 cm above the base
 Air supply holes level is placed at bottom of the outer chamber as low as Table 6.6 WBT Output for first modification
 Pot holder height is now increased to 4 cm. S.N. Particulars Units Cold start Simmer
 Number of holes at primary outlet and secondary inlet are now reduced 1. Thermal efficiency % 35 12
2. Char weight gm 290 87.5
3. Time to boil min 20 46
4. Burning rate g/min 12 6.5
5. Specific Fuel Consumption g/liter 96 158.5
6. Fire Power Watts 2883 1669

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 37 38 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis Observation Table 6.8 WBT input for second modification

 Pyrolysis happens but takes time. Syngas starts to emits after 8 th minute
of ignition. cold start simmering
 Smoke concentration reduces SN Particulars
initial final initial final
 Flame sustains for 27th minutes
1 Weight of wood(gm) 1200 500 1200 500 Reasons 2 Water temperature(0C) 25.05 95.9 95.9 93.4
 Though pyrolysis happens but take significant time (8 min) this may be 3
Weight of
because combustion chamber is thick enough and took considerable time pot+water(gm) 3000 2855 2855 2067.5
to heat up. 4 Charcoal weight(gm) - 245 - 245
5 Time(min) 0 16 16 65 Second modification
 Thickness of combustion chamber reduced to form 2.5 mm to 0.35 mm
 Diameter of combustion chamber is increased from 18cm to 21 cm Table 6.9 WBT output for second modification
 Material now used is steel sheet metal S.N. Particulars Units Cold start Simmer
1. Thermal efficiency % 34 20.5
6.1.3. WBT input/output for second modification 2. Char weight gm 245 245
3. Time to boil min 16 48.5
Table 6.7 WBT constant input for second modification 4. Burning rate g/min 13.5 12
SN Particulars units value 5. Specific Fuel Consumption g/liter
91.5 371.5
1 Weight of empty stove gm 6450
6. Fire Power Watts 3390.5 2964.5
2 Air temperature C 28
3 Moisture content % 15
4 Dry weight of pot gm 500 Observation
0  Pyrolysis occurs at 4th minutes from ignition.
5 Local boiling temperature of water C 96
 Virtually No Smoke
 Flame sustains for whooping one hour and seven minutes.

6.2 Controlled Cooking Test Results

The controlled cooking test was conducted in CES lab at IOE, Pulchowk campus
to determine the stove performance at actual cooking condition. The procedure
and necessary data for the test was taken as per the instruction provided by shell
foundation for household energy and health program and then the obtained data
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 39 40 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

was fitted into the excel sheet provided by them. The important result that we have Table 6.11 Proximate Analysis Result of Pine Char
deducted from this test is the SFC and the total time to cook the meal. Sample Name: Pine Char Standard (NAST)
The result obtained from the test is as below: Moisture Content (%) 5.57 7.5
Volatile Matter Content (%) 36.50 17.96
Table 6.10 Test Results of CCT Ash Content (%) 1.85 5.39
Parameters Test Total Fixed Carbon Content (%) 56.09 69.15
Weight of raw food (gm) 760+200=960 (Rice + Pulse) Discussion
Wood Supplied (gm) 1500
Wood Remaining (gm) 525  Moisture Content: Moisture affects the combustion efficiency negatively
Weight of Char (gm) 260 and the moisture content should typically be as low as possible
Equivalent Dry Wood consumed (gm) 585 (Demirbas, 2004). Optimum moisture content that can be allowed to use
Time (min) 34 in charcoal briquettes is 10-12%. (Eriksson & Prior, 1990).
SFC (g/kg) 609  Volatile Matter Content: According to the report published by FAO
(1985) volatile matter in charcoal can vary from a high value of 40%. The
6.2.1 Discussion: high value of volatile charcoal tends to be stronger, heavier, harder and
easier for the ignition than low volatile charcoal but at the same time burn
It is seen that only 975gm of wood is consumed for cooking one time meal for a with some smokes too.
typical family. The SFC obtained from the test is 609 g/kg means 609gm of wood  Ash Content: Biomass residues normally have much lower ash content
is required to cook 1kg of meal. The cooking time for both rice and pulses are (except for rice husk with 20% ash) but their ashes have a higher
observed as 34 min. we had conducted CCT for same weight of meal in LPG gas percentage of alkaline minerals, especially potash. Pine charcoal had
stove and the cooking time was observed as 17 min. It is seen that our Nepali bio- 5.39% of ash content (Standard). The good quality charcoal (1.2% to
char stove takes as double time as that of gas cook stove for cooking. Since we use 8.9%) range set by FAO (1987).The low values of ash content obtained
wood as a fuel for cooking, giving such result with respect to LPG gas stove is could be due to the high heating value of the fuel wood.
quite satisfactory.  Total Fixed Carbon Content: Fixed carbon content is the amount of the
carbon present in the sample. Standard value to make good quality of
6.3 Char Test charcoal of pine char conducted by NAST is 69.15%. The charcoal yield
from our Nepali bio-char stove is less than the standard value because the
6.3.1 Proximate Analysis char was taken in early stage of gasification process as the sample was
Proximate analysis of the char was done to know the carbon content and taken just at the end of cold start process.
information related to moisture content, volatile matter present and ash content so
as to assess the produced char to be used as a charcoal fuel. Thus, studying these 6.3.2 Calorific Value of Char
characteristics is very important to understand the characteristics of the charcoal. Another most important feature of a solid fuel is its calorific value. It determines
The proximate analysis was conducted at Center for Energy and Environment, the commercial value of fuel. Hence the char from bio-char stove was tested in the
Nepal (CEEN) by the help of Prof. Ramesh Man Singh. The proximate analysis laboratory of Nepal Environmental & Scientific Services (NESS). The calorific
was carried out by following JIS 8812 standard method. The test results are as value of char was found to be 6363 Kcal/kg. The test was conducted with bomb
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 41 42 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

calorimeter that follows American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), D 5865- 6.4.1. Thermal efficiency Vs. Stove variations
Thermal efficiency(%) Discussions
The calorific value used for making good quality pine charcoal is 6447 Kcal/kg.

Efficeincy vs stove
(Bharati et al., 2010). The observed value of charcoal from Nepali bio-char stove
is 6363 Kcal/kg. This result shows that the calorific value of charcoal from Nepali
bio-char stove is very close to the calorific value for pine charcoal.
6.4 Outcomes
Table 6.12 stove output of initial stove and its modifications 0%
Initial First Second
stove modificat modificat
variation in efficiency Char yield flame
model ion ion
stove cold cold sustainability(min)
start simmer start simmer Thermal efficiency
17% 35% 34%
Initial stove cold start
model 17% 0 3.33% 0 33 Thermal efficiency
0 12% 20.50%
First simmer
modification 35% 12% 36.25% 10.93% 27
Figure 6.1 Thermal efficiency of initial stove and its modifications
modification 34% 20.50% 35% 20.41% 67
The above figure shows the thermal efficiency vs. stove design variations. The
initial stove design has 17 % thermal efficiency but it did not follow gasification
process as expected rather it follows normal combustion just as in other non-
gasifier stove. The stove also didn’t burn for the significant time to allow the
simmering process so there was no thermal efficiency for simmering thus we
proceed for the first modification in stove.

The first modification follows the principle of gasification and is now performs as
a gasifier stove. The thermal efficiency of first modification is 35% in cold start
and the thermal efficiency for simmer is 12%. Though the thermal efficiency is
high, the stove didn’t show the real time cooking as the burning time of the stove
did not cover the full simmering process these leads to the second modification.

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 43 44 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

The second modification has cold start thermal efficiency of 34% and simmering 6.4.3 Flame sustainability Vs. Stove variations
thermal efficiency of 20.5 %. This modification finally covers the full simmer
phase and hence shows the real time cooking thus concluded for final design. 80
6.4.2. Char yield Vs. Stove variations
Char Yield(%) 40 33
char yeild vs stove design

35.00% 20
30.00% 10
25.00% 0
20.00% Initial stove First Second
10.00% model modification modification
5.00% flame sustainability(min)
Initial First Second
Figure 6.3 flame sustainability of initial stove and its modification
stove modific modific
model ation ation The above figure shows the Flame sustainability (in min) Vs. Stove design
Char yield cold variations. It shows that initial stove design gives 33 minutes of burning time
3.33% 36.25% 35%
start which is purely through combustion of wood without any sign of gasification
Char yield simmer 0 10.93% 20.41% leaving behind only ash.

Figure 6.2 char yield of initial stove and its modifications The first modification though burns for less time than the initial stove; it follows
the gasification process contrary to the initial design.
In the above figure, the initial design gives the char yield of only 3.33 % during
cold start since much part of remaining are ashes as it follows combustion process The flame sustainability for second modification is 67 minutes, which is higher
rather than gasification. No simmering test has been done for initial stove design. than the first modification because greater biomass feed and uniform gasification.
The first modification of the stove gives the char yield of 36.25% during cold start The uniform gasification is because of thin size and high conductivity which leads
and the char yield during simmering phase is 10.93%. to better heat distribution.

The second modification of the stove gives the char yield of 35% during cold start
and 20.41% during simmering phase. The simmering phase shows better char yield
than first modification because of prolonged gasification and greater biomass feed.

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 45 46 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

6.4.4 Water temperature Vs. Time

Second modification
First modification 120

120 100

Water temperature(0C)
Water Water
Water Temperature(0C)

100 temperature(o 80 temperatu

C) re(oC)
80 60

60 40

40 20

20 A B
A B 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64
0 Time(min)
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64
Time(min) Figure6.5. variation of water temperature with time for second modification

Above figure shows the water temperature (oC) vs time (min) for the second
Figure 6.4 Variation of water temperature with time for first modification modification. Gasification starts from the 5th minute of ignition and lasts till the
67th minute of ignition. The gasification starts early contrary to the first
A = Combustion region modification which starts to emit at the 8th minute of ignition. The major portion of
B= Pyrolysis region the rise in temperature is observed in gasification region which is showed by the
steep line. And the major portion of the graph lies in the gasification zone which
The above figure shows the temperature vs time graph for the first modification. indicates that second modification is better gasifier stove design than the first
First eight minutes of ignition accounts for the combustion region while thereafter modification. Hence the second modification is the final design.
there is gasification upto the 28th minute of ignition. Gasification is observed
visually when the flame comes out from the upper holes.

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 47 48 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

7. COST ESTIMATION AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS to implement. There are various methods for the financial analysis. Some of the
methods used are:
Scrap metals were used for the fabrication of the stove to minimize cost. But for  Payback period
the mass production standard and higher quality metal will be used to ensure  NPV
longevity of stove life and efficient performance when in use. In one hand, cost of  IRR
standard and higher quality metal will be high but on other hand, the cost of
manufacture will be low. Since the cost of manufacture is significantly low than Cost of stove while in mass production = Rs.1989
the cost of increase in price of stove due to use of standard and higher quality Basic assumptions:
metal the net effect is decrease in stove price. Yearly maintenance cost = Rs.600
Average stove life = 3 years
7.1 Cost estimation of Bio-char stove for mass production Average wood consumed in family per day = 1.95 kg
We fabricated the stove at Om Shiva Shakti Grill and Shutter Workshop. And the Average wood consumed in a year = 711.75 kg
cost estimation of the Bio-char stove mentioned below is provided by the owner of Cost of wood per kg = Rs.20
same workshop. Average efficiency of existing metallic stove =17%
Average efficiency of Bio-char stove = 34%
7.1.1 Cost of various metals used in stove
Therefore, Average profit per year =
Cost of 2 mm cast iron metal = Rs.1413 per m2
Cost of 0.35 mm sheet metal = Rs.404 per m2
Cost of 10 mm iron rod of 30 cm length = 150 per piece
7.2.1 Payback period
7.1.2 Total material required It is one of the widely used methods of financial analysis. It is one of the cheap
method and easy to calculate. It gives the time required for the return on
Total area of 2 mm cast iron metal = 3679×10-4 m2
investment to repay the sum of the original investment.
Total area of 0.35 mm sheet metal = 1715×10-4 m2
Payback period
7.1.3 Cost of mass production per stove = 4 months and 17 days
Total Cost of 2mm cast iron = Rs.519
Total cost of 0.35 sheet metal = Rs.70 7.2.2 Net Present Value (NPV)
Total cost of 3 rods of length 30 cm of 10 mm diameter = Rs.450 Payback period gives simple indication when the project begins to yield the profit.
Total cost of pot holder = Rs.150 The biggest limitation of the payback period is that it does not take into account
Cost of labor+ welding + grinding + cutting = Rs.800 the time value of money. It is the difference in present values between cash
Total cost of the stove while in mass production = Rs.1989 inflows and cash outflows.
Hence the total cost of stove when it goes for mass production is Rs1989 NPV in decision making
NPV > 0 accept the project
7.2 Financial Analysis NPV = 0 remain indifferent
First of all, a project should be technically sound. The second criteria for the NPV < 0 reject the project
project to be successfully implemented are that it should be economically feasible We have,

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 49 50 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

7.3 Discussion and Analysis

Where, 7.3.1 Discussion

A= Average Annual profit=Rs.5197 When the stove is mass produced, the price per piece becomes Rs.1989 only
i= Discount Rate=13% compared to Rs.2500 of the prototype. The payback period of the investment is
N= life of project =3yrs only 4 months and 17 days. The NPV of the investment is Rs.10, 282 while IRR of
I= Initial Investment=Rs.1989 the project is 255%.
NPV = 5197 × ((1+0.13)3 - 1) / (0.13 × (1+0.13)3) – 1989 = Rs.10282
Since NPV > 0, the stove is feasible for the implementation. 7.3.2 Analysis
For the financial analysis purpose, the method of payback period, NPV and IRR
7.2.3 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) were followed and all the methods approve for the investment.
Internal rates of return are commonly used to evaluate the desirability of
investments or projects. The higher a project's internal rate of return, the more The price per piece of the stove is lowered when it goes for the mass production.
desirable it is to undertake the project. The value of rate of return when the NPV This is mainly because the prototype stove requires technician with versatile
becomes zero or when the cash inflows cancels the cash outflows is called internal manufacturing skills and it also takes ample amount of time and thinking. In
rate of return (IRR). For an investment to be worthwhile, IRR should be greater contrary, when in mass production, a worker with minimal knowledge of
than MARR. MARR is the minimum rate at which investment should return which manufacturing can produce multiple stoves in a day.
guarantees that if the project yields at MARR, it does not incur losses to the
investor. If the user replaces the existing metallic cooking stove with the Nepali Bio-char
Evaluation criteria by IRR method: stove, then the payback period would be around 4 months and 17 days. Since the
 If IRR>MARR, accept the project average life of the cooking stove is predicted to be around 3 years, the users gain a
profit for the period of 2 years and 7 months.
 If IRR = MARR, remain indifferent
The NPV of the investment is Rs.10, 282 which is greater than zero. Similarly, the
 If IRR < MARR, reject the project
investment of the project is 255% which is also greater than the MARR value of
NPV = 0 13%. The reason for the high value of NPV and IRR are:
A ((1+i) N -1) / (i (1+i) N) –I=0  High efficiency of stove compared to existing stove
 Low initial cost
Where,  Low maintenance cost
A= Average Annual profit=Rs.5197
i= Discount Rate=MARR=13% Hence, with short payback period, high NPV and IRR values, investment in the
N= life of project =3yrs Nepali Bio-char stove is economically feasible and largely recommended.
I= Initial Investment=Rs.1989
5197 × ((1+i) 3 - 1) / (i × (1+i) 3) – 1989=0
Therefore, i= 255%
Since the IRR >> MARR, investment is largely encouraged.
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 51 52 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION  We could not test the output of stove by varying different fuel with
different moisture content value due to time constraint. This is very
8.1 Conclusion important aspect and further research is highly recommended.
After the fabrication of the stove various tests were carried out with the initial  WBT, CCT and KPT are the three tests set that complete the stove test.
stove and its modified form and the following conclusions were derived: But due to the time constraint we could not perform KPT. And this is
 The pyrolysis process occurring in the combustion chamber occurs fast if another area where further test can be carried out.
the thickness of the combustion chamber is reduced but in reducing  Due to the lack of availability of compatible Gas Analyzer, we could not
thickness strength of the chamber should also be considered. measure the emission from the stove. Emission from the stove can be
 The efficiency of the stove has shown major changes along with the determined once the instrument is available.
modifications (18% to 35% to 34%).  This Bio-char yielding gasifier stove is first of its kind in Nepal. So
 The char yield from the stove is of appreciable value (from 0% to 36.25% numerous modifications can still be done in its design part and
to 35%). consequent output can be observed.
 The gas flame burning period goes on increasing as we went on
modifying.(from 0th minute to 19th minute to 1 hour and 7 minutes ).
 The calorific value of the char obtained from the stove is obtained to be
6363 Kcal/Kg. This calorific value is very much suitable for the making
of briquettes.
 The gas flame burning period is smokeless which is advantageous with
the health aspect.

8.2 Recommendation
Due to the unavailability of sophisticated instruments, time constraints and
financial constraints some of the desired tests could not be performed. There
can be significant further study in those sectors so we recommend following
 The moisture content and calorific value of the fuelwood could be
calculated experimentally but we have taken to a standard value of 15%
and 18000kj/kg respectively.
 The gas composition of the fuelwood is also taken a standard ratio. It was
not possible for us to measure the gas composition. Therefore further
work can be carried out in this to find out actual composition of producer
and flue gases.
 Due to the unavailability of high temperature measuring pyrometer we
could not measure the flame temperature. Therefore further work can be
performed to find out the flame temperature.

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 53 54 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

IPOBIS., 2004. “Portable wood/Biomass Stoves. Combustion, Gasification and
Basu, P., 2010, “ Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Practical design and theory.”, Propulsion Laboratory”, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
Elsevier Inc., London.
Singh, R.M. and Shakya G. R., 2001, “Study of the Biomass Briquetting System
Garrett S, Hopke P, Behn W, 2010 “A research road map: Improved cook stove and Cooking Devices”, A Regional Research and Dissemination Program phase II,
development and deployment for climate change mitigation and women's and Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand.
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Basnyat, M.S, 2004, “A Study on Gasifier Based Drying of Large Cardamom: A
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in developing countries”, ITDG Publishing London. U.K. Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal.

Anderson, Paul S., 2010 “TLUD Handbook”, Mc-Graw Hill, Colorado. Simkhada, K.P, 2005, MSc, Thesis, “A Study on the Performance of a Domestic
Gasifier Stove”, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus,
Grover, P.D., 2003, “Cost Estimates for a ‘Dream Stove’ for Asia”. Tribhuvan University, Nepal.
Carter, S., and Shackley, S., 2011, “Biochar Stoves: an innovation studies
Lohani, S.P., 2011, “Biomass as a Source of Househould Energy and Indoor Air perspective”, UK Biochar Research Centre (UKBRC) and University of
Pollution in Nepal”, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu Edinburgh, U.K.
University, vol. 01, pp.76-77.
Rajvanshi, Anil.K, 1986, “Biomass Gasification”, PHALTAN-415523,
Bhattacharya, S.C., Attagle, R.A., Augustus Leon, M., Thanawat, C., 1999, Maharashtra, India
“Potential of Biomass Fuel Conservation in Selected Asian Countries”. Energy Taure, Chandrakant, 2004, “Biomass Gasification: Technology ande Utilization”
Conversion and Management, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1141-1162. Papers Prepared For Internet, ARTES Institute, University of Flensburg,
Bhattacharya, S.C., Augustus Leon, M., and AungMitKhaing, 2003, “Design and
Performance of a Natural Draft Gasifier Stove for Institutional and industrial Aoopa. P.S, Scaria. Dayana and Prajitha, M, 2006, “Energy Consumption
Application”. International Seminar on Appropriate Technology for Fuel Benchmark Studies on Parboiled Rice Cooking in Kerala”, Kelappaji College of
Production from Biomass, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Agricultural Engineering and Technology. vol 01, pp 21-22.

Bhattacharya. S.C., and Augustus Leon, M., 2001. “A Biomass-fired Gasifier Bailis, R., Ogle, D., MacCarty, N., and Still, D., 2007, “WBT Version 3.0 January
Stove (IGS-2) for Institutional Cooking”, GLOW, A monthly journal published by 2007”, HEH Programme, Shell Foundation.
the Asia Regional Cook Stove Program (ARECOP), Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Bailis, R., 2004, “CCT Version 2.0 August 2004”, HEH Programme, Shell
Karstad, Elsen, 1997. “ElsenKarstad’s Charcoal Making Wood Gas Cooking Foundation.
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Pandey, S., Dhakal R.P., 2013, “Pine Needle Briquettes: A Renewable Source of APPENDIX A: OBSERVATION TABLE
Energy”, Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Lalitpur, Nepal. pp
255-257. Experiment2: For intermediate design (first modification)
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1987, “Simple technologies for WBT input data
charcoal making.” Rome, Italy.
Test1 Test2
Accessed September 05, 2013.

University of Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany: Cold start Simmering Cold start Simmering
SN Particulars
Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Weight of
1 wood(gm) 800 0 800 0 800 0 800 0 Water
2 temperature(0C) 24.8 96 96 67.4 25.5 96 96 67.4 Weight of
3 pot+water(gm) 3000 2825 2825 2475 3000 2820 2820 2450
4 weight(gm) - 300 - 75 - 280 - 100
5 Time(min) 0 19 19 66 0 20 20 67
output Test1 Test2 Average
Cold Cold Cold
SN Particulars Units start Simmer start Simmer start Simmer
1 efficiency % 36 11 34 13 35 12

2 Char weight gm 300 75 280 100 290 87.5

3 Time to boil Min 19 46 21 46 20 46

4 Burning rate gm/min 12 7 12 6 12 6.5

Specific fuel
5 consumption gm/liter 93 171 99 146 96 158.5

6 Firepower watts 2860 1810 2906 1528 2883 1669

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 57 58 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Experiment no 3: For final design (second modification)

WBT input
data Test1 Test2

cold start simmering cold start simmering

SN Particulars

initial final initial final initial final initial final

Weight of
1 wood(gm) 1200 500 1200 500 1200 500 1200 500
2 temperature(0C) 24.9 96 96 93.6 25.2 95.8 95.8 93.2
Weight of
3 pot+water(gm) 3000 2860 2860 2075 3000 2850 2850 2060
4 weight(gm) - 250 - 260 - 240 - 230

5 Time(min) 0 15 15 64 0 17 17 66

output Test1 Test2 Average

cold cold cold

SN Particulars Units start Simmer start simmer start simmer
1 efficiency % 35 21 33 20 34 20.5

2 Char weight gm 250 260 240 230 245 245

3 Time to boil min 15 48 17 49 16 48.5

4 Burning rate gm/min 14 12 13 12 13.5 12

Specific fuel
5 consumption gm/liter 88 360 95 383 91.5 371.5

6 Firepower g/min 3484 2918 3297 3011 3390.5 2964.5

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 59 60 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Experiment no 4 48 79.6 93.8

50 79 94.4
Time vs water temperature data for first and second modification
52 76.6 94.4
54 75.3 94.6
56 74.2 94.7
58 73.5 93.4
first modification second modification
60 72.7 93.4
Time temperature(0C) temperature(0C)
62 70.2 93.6
0 24.8 24.9
64 69.1 93.6
2 32.4 34.6
66 67.4 93.6
4 42 40
6 51.7 55.2
8 60.3 63.4
10 72.5 78.2
12 80.39 84.2
14 94 95.5
16 95.1 96
18 95.6 96
20 96 93.4
22 94.9 95
24 95 94.6
26 95.2 94.8
28 90 95.4
30 87 95.4
32 84.5 95.3
34 83 95.5
36 82.2 95.5
38 80 95.3
40 80.3 95.3
42 80 94.3
44 79.8 94.6
46 79.4 94

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 61 62 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

APPENDIX B 2. Prepare the timer, but do not start it until fire has started.
WATER BOILING TEST 3. Using the wooden fixtures, place a thermometer in each pot so that water
The Water Boiling Test that we had conducted was “WBT Version 3.0” and were temperature may be measured in the center, 5 cm from the bottom. If there are
taken from UC Berkeley and Aprovecho, 2003-2007, often known as the “UCB additional pots, use the additional thermometers if possible. Record the initial
WBT”. It was prepared by Rob Bailis, Damon Ogle, Nordica MacCarty, and Dean water temperature in each pot and confirm that it does not vary substantially from
Still with the input from Dr. Kirk R. Smith and Rufus Edwards for Household the ambient temperature.
Energy and Health Programme (HEH), Shell Foundation. 4. The stove should be at room temperature. Start the fire in a reproducible manner
according to local practices. Record any starting materials that are used other than
The WBT consists of three phases: a high-power phase with a cold start, a high the wood from the first bundle of pre-measured wood (e.g. paper or kerosene).
power phase with a hot start, and a low power (simmer) phase. Each phase 5. Once the fire has caught record the starting time. Throughout the following
involves a series of measurements and calculations. This combination of tests “high power” phase of the test, control the fire with the means commonly used
measures some aspects of the stove’s performance at both high and low power locally to bring the first pot rapidly to a boil without being excessively wasteful of
outputs, which are associated with the stove’s ability to conserve fuel. The outputs fuel.
are: 6. When the water in the first pot reaches the pre-determined local boiling
Time to boil (adjusted for starting temperature); temperature as shown by the digital thermometer, rapidly do the following:
Burning rate (adjusted for starting temperature); a. Record the time at which the water in the primary pot (Pot # 1) first reaches the
Specific fuel consumption (adjusted for starting temperature); local boiling temperature. Record this temperature also.
Firepower; b. Extinguish the flames (flames can be extinguished by covering the pot opening
Thermal efficiency with metal plates and bricks; do not use water – it will affect the weight of the
The equipment used for Water Boiling Tests are: wood).
 Digital Thermometer c. Weigh the unburned wood removed from the stove together with the remaining
 Weighing Machine wood from the pre-weighed wood chips. Weigh the amount of char remaining.
 Heat Resistant Gloves Record the result on the Data and Calculation form.
 Timer
 5 liter capacity pot Phase 2: High Start (Hot Start)
 Tray to collect char Note: We had not performed Hot Start because of mainly three different reasons
1) Our stove is one time feeding stove (batch) and since Hot Start follows
Following are the procedure during each phase of the Water Boiling Test to be immediately after Cold Start, we cannot remove the char and feed wood stock for
adopted in “Nepali Bio-char Stove”: our calculation for hot start immediately and if we did it may lead to the significant
error in calculation.
Phase 1: High Power (Cold Start) 2) Since high power start (cold start) begins with a stove and its all parameters at
1. Weigh the pot weight and fill pot with 2.5 kg (2.5 liters) of clean room room temperature so it actually covers the full range of stove’s thermal efficiency
temperature water. The amount of water should be determined by placing the pot so we don’t have to waste time for hot start phase and can go immediately to
on the scale and adding water until the total weight of pot and water together is 2.5 Simmering Phase. (Note: Thermal Efficiency calculation shows that Cold Start has
kg more than the weight of the pot alone. Record the weight of pot and water in lower thermal efficiency than Hot Start so Cold Start reveals the actual thermal
the Data and Calculations Sheet. efficiency of stove)

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 63 64 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

3) Aprovecho Research Center termed Hot Start Test as an optional test so we Pi : Weight of Pot with water before test (grams)
directly went to the Simmer Phase.
Phase 3: Low Power (Simmering) Ti : Water temperature before test (oC )
This portion of the test is designed to test the ability of the stove to shift into a low
power phase following a high-power phase in order to simmer water for 45 ti: Time at start of test (min)
minutes using a minimal amount of fuel
1. Reset the timer. ff: Weight of wood after test (grams)
2. Replace the thermometer in the pot. Adjust the fire to keep the water as close to
c: Weight of charcoal and container after test (grams)
3 degrees below the established boiling point as possible.
3. Water temperature as close as possible to 3 degrees below the boiling point.
Pf: Weight of Pot with water after test (grams)
4. After 45 minutes rapidly do the following:
a. Record the finish time of the test (this should be 45 minutes). Record this and all
Tf: Water temperature after test (oC)
remaining measurements on the Data and Calculation Form under the heading
“Finish: 45 minutes after Pot # 1 boils”. tf: Time at end of test (min)
b. Extinguish the flame by covering the pot opening with metal plate and bricks
c. Record the final water temperature on Data and Calculation Form – it should Variables that are calculated
still be roughly 3 °C below the established boiling point. fm Wood consumed, moist (grams) fm = ff – fi
d. Weigh the pot with the remaining water. Record the weight on the Data and
Calculation Form. Δc Net change in char during test phase (grams) Δc = c – k
e. Weigh the remaining wood, including the unused wood from the pre-weighed
wood chips and weigh the char and proceed for calculation excel sheet provided by fd Equivalent dry wood consumed (grams) fd=fm × (1-(1.12 ×m))-1.5 ×
Aprovecho Research Centre, WBT v.3.0 xls. Δc
This completes the WBT. The test should be conducted a total of three times for
each stove. wv Water vaporized (grams) wv=Pi-Pf

Variables that are constant throughout each phase of the test wr Water remaining at end of test (grams) wr=Pf-P
HHV: Gross calorific value (dry wood) (MJ/kg)
LHV: Net calorific value (dry wood) (MJ/kg) Δt Duration of phase (min) Δt = t f – ti
m: Wood moisture content (%-wet basis)
Ceff: Effective calorific value (accounting for moisture content of wood) h Thermal efficiency
P : Dry weight of empty Pot (grams)
k: Weight of empty container for char (grams)
Tb: Local boiling point of water (OC)

Variables that are directly measured rb Burning rate (grams/min)

fi : Weight of fuel before test (grams)

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 65 66 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

SFC Specific fuel consumption (grams wood/grams water) SFC = k-This is the weight of the charcoal container that will be used to hold the char
when it is removed from the stove and weighed.
Tb– This is the local boiling point of water, which should be determined
FP Fire Power (W) FP = empirically in order to account for variations as a result of altitude.
fm– Wood consumed (moist): This is the mass of wood that was used to bring the
water to a boil found by taking the difference of the pre-weighed bundle of wood
(NOTE: These variables if used in different consecutive phases like cold start, hot and the wood remaining at the end of the test phase:
start and simmering test they are given with a notation of c, h and s in their fm = ff– fi
subscript referring cold, hot and simmer respectively) Δc– Net change in char during test phase: This is the mass of char created during
the test found by removing the char from the stove at the end of the test phase.
Explanations of the Variables Because itis very hot, the char will be placed in an empty pre-weighed container of
HHV– Higher heating value (also called gross calorific value). This is the mass k (to be supplied by testers) and weighing the char with the container, then
theoretical maximum amount of energy that can be extracted from the combustion subtracting the two masses.
of the moisture-free fuel if it is completely combusted and the combustion Δc= c – k
products are cooled to room temperature such that the water produced by the fd– Equivalent dry wood consumed: This is a calculation that adjusts the amount of
reaction of the fuel-bound hydrogen is condensed to the liquid phase. wood that was burned in order to account for two factors: (1) the energy that was
LHV– Lower heating value (also called net heating value). This is the theoretical needed to remove the moisture in the wood and (2) the amount of char remaining
maximum amount of energy that can be extracted from the combustion of the unburned. The calculation is done in the following way:
moisture-free fuel if it is completely combusted and the combustion products are fd=fm × (1-(1.12 ×m)-1.5 × Δc
cooled to room temperature but the water produced by the reaction of the fuel- The factor of 1-(1.12 × m) adjusts the mass of wood burned by the amount of
bound hydrogen remains in the gas phase. For wood fuels, LHV typically differs wood required to heat and evaporate m × grams of water. It takes roughly 2260 kJ
from HHV by 1.32 MJ/kg2 . to evaporate a kilogram of water, which is roughly 12% of the calorific value of
m– This is the % wood moisture content on a wet basis, defined by the following dry wood.
formula: The factor of 1.5 × Δc accounts for the wood converted into unburned char. Char
has roughly 150% the calorific content of wood, thus the amount of wood heating
the pot of water should be adjusted by to account for the remaining char. Note, in
ceff- this is the equivalent calorific value of the fuel, with takes account of the the simmer phase it is possible that there will be a net loss in the amount of char
energy required to heat and evaporate the moisture present. This is calculated in before and after the test, in which case Δc is negative and the equivalent dry wood
the following way: increases rather than decreases.
wv: Water vaporized: This is a measure of the amount of water lost through
evaporation during the test. It is calculated by simple subtraction of initial weight
of pot and water minus final weight of pot and water.
Where 80oC represents the typical change from ambient temperature to the boiling wr– Water remaining at end of test: This is a measure of the amount of water
point of water, 4.186 kJ/(kgoC) is the specific heat capacity of water, and 2260 heated to boiling. It is calculated by simple subtraction of final weight of pot and
kJ/kg is the energy required to evaporate one kilogram of water. water minus the weight of the pot.
P-This is the weight of the empty pot.
Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 67 68 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Δt– Time to boil pot #1: This is simply the time taken to perform the test. It is a
simple clock difference:
h– Thermal efficiency: This is a ratio of the work done by heating and evaporating
water to the energy consumed by burning wood.
In this calculation, the work done by heating water is determined by adding two
quantities: (1) the product of the mass of water in the pot, (Pi – P), the specific heat
of water (4.186 J/gºC), and the change in water temperature (T f– Ti) and (2) the
product of the amount of water evaporated from the pot and the latent heat of
evaporation of water (2260 J/g). The denominator (bottom of the ratio) is
determined by taking the product of the dry-wood equivalent consumed during this
phase of the test and the LHV.
rb– Burning rate: This is a measure of the rate of wood consumption while
bringing water to a boil. It is calculated by dividing the equivalent dry wood
consumed by the time of the test.
SFC- Specific fuel consumption: Specific consumption can be defined for any
number of cooking tasks and should be considered “the fuelwood required to
produce a unit output” whether the output is boiled water, cooked beans, or loaves
of bread. In the case of the cold-start high-power WBT, it is a measure of the
amount of wood required to produce one liter (or kilo) of boiling water starting
with cold stove.
FP– Firepower: This is a ratio of the wood energy consumed by the stove per unit
time. It tells the average power output of the stove (in Watts) during the high-
power test.
Note, by using fd in this calculation, we have accounted for both the remaining
char and the wood moisture content.

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 69 70 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

APPENDIX C Wind conditions

The controlled cooking test (CCT) is designed to assess the performance of the
improved stove relative to the common or traditional stoves that the improved Physical test parameters:
model is meant to replace. Stoves are compared as they perform a standard Variable Label
cooking task that is closer to the actual cooking that local people do every day. Avg dimensions of wood (centimeters) --
However, the tests are designed in a way that minimizes the influence of other Wood moisture content (% - wet basis) m
factors and allows for the test conditions to be reproduced. The following Empty weight of Pot # 1 (grams) P1
Appendix is derived from the Paper “CCT Version 2.0 August 2004” which was Empty weight of Pot # 2 (grams) P2
prepared by Rob Bailis for the Household Energy and Health Programme (HEH), Empty weight of Pot # 3 (grams) P3
Shell Foundation. Empty weight of Pot # 4 (grams) P4
Weight of container for char (grams) k
Equipment Used: Local boiling point of water (°C) Tb
Fuel: A homogeneous mix of air-dried fuel wood should be procured.
Food and water: Testers should be sure they have sufficient food and water for the Measurements and Calculations
entire range of tests. Like fuel, the food should be homogenous so that variability Upon finishing the test, a number of measurements are taken. These include:
in food does not bias the results of the test. Initial weight of fuelwood (wet basis) (grams) fi
Cooking pot: if possible, use the standard pots supplied with the testing kits. If the Final weight of fuelwood (wet basis) (grams) ff
standard pots do not fit one or more of the stoves being tested, use the most Weight of charcoal with container (grams) c
appropriate pots and be sure to record the specifications in the Data and The weight of each pot with cooked food (grams) Pjf (j is an index for the
Calculation form. If possible, the same type (size, shape, and material) of pots cooking pot ranging from
should be used to test each stove. However, unlike the WBT, lids should be used if 1–4 depending on the number of pots used for cooking)
local cooks commonly use them.
Weighing Machine Start and finish times of cooking (minutes) ti and tf
Metal tray to hold charcoal for weighing These measurements are then used to calculate the following indicators of stove
Heat resistant gloves performance:
Total weight of food cooked (Wf) – this is the final weight of all food cooked; it
Analysis of the CCT is simply calculated by subtracting the weight of the empty pots from the pots and
Variables food after the cooking task is complete:
As in the WBT, there are a number of variables that are directly measured. These
include environmental variables and physical test parameters. The environmental
variables may vary slightly from one test to another, but should be nearly constant. where j is an index for each pot (up to four).
The physical test parameters should be constant for all tests. Weight of char remaining (∆c) – the mass of charcoal from within the stove,
including the char removed from the ends of the unburned fuel that is extinguished
Environmental variables: just at the end of the cooking task. This is found by simple subtraction:

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 71 72 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

∆c = c – k APPENDIX D
Equivalent dry wood consumed (fd) – This is defined as for the WBT, adjusting RELATED PHOTOS
for the amount of wood that was burned in order to account for two factors :(1) the
wood that must be burned in order to vaporize moisture in the wood and (2) the
amount of char remaining unburned after the cooking task is complete. The
calculation is done in the following way:
fd=fm × (1-(1.12 ×m)-1.5 × Δc
Specific fuel consumption (SFC) – This is the principal indicator of stove
performance for the CCT. It tells the tester the quantity of fuel required to cook a
given amount of food for the “standard cooking task”. It is calculated as a simple
ratio of fuel to food:

Notice this is reported in grams of fuel per kilogram food cooked, whereas Wf is
reported in grams. Thus a factor of 1000 is included in the calculation. Total
cooking time (∆t) – This is also an important indicator of stove performance in the
CCT. Depending on local conditions and individual preferences, stove users may
value this indicator more or less than the fuel consumption indicator. This is Photo 1 Bio-char Model in Action
calculated as a simple clock difference:
∆t = tf - ti

Photo 2 Fabrication of Bio-Char stove Prototype

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 73 74 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Photo 3 Parts of Nepali Bio-char stove

Photo 5 Biomass feeding in the inner cylinder of bio-char stove

Photo 4 Assembly of Nepali Bio-char stove

Photo 6 Performing WBT

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 75 76 Research in Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Photo 7 Performing Controlled Cooking Test

Photo 7 Char yield from the bio-char stove


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