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‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﺱ ﻝﺩﻭل ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬

GCC STANDARDIZATION ORGANIZATION (GSO)

GSO 1915/2009 (E)

‫ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﻭﺍﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻸﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨﺩﻱ‬


Test Methods for Physical Properties of Portland Cement

ICS : 91.100.00
Test Methods for Physical Properties of Portland Cement

Date of GSO Technical Council : 14-16/2/1430h (10-12/2/2009)


Issuing Status : Standard
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Table of Contents

This standard contains the following items:


Items Page

Foreword 2

1- Scope and field of application 3

2- Testing Methods 3

2.1 Softness 3

2.2 Standard texture of cement paste 12

2.3 Time required for initial setting and final setting 14

2.4 Pressure resistance 17

2.5 Soundness (integrity) by Autoclave Method 22

2.6 Determination of hydration temperature 25

2.7 Determination of whiteness 32

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Foreword

GCC Standardization Organization (GSO) is a regional Organization which consists of the


National Standards Bodies of GCC member States. One of GSO main functions is to issue
Gulf Standards /Technical regulations through specialized technical committees (TCs).
GSO through the technical program of committee TC No (6) "Technical Committee of
Building Materials Standards" has prepared this Standard. The Draft Standard has been
prepared by State of Kuwait .
The draft Standard has been prepared based on relevant ADMO, International and National
foreign Standards and references.
This standard has been approved as a Gulf Standard by GSO Technical Council in its meeting
No.(15), held on 14-16/2/1430h (10-12/2/2009) .

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Test Methods
for Physical Properties of Portland Cement

1- Scope and field of application


This GSO standard specifies testing methods for the physical characteristics of
Portland hydraulic cement including the following tests:
1.1 Softness
1.2 Standard texture of cement paste
1.3 Time required for initial setting and final setting of cement
1.4 Pressure resistance using cement mortar cube
1.5 Soundness (integrity) by Autoclave Method
1.6 Determination of hydration temperature
1.7 Determination of whiteness

2- Testing methods
2.1 Softness (Using Air permeability measuring apparatus)
2.1.1 Softness:
Means cement specific surface area expressed by the total surface area of
cement particles in 1 kg measured in square meter.
2.1.2 Method principles
This method includes determination of cement specific surface area by
measuring the time taken by the flow of a certain volume of air through a
specified layer of cement of certain permeability.
Note:
Temperatures mentioned in items from 2.2 – 2.7are suitable for moderate
climate. For cement used in tropical climate, it may be tested at a
temperature higher than 20°C such that it does not exceed 35°C. When doing
that, then cement satisfies the requirements of moderate climate and so it is
considered as conforming to GCC standards.
The number and size of pores in a specified layer of cement having certain
permeability depend on the size of cement particles which is considered the
factor that defines the speed of air flow through such layer.
2.1.3 Apparatus
Blaine’s Apparatus shall be used for testing the softness to determine
cement specific surface area (Fig. 1). This apparatus consists of the
following parts:
A- Permeability cell
It is consisted of a solid cylinder of internal diameter of (12.7±0.1) mm
made from stainless and anti-rust or corrosion-proof steel, its upper surface

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

being perpendicular to the main cell axis and its base may be attached
tightly to the top of manometer.
The cell contains inside it a protrusion of a breadth between 0.5 to 1 mm
and at a distance of 55±10) mm from the cell upper surface for the purpose
of holding the perforated metal disk.
B- Disk
It shall be made from a non-oxidizaable metal of (0.9±0.1) mm thickness
containing 30 to 40 pores each having diameter of 1 mm distributed on the
disk uniformly; on one of the sides there is a mark to ensure that this side is
downward in each test.
C- Piston
The piston shall be superposed inside the cylinder by a tolerance not
exceeding 0.1 mm, and its base shall be perpendicular to its main axis and
the cylinder’s edge shall be uniform.
The piston shall include a range for air flow through a flat section (3±0.3)
mm wide on its side. The piston shall be equipped with a broad head such
that the distance between the base of the piston and the upper surface of the
perforated disk is (15±1) mm when placing the piston inside the cell and
applying the head to the upper surface of the cell.
D- Filter paper
It shall be of medium retention having a circular form, smooth edges and a
diameter that is equal to cell opening.
E- Manometer
It shall be according to dimensions in (Fig.1) using a glass tube having a
standard thick wall of external diameter of 9 mm, and the upper part of one
of its two branches a tight component with the permeability cell, and the
branch shall be carved in the form of a ring around the tube at a distance of
(125 – 125) mm below the level of the upper surface of the lateral tube.
There are also other tubes at distances of (15±1) mm, (70±1) mm, (110 ±10)
mm from the farthest part of the ring. To this branch is also connected a
tube of a lateral opening at a height of (250 – 305) mm from the
manometer base for the purpose of vacuuming air from the manometer
branch connected with the cell. This lateral tube shall be equipped with a
tightly-sealed valve provided that this valve shall not be farther than 50
mm from the manometer branch. Fix tightly the manometer so that its two
branches are in vertical position.
Fill the manometer to its half volume by anti-evaporation and non-moisture
absorbent liquid, having a light viscosity and density as dibutyle phthalate.
F- Timer
It shall include a system that allows starting and stopping of time
measuring as well as giving reading of the time to the nearest 0.5 second or
less than this value. This reading shall be corrected within 0.5 minutes for a
time period not less than 60 seconds and with accuracy not less than 1%, or
less for time periods between 60 – 300 seconds.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

2.1.4 Calibration of the apparatus


A. Calibration Form
Apparatus shall be calibrated using standard cement (of a given specific
surface). Its temperature shall be equal to room temperature when
performing the test.
B. The total volume of cement layer
- The total volume of cement layer shall be determined using the
mercury displacement method by placing two disks of filter paper in a
permeability cell which shall be pressurized by a bar of a diameter
slightly less than the cell diameter till the two papers rest in a flat form
over the perforated metal disk, then fill the cell by mercury (of ACS or
a better type). Remove air bubbles suspending on the cell wall. In case
the cell is made from a material that unites with mercury forming
amalgamate, preserve it by coating its interior face using a very thin
layer of oil before putting mercury inside it ( tweezers shall be used
when dealing with the cell).
- The mercury surface of the upper surface of the cell shall leveled by
pressing gently a small sheet of glass over the mercury surface till the
glass sheet is superposed to the upper surface of the cell, observing that
there is not any bubble between the mercury surface and the glass sheet.
Lift mercury out of the cell, weigh it and record the weight.
- Remove one of the two filter paper disks from the cell, weigh about
2.80 g of cement (you can use any kind of cement) and press it inside
the cell after putting the second filter paper over it as in item E (the
cement layer shall be coherent, if not so or if pressing it properly is not
possible, adjust the cement weight as needed).
- The remaining space in the cell shall be filled up by mercury, air
bubbles shall be removed and mercury leveled as mentioned above.
Remove mercury from the cell, weigh and record the weight.
Calculate the total volume of the pressed cement layer to the nearest 0.005 cm3 as follows:
W1 − W 2
V=
d
Where:
V= total volume of pressed cement layer, cm3.
W1= weight of mercury which fills the cell without cement, g.
W2= weight of mercury which fills the remaining part of the cell after putting the
cement layer in it, g.
D= density of mercury at room temperature (Table 1), g/cm3.

Carry out measurement of the total volume twice at least using a new layer of cement
for each measurement operation, provided that the total volume used for testing
purposes is the average of two results in agreement with each other within ± 0,005
cm3. Read and record the temperature at which test was performed before and after
completion of operations.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

C. Conditioning of the specimen


Place the standard cement specimen in a sealed bottle of capacity of about
120 cm3 and shake it vigorously for 2 minutes in order to disassociate and
ventilate the cement lumps, and then leave bottle sealed for 2 more minutes.
Remove the bottle cap; stir the specimen so that the tiny parts settling on
surface are mixed together after shaking process.
D. Specimen weight
The weight of standard specimen used for calibration purpose shall be that
which gives a cement layer having porosity of (0.500±0.005). The weight
shall be calculated as follows:
W=d*v(1-p)
Where:
d=specific density of the tested standard cement specimen (3.15cm3/g for
Portland cement).
V= Total volume of cement layer as tested in item (B) abovementioned,
cm3.
P=Porosity required for cement layer (0.500±0.005).

E. Conditioning of cement layer


Place the metal disk (the surface bearing the mark is downward) inside the
permeability cell such that it is supported on the internal protrusion, place a
filter paper on the disk and press its sides using a bar of diameter slightly
less than that of the cell. Weigh the cement amount calculated in clause
2.1.4 item (D) with the accuracy of 0.001 g, and then place it in the cell.
Strike the side of the cell quietly so that the cement surface is leveled
inside it. Place another filter paper on the cement by the piston intended for
the cell till the piston head is superposed to the upper surface of the cell,
then lift the piston slowly (use a new filter paper for each test) for a short
distance then turn it about 90°. Repeat pressing by the piston then lift it
slowly.
F. Testing of Permeability
Hold the permeability cell tightly on manometer after putting little grease
on the area of fitting it to the cell to ensure that there is no air leakage
taking care not to shake the cell or to rarefy the prepared cement layer.
Vacuum (empty) slowly the air from the manometer stem connected to the
cell till the manometer liquid reaches the upper ring on manometer branch,
then close the valve tightly. Start measuring the time as from the moment
the concaving of liquid has reached the level of the second ring of the top
of the stem and measuring it shall stop when liquid reaches the third ring
(the ring before the last one) on the stem. Record in minutes the reading of
the time period taken during this operation and record also the temperature.
Determine time at each calibration of the apparatus for 3 specimens
prepared from standard specimen.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Note: The same specimen may be used again after being conditioned provided that it
should be maintained dry and reused within 4 hours from opening it.

a- Calibration shall be carried out by the same person who will perform softness test.
b- The apparatus shall be re-calibrated in these cases:
- periodically, not exceeding 2.5 year, to adjust the possibility of exhaustion of piston
or permeability cell.
- in case of any reduction in manometer liquid.
- in case the type or class of filter paper has been changed.
c- This standard suggests preparation of a secondary standard cement specimen for the
purpose of intercalibration between intervals of calibration by the standard specimen.

2.1.5 Procedure
a- The size of test specimen
The weight used from the cement specimen shall be equal to the weight
used from the standard specimen on calibration of the apparatus with the
exception of performing the determination of cement for fast hardening
cement or any soft kind of Portland cement where in this case the weight
giving a layer its porosity (0.35±0.005) shall be used.
b- Conditioning of the cement layer
The cement layer shall be prepared for the purpose of testing by the same
method mentioned in item (2.1.4 E).
2.1.6 Calculation
The area of cement specific surface shall be calculated according to the
following equation:
A- Use the following equation when performing softness test for Portland
compressed cement to the same porosity of the standard specimen when
the difference of test temperature does not exceed the calibration
temperature by ±3°C.

SSst * T
SS=
Tst
B- Use the following equation as in A provided that the difference of test
temperature exceeds calibration temperature by an amount more than ±3°C.

SSst T Vst
SS=
Tst V

C- Use the following equation when performing test for softness of


compressed Portland cement to porosity different from that of the standard
specimen such that the testing temperature does not differ by more than
±3°C.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

SSst T P3 (C − Pst )
SS =
Tst Pst3 (C − P)

D- Use the following equation as in C but when the difference of test


temperature exceeds calibration temperature by an amount more than ±3°C.

SSst T P3 Vst (C − Pst )


SS =
Tst Pst3 V (C − P )

where:
SSst = area of specific surface of standard specimen, m2/kg.
SS= area of specific surface of test specimen, m2/kg.
Tst= time period in seconds taken by manometer liquid on using the
standard specimen for calibration.
T= time period in seconds taken by manometer liquid to drop when
testing the test specimen.
Vst= air viscosity at test temperature when using the standard specimen
for calibrating the apparatus, kg/m.s.
V= air viscosity at temperature of determining the specific surface foe
test specimen, kg/m.s.
Pst= porosity of the cement layer of standard specimen, (0.5000±0.005).
P= porosity of the cement layer foe test specimen .
B= a constant of 0.9.

E- Record the values and round them to 10 units in the case of cm2/g, and
round to one unit in the case of m2/kg.

Example: 3447 cm2/ gram 3450 cm2/ gram

345 m2 /kg

F- Writing the report: record each reading taken when testing Portland
cement or when testing the materials consisting mainly of Portland cement.

Note: Values of V and P can be obtained from Table 1 and 2.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Table 1 – Air Viscosity (V)

Room temperature Density of mercury


Air viscosity (Poise) V
(°C) (g/cm3)
16 13.56 0.00001788 0.004228

18 13.55 0.00001798 0.004240

20 1355 0.00001808 0.004252

22 13.54 0.00001818 0.004265

24 13.54 0.00001828 0.004276

26 13.53 0.00001837 0.004286

28 13.53 0.00001847 0.004298

30 13.52 0.00001857 0.004309

32 13.52 0.00001867 0.004321

34 13.51 0.00001876 0.004331

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Table 2- Viscosity of cement layer (P)

Viscosity of cement
Viscosity of cement
P 3 layer (m) P3
layer (m)
0.495 0. 348 0.509 0.363

0.496 0. 349 0.510 0.364

0.497 0. 350 0.525 0.380

0.498 0. 351 0.526 0. 381

0.499 0. 352 0.527 0. 383

0.500 0. 354 0.528 0. 384

0.501 0. 355 0.529 0. 385

0.502 0. 356 0.530 0. 386

0.503 0. 357 0.531 0. 387

0.504 0. 358 0.532 0. 388

0.505 0. 359 0.533 0.389

0.506 0. 360 0.534 0. 390

0.507 0. 361 0.535 0.391

0.508 0. 362 0.536 0.392

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Table 3- Time of air flow in seconds (T)

T √T T √T T √T T √T T √T

26.0 5.10 37.0 6.08 48.0 6.93 59.0 7.68 70.0 8.37
26.5 5.15 37.5 6.12 48.5 6.96 59.5 7.71 70.5 8.40
27.0 5.20 38.0 6.16 49.0 7.00 60.0 7.75 71.0 8.43
27.5 5.24 38.5 6.20 49.5 7.04 60.5 7.78 71.5 8.46
28.0 5.29 39.0 6.24 50.0 7.07 61.0 7.81 72.0 8.49
28.5 5.34 39.5 6.28 50.5 7.11 61.5 7.84 72.5 8.51
29.0 5.39 40.0 6.32 51.0 7.14 62.0 7.87 73.0 8.54
29.5 5.43 40.5 6.36 51.5 7.18 62.5 7.91 73.5 8.57
30.0 5.48 41.0 6.40 52.0 7.21 63.0 7.94 74.0 8.60
30.5 5.52 41.5 6.44 52.5 7.25 63.5 7.97 74.5 8.63
31.0 5.57 42.0 6.48 53.0 7.28 64.0 8.00 75.0 8.66
31.5 5.61 42.5 6.52 53.5 7.31 64.5 8.03 75.5 8.69
32.0 5.66 43.0 6.56 54.0 7.35 65.0 8.06 76.0 8.72
32.5 5.70 43.5 6.60 54.5 7.38 65.5 8.09 76.5 8.75
33.0 5.74 44.0 6.63 55.0 7.42 66.0 8.12 77.0 8.77
33.5 5.79 44.5 6.67 55.5 7.45 66.5 8.15 77.5 8.80
34.0 5.83 45.0 6.71 56.0 7.48 67.0 8.19 78.0 8.83
34.5 5.87 45.5 6.75 56.5 7.52 67.5 8.22 78.5 8.86
35.0 5.92 46.0 6.78 57.0 7.55 68.0 8.25 79.0 8.89
35.5 5.96 46.5 6.82 57.5 7.58 68.5 8.28 79.5 8.92
36.0 6.00 47.0 6.86 58.0 7.62 69.0 8.31 80.0 8.94
36.5 6.04 47.5 6.89 58.5 7.65 69.5 8.34 80.5 8.97
81.0 9.00 92.0 9.59 106 10.30 128 11.31 150 12.25
81.5 9.03 92.5 9.62 107 10.34 129 11.36 151 12.29
82.0 9.06 93.0 9.64 108 10.39 130 11.40 152 12.33
82.5 9.08 93.5 9.67 109 10.44 131 11.45 153 12.37
83.0 9.11 94.0 9.70 110 10.49 132 11.49 154 12.41
83.5 9.14 94.5 9.72 111 10.54 133 11.53 155 12.45
84.0 9.17 95.0 9.75 112 10.58 134 11.58 156 12.49
84.5 9.19 95.5 9.77 113 10.63 135 11.62 157 12.53
85.0 9.22 96.0 9.80 114 10.68 136 11.66 158 12.57
85.5 9.25 96.5 9.82 115 10.72 137 11.70 159 12.61
86.0 9.27 97.0 9.85 116 10.77 138 11.75 160 12.65
86.5 9.30 97.5 9.87 117 10.82 139 11.79 161 12.69
87.0 9.33 98.0 9.90 118 10.86 140 11.83 162 12.73
87.5 9.35 98.5 9.92 119 10.91 141 11.87 163 12.77
88.0 9.38 99.0 9.95 120 10.95 142 11.92 164 12.81
88.5 9.41 99.5 9.97 121 11.00 143 11.96 165 12.85
89.0 9.43 100 10.00 122 11.05 144 12.00 166 12.88
89.5 9.46 101 10.05 123 11.09 145 12.04 167 12.92
90.0 9.49 102 10.10 124 11.14 146 12.08 168 12.96
90.5 9.51 103 10.15 125 11.18 147 12.12 169 13.00
91.0 9.54 104 10.20 126 11.22 148 12.17 170 13.04

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

T √T T √T T √T T √T T √T

91.5 9.57 105 10.25 127 11.27 149 12.21 171 13.08
172 13.11 194 13.93 216 14.70 238 15.43 260 16.12
173 13.15 195 13.96 217 14.73 239 15.46 261 16.16
174 13.19 196 14.00 218 14.76 240 15.49 262 16.19
175 13.23 197 14.04 219 14.80 241 15.52 263 16.22
176 13.27 198 14.07 220 14.83 242 15.56 264 16.25
177 13.30 199 14.11 221 14.86 243 15.59 265 16.28
178 13.34 200 14.14 222 14.90 244 15.63 266 16.31
179 13.38 201 14.18 223 14.93 245 15.65 267 16.34
180 13.42 202 14.21 224 14.97 246 15.68 268 16.37
181 13.45 203 14.25 225 15.00 247 15.72 269 16.40
182 13.49 204 14.28 226 15.03 248 15.75 270 16.43
183 13.53 205 14.32 227 15.07 249 15.78 271 16.46
184 13.56 206 14.35 228 15.10 250 15.81 272 16.49
185 13.60 207 14.39 229 15.13 251 15.84 273 16.52
186 13.64 208 14.42 230 15.17 252 15.86 274 16.55
187 13.67 209 14.46 231 15.20 253 15.91 275 16.58
188 13.71 210 14.49 232 15.23 254 15.94 276 16.61
189 13.75 211 14.53 233 15.26 255 15.99 277 16.64
190 13.78 212 14.56 234 15.30 256 16.00 278 16.67
191 13.82 213 14.59 235 15.33 257 16.03 279 16.70
192 13.86 214 14.63 236 15.36 258 16.06 280 16.73
193 13.89 215 14.66 237 15.39 259 16.09 281 16.76

2.2 Standard Texture of Cement Paste


This method includes determination of water required for obtaining a cement paste
having a standard texture. The same paste can be used for determining the time
required for the initial setting and the time required for final setting as well as for
safety test.
The paste is considered of standard texture when the bar settles at a distance of 10
± 1 mm below the original surface of the specimen during (30) seconds from its
release.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

2.2.1 Apparatus
For this test, use Vicat Apparatus (Fig. 2). For details of the apparatus
description, refer to item 2.3.2.
2.2.2 Temperature and relative humidity for testing
The temperature of both of dry cement and the vicinity of the area of mixing
and moulds with their bases shall maintained at a temperature between 20
and 27°C; and water temperature (23°C) shall not exceed ± 2°C. Relative
humidity inside the lab shall be not less than 50%.
2.2.3 Procedure
2.2.3.1 Preparation of the paste
- Take a weight of 650 g of dry cement, take also a weight of the
water of mixing (as percent of dry cement) to be 27% according
the relevant standard (*).
- Mount the mixing container and stirring device (stirrer) in their
place in the mixer
- put the amount of water in the container.
- Add the cement to water and directly start the stop watch, leave
for 30 minutes for absorption.
- Start mixing at a slow speed (140 ± 5 rotations per minute) for 30
seconds.
- stop mixing for 15 seconds during which shall be collected the
matter sticking to the container edges.
- Repeat mixing for 1 minute at medium speed of (285 ± 10
rotations per minute).

2.2.3.2 Shaping of the test specimen


- Shaping of the paste prepared above in the form of a ball shall be
made by hands protected by gloves.
- Throw the paste six times between the two hands which should be
15 cm far from each other in order to obtain a ball-shaped mass
that can be placed easily in the mould without any additional
treatment.
- Place the paste in the palm of one of the two hands and press it
wholly through the broader opening of the mould being held by
the other hand.
- Remove excess paste from the broader opening by one movement
by the hand palm.
- Place the mould on its broad opening over the baseboard.

*
Standard: ASTM D1198, type 3 or 4.

13
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

- Remove the excess paste from the narrow opening of the mould by
one strike of a sharp-edged trowel held in diagonal manner
together with the upper surface of the mould, level the surface to
mould and level it by several light touches using the tipped end of
trowel taking into account not to press the specimen in this process.
- Smoothen the specimen surface by the trowel face taking into
account not to press the paste during the process pf removing the
excess paste and smoothening its surface.
2.2.3.3 Determination of texture
- Place the board on which the mould containing the paste is in the
middle of the area specified on the apparatus under the bar.
- Allow the bar to descend till it is in contact with the paste surface,
and then fix it in this position.
- Adjust the moving pointer at the upper zero mark or record its
reading.
- Release the bar immediately over the paste such that this process
shall be completed within a period not exceeding 30 seconds after
mixing is complete, taking into account that the apparatus shall be
far from any effects of vibrations during testing.
- Prepare other empirical mixes using fresh cement having variable
ratios of water till obtaining a paste of standard texture.
2.2.3.4 Calculation
Calculate the amount of water required for obtaining standard texture
of accuracy of 0.1% and record to the nearest 0.5% of dry cement
weight.
2.2.3.5 Notes:
Cleanliness of all tools used shall be observed and the free
movement and falling of the piston shall be ensured.
2.3 Determination of time required for initial setting and final setting of cement
2.3.1 Definitions
2.3.1.1 Time required for initial setting
it is the time period lying between the start of adding water to dry
cement till the stopping of the needle penetration (A) of Vicat
apparatus into the cement specimen for a distance not exceeding 25
mm of the initial paste surface.
2.3.1.2 Time required for final setting
it is the time period lying between the start of adding water to dry
cement till no apparent penetration of the needle (A) into the paste is
observed. (Or till appearance of a trace of the alternative needle (B)
of Vicat apparatus on the paste without appearance of a trace of its
metal disk.

14
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

2.3.2 Apparatus
Vicat apparatus shown in Fig. 2 shall be used taking into account using the
needle (A) for the determination of the time required for initial and final
setting. Use also the needle (B) as an alternative of the needle (A) when
determining the time required for final setting.
2.3.2.1 Description of the apparatus
It is consisted of a metal structure (1) and a metal bar (2) of a weight
of (300 ± 0.5) g including the parts to be mounted in its end as
follows:
- The piston (3) which is used for determination of standard
texture of diameter (10 ± 0.05) mm and of a length of 50 mm at
least.
- Standard needle for the determination of initial and final setting
(4) having a circular section of diameter of (1 ± 0.05) mm and
length of 50 mm.
- Alternative needle for the determination of final setting of
cement (5) of a diameter of 1 mm fitted with a metal disk at a
distance of (0.5 ± 0.1) mm from one of its ends.

- Calibration moulds (6) of a height in the interior (40 ± 1) mm,


and diameter in the interior from the base (70 ± 3) mm, and its
diameter in the interior at upper edge is (60 ± 3) mm.
2.3.3 Procedure
2.3.3.1 Preparation of the specimen
The paste shall be prepared as in item 2.2.3.1.
2.3.3.2 Shaping the test specimen
The paste specimen shall be shaped as in 2.2.3.2.
2.3.3.3. Determination of the time of initial setting
- Leave the prepared paste in the mould over the baseboard inside
humidity room for 30 minutes without being exposed to any
exterior influence.
- Place the baseboard with the specimen in the place specified for it
in the apparatus under the piston fitted with a needle of diameter of
1 mm.
- Allow the needle to descend till it touches the specimen surface and
settles at this position.
- Adjust the moving pointer at the starting point or record its reading.
- Leave the piston so that the needle falls freely into the paste for 30
seconds then immediately take the reading.
- Take a reading of the specimen each 15 minutes as detailed above
(take reading each 10 minutes for cement No. 3).

15
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

- Record results of all readings and determine the time at which the
needle’s piercing covers a distance of 25 mm of the specimen
surface during 30 seconds by using the following equation:

T −t
T+{(25-D)* }
d −t

Where:
T: time in minutes of the last piercing exceeding 25 cm.
t: time in minutes of the last piercing less than 25 cm.
D: distance of piercing from the time T.
d: distance of piercing from the time t.

- But if piercing occurs at a distance of 25 mm, time shall be taken as


it is without applying the previous equation.
- Round the time to the nearest 1 minute.

2.3.3.4 Determination of final setting time


- Time of final setting shall be determined when the needle (A) does
not show any apparent piercing into the test paste.
- In case the alternative needle (B) is used, the time of final setting is
determined when the needle disk does not show any trace on the
paste surface.
- So, the time of final setting is determined from the time of starting
the addition of cement to water to the time of seeing no trace of
apparent piercing by the needle.
- Round the time to the nearest 5 minutes.

2.3.3.5 Temperature and relative humidity


Temperature and relative humidity shall be as in item 2.2.2 taking
into account that the relative humidity of the room where the
specimen is kept shall be not less than 95% of the temperature of the
materials and equipment and the area surrounding testing at (23 ±
3)°C.
2.3.3.6 Notes:
- Refer to Notes in item 2.2.3.5. In addition, the needle shall be
straight and free from any cement lumps or deposits.
- The setting time is not affected only by temperature and
amount of water of kneading, but it is affected by temperature
and high atmosphere humidity. Accordingly, the time
determined is approximate time.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

2.4 Pressure resistance using a cement mortar cube


This method is concerned with the determination of hydraulic cement pressure
resistance using mortar cubes of the size 50 mm.
2.4.1 Apparatus
- Balances, of capacity to 2000 g and accuracy to 0.1% of the weight of the
material.
- Graded glass (cylinders) tubes of capacities suitable for measuring the water
of mixing by one measure. The permissible variation is within ± 2 ml. The
scale pointers shall allow reading the size with accuracy of 10 ml for
cylinders of capacity 250 ml and shall allow reading the size with accuracy
of 25 ml for cylinders of capacity of 500 ml.
- Specimen moulds
Specimen moulds having a side length of 50 mm and shall be manufactured
from a metal that is not affected by cement mortar of hardness of 55 by
Rokoyl scale. They shall have smooth and clean surfaces that are
superposed tightly when assembled. The distance between each two faces
opposite to each other shall be (50 ± 0.13) mm for new moulds, and (50 ±
0.5) mm for used ones. The angle enclosed between the adjacent internal
surfaces and the upper surface of the base shall be (90 ± 0.5)°.
More than one mould can be assembled on one base provided that the number
of moulds shall not exceed 3 moulds for one base.
- A standard mixer: it shall be mechanic operated by electric engine of
capacity 124 watt (1/6 horse) and equipped with the following:
A) A mallet, Fig, 3. The distance between the mallet being in its position
and the lateral container circumference shall be within 4 mm and not less
than 0.8 mm.
B) A container for mixing, Fig. 3: it shall be made of stainless steel of a
capacity of 4.73 liters, and it shall be stable when putting it in its place in
the mixer.
The mixer has two speeds at least that could be controlled by a certain
means: The first slow speed that revolves the mallet by an average of (140
± 10) revolutions per minute has an astral movement of about 62
revolutions per minute.
- Streamlining table apparatus: it shall be conforming to ISO standards with
its tamper and streamlining mould.
- Tamper: it shall be made from a non-water absorbant material, not rough or
fragile, preferably of rubber with a hardness of (80 ± 10) on Shor scale A.
Its section area is (13*25) mm of a suitable length between 120 – 150 mm.
The lower surface of the tamper shall be flat and normal on its length.
- A trowel.
- Water basin or humidity room.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

- A helical hydraulic or electrical pressure apparatus of loading accuracy


reaching 0.1% of its total loading capacity.
2.4.2 Materials
Standard sand of graded granules (*). Sand used for preparation of test
specimen shall be natural sand of silica with the following grading:

The granule grading of standard sand


Sieve mesh size Percentage of passing
sand (by weight)
1.88 mm 100
600 microns 96 – 100
425 microns 65 – 75
300 microns 20 – 30
150 microns 0-4

2.4.3 Temperature and relative humidity


- Temperature of ambient air, dry materials, moulds, the specimen baseboard
and mixing container shall be maintained between (23 ± 3)°C.
- Temperature of mixing water, humidity room and water in storage basins
shall be adjusted to be (23 ± 3)°C.
- Relative humidity shall not be less than 50% in the lab and not less than
95% in humidity room.

2.4.4 Requirements and preparation of test specimens


2.4.4.1 Number of specimens
Prepare 2 or 3 specimens for each of specified testing ages.
2.4.4.2 Preparation of moulds
- Coat the internal sides of the moulds by a material that facilitates
lifting the specimen from the moulds such as metallic oil or grease
for obtaining a thin layer well distributed over the internal sides of
the moulds.
- Each mould shall be mounted on a flat, smooth and non-porous
surface coated by a light layer of metallic oil or light grease. The
exterior connections of the moulds shall be sealed using a mixture
of paraffin wax to prevent water leakage from joints and bases.
2.4.4.3 Mixing the mortar
- Ratios of mixing the materials for obtaining standard mortar shall
be as follows:
One part of cement to 2.75 parts of standard graded sand by weight.

*
You can refer to ASTM C778 for requirements and specifications of this sand.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

A ratio of water to cement of 0.485 shall be used for all kinds of


the mixing amount shall be the amount that gives a mix having
streamlining of (110 ± 5) mm and shall be determined by the
standard streamlining table.
- Quantities of materials that are mixed in the first time for making a
cement mortar shall be sufficient for preparing six or nine
specimens as follows:

Quantity
Materials For 6 For 9
cubes cubes
Cement, g 500 740
Sand, g 1375 2035
Water, ml:
For Portland cement (0.485) 242 259
For non-Portland cement having detained air (0.460) 330 340
For non-Portland cement (giving streamlining of (110 ± 5) mm. … …

- Place the dry mallet and dry mixing container in their places in the
mixer.
- Pour water into the mixing container.
- Add cement to hot water then operate the mixer at a slow speed
(140 ± 5 revolutions per minute) for 30 seconds.
- Add sand gradually or within a 30-second period during which the
mixer shall be operating at the slow speed.
- Switch off the mixer and turn to medium speed then start it again
for 30 seconds.
- Stop the mixer for one minute and a half, during the first 15
seconds scrape off and gather the mortar suspending on the sides
of the mixing container, then cover container for the remaining
period.
- Complete mixing by starting the mixer for 1 minute at medium
speed (285 ± 10 revolutions per minute).
- Determine the mix streamlining by the standard streamlining table
and record its value.

2.4.4.4 Shaping the test specimens in moulds


- Gather the mortar used in testing the streamlining and mortar that
might have suspended on the sides of the container and return it to
the rest of the mixture, then mix it at medium speed for 15 seconds.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Remove the mixing container and the mallet after shaking it to


remove suspending mortar.
- In case you want to return the mix to make similar
complementary specimens, you may not need performing
streamlining test and leave mortar in the container uncovered for
90 seconds, during the last 15 seconds of this period scrape off and
gather the mortar that might have suspended on the sides of the
container.
- Start pouring mortar into moulds during a time period not
exceeding 2 minutes and a half after completion of mixing.
- Manual method: put a layer of mortar of 25 mm thickness (nearly
half of the mould’s depth) in all moulds and then compact in each
mould 32 times during 10 seconds by 4 revolutions and each
revolution is normal on the other. Each revolution consists of 8
strokes adjacent on specimen surface as in Fig. 4 and by sufficient
pressure that ensures uniform filling of the moulds. The four
revolutions shall completed (32 strokes) in full on one mould
before going to the next one.
- After finishing compaction of the first layer of all moulds, fill
them all using the mortar remnants then compact in the same
method used for compaction of first layer.
- During compaction of the second layer, and after completion of
each revolution, restore using the hand fingers protected by gloves
the mortar that was forced to suspend on the upper edges of the
mould.
- After completion of compaction, the mortar of the cubes shall be
a little above the mould surface. The mortar scattered on the upper
edges shall be gathered inside the mould and the excess shall be
removed using a saw movement of a trowel in a slight diagonal
manner, then cubes shall be softened by the soft surface of the
trowel.

- The alternative method:


Compaction can be made by any alternative method after
ensuring and qualifying it according to the American standard
(ASTM C 109-05), item 10.4.3.

2.4.4.5 Storing the specimens


- Specimens shall be placed inside their moulds and directly after
shaping them in humidity room and kept there for 20 – 24 minutes
so that their surfaces are exposed to humid atmosphere and
protected against any direct water dropping on them.
- In case specimens are removed from their moulds before 24 hours,
they shall be kept on shelves in humidity room till they complete 24
h period, then immerse them in lime-saturated water (except for the

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

specimens that will be tested at the age of 24 h) in storage tank


made of stainless material. The tank water shall be maintained
clean and replaced by fresh water when needed.

2.4.5 Determination of pressure strength


- Specimens shall be tested directly after being removed from the humidity
room for specimens to be tested at the age of 24 h. For the other specimens,
they shall be tested after being removed from the water tank within the
following permissible limits:

Testing age Tolerance for Testing age

24 hours ± 0.5 hour


3 days ± 1 hour
7 days ± 2 hours
28 days ± 12 hours

- If more than one specimen is removed at the same time for the purpose of
testing them at the age of 24 h, specimens shall be maintained covered by a
wet cloth till the time of testing has come.
- If more than one specimen is removed from the water tank for testing
purpose, they shall be maintained immersed at a sufficient depth in water at
(23 ±2)°C till the time of testing has come.
- Each specimen shall be wiped till its surfaces are dry, remove from them
any suspending matter or sand granules, particularly from surfaces that will
be in contact with the loading surfaces of pressure apparatus. Ensure using
a straight ruler that these surfaces are flat. If you find a specimen having
apparent surface protrusions, grind them till they are flat, otherwise the
specimen shall be rejected. Check the cross sectional area from time to
time.
- Place the specimen carefully under the upper loading mould of the
apparatus and loading shall be on the flat surfaces in contact with the cast
moulds.
- Prior to testing each cube, ensure that the upper loading mould is
adjustable and of free movement. No materials such as a brush or lining
shall be used.
- Specimens that withstand a pressure force above 13.3 kN shall be loaded
with any suitable average till the first load reaches half the expected
maximum load. For specimens that do not withstand a pressure force of
13.3 kN, they shall not be loaded with any initial load.
- The average loading shall be adjusted such that the remaining pressure
force shall be applied which could be borne by the specimen without
interruption within a time not less than 20 seconds and not exceeding 80
seconds as from the beginning of loading.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

- Avoid making any adjustment to the testing apparatus control when


specimen reaches yielding limit preceding breakage.

2.4.6 Calculation
-Record the maximum loading force attained by the apparatus during testing
of specimen.
- Calculate pressure resistance in Pascal or Mega Pascal (MPa) by dividing
the highest loading force by the cross sectional area of the specimen, (1
Pascal= Newton per square meter).
- If the actual section area of a specimen differs by 1.5% of the nominal
section area, the actual area is that used for calculation.
- The mean results for all specimens that are approved and prepared from the
same mix and having the same age shall be calculated to the nearest KPa.
- Reject the visually defective specimens or those which produce pressure
resistance differing by 10% from the average value for all tested specimens
of the same mix and age.
- At any age, if less than two values for test results remain after rejecting
defective specimens or unacceptable results, testing shall be carried out
wholly again.

2.5 Autoclave expansion


2.5.1 Principle
- This method determines the variation in the length of pure Portland cement
specimens after treatment by compressed steam in Autoclave
- Variation in length determined by this method may be used to define the
extent of cement future expansion which may result from hydration of
calcium oxide or magnesium oxide.
2.5.2 Apparatus
- Balances (as mention in item 2.4.1) for the determination of required
weights
- Moulds (see Fig. 5) for preparing test specimens in the form of a cross
sectional area prism (25 mm * 25 mm) and total length 285 mm and
influence length of 250 mm with a tolerance of 0.75 mm.
Moulds shall be made from stainless steel or metal not affected by cement.
The parts of one mould shall be capable of sticking completely to each other
when fitted so that they do not bend and do not allow water leakage from
them.
A mould shall be prepared for fitting a standard nail of steel or of stainless
steel or metal that is not affected by cement at each of its ends so that the
nail axis shall be conforming to the main axis of specimen.
A standard nail has a diameter of about 5 mm which, when fitted, expands
inside the specimen to a distance of 17.5 mm so that the influence distance
between its two internal ends is (250 ± 2.05) mm.

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GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

- A trowel of straight edges and made from steel and the length of it's paled
between 100 to 150 mm..
- Autoclave consisting of a container for generating steam of high pressure
and provided with :
a- a place for mounting a thermometer.
b- The autoclave shall be equipped with automatic control system with a
rupture disk of a resistance of 2.4 MPa ± 5%.
c- The pressure meter shall have a nominal diameter of 114 mm and
graded (0 – 5.1 mm) and of capacity of 4.1 MPa together with a scale
not exceeding 0.03 MPa and error of the meter not more than ± 0.02
MPa at operation pressure (2 MPa).
d- The heating element (heater) shall be capable of reaching an
operation pressure of 2 MPa within 45 – 75 minutes from the
beginning of heating when it is loaded with water and specimens.
e- The automatic control unit shall be capable of maintaining an
operation pressure of at least 3 hours.
f- It shall be designed such that pressure inside it can be reduced to at
least 0.07 MPa during one hour and a half from stopping the heating
process.
g- It shall be provided with a valve for releasing detained vapour after
the end of heating period.
-A device for measuring variation in length, which shall be designed so
that it accommodates test specimens and allows standard nails by which
these specimens are fixed to be placed in a manner that allows taking
quick and accurate readings. The device for measuring variation in length
shall be equipped with a graded scale of a reading accuracy of from
0.001 to 0.002 mm and a range not less than 8 mm. It shall also be
equipped with a normal bar of total length of 300 mm.
2.5.3 Procedure
2.5.3.1 Preparation of moulds
Apply a thin oil coating to the interior faces of the moulds, then fix
the standard nails taking into account not allow oil to reach them.
2.5.3.2 Preparation of cement mortar paste
A standard paste shall be prepared by mixing 650 g of cement with a
suitable amount of water which gives a standard texture by the same
method mentioned in item 2.2. You can use the remnants of the paste
of testing the setting time immediately after being mixed.
2.5.3.3 Shaping of specimens
- Immediately after mixing the paste, place the paste in a mould on
two equal layers, each layer shall be compacted by the thumb or by
the four fingers towards the mould corners around the standard nails
fixed to the mould. Continue compacting along the mould till the

23
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

paste is homogenous. In the same manner the upper layer shall be


compacted then remove excess paste using the trowel edges. Level
the surface by hammering several times till attaining a smooth flat
surface. Wear rubber gloves for hands protection.
2.5.3.4 Storing the specimens
After filling the moulds, keep them in a humid place or humidity
room for at least 20 hours at (23 ± 2)°C and at humidity of at least
(95%). In case of removing the specimens before (24 ± 0.5) hours,
they shall be kept in a humid place or humidity room till the time of
testing.
2.5.3.5 Testing method for variation in length
- After 24 hours ± 30 minutes from shaping of the specimens, they
shall be taken out of the humidity room, the reading shall be taken
for each specimen on the device of measuring variation in length,
and then all specimens shall be placed on a support that allows
steam to reach each specimen from all directions.
- Place the support together with specimens in autoclave containing a
suitable amount of water of (20 to 28)°C, this amount shall be(7 –
10% ) of the internal volume of autoclave.
- Close the autoclave and start heating taking into account that the
venting valve shall be open till steam begins getting out through it.
Then close the venting valve and adjust the control device so that
reaching the internal steam pressure of 2 MPa is achieved within 45
to 75 minutes from the beginning of heating.
- Maintain the required pressure for at least 3 hours after which the
heater shall be separated and cooling started by which pressure
shall be reduced to 0.07 MPa during one hour and a half, then
venting valve shall be opened partially and slowly in order to get
rid of internal steam till internal pressure is equal to atmospheric
pressure.
- Open autoclave and remove specimens to be placed in a hot water
basin of a temperature higher than (90)°C. Gradually cool the
specimens by adding cold water to the basin containing specimens
till temperature is( 23)°C during 15 minutes, then leave them in
their position for 15 more minutes.
- Check the rest of specimens in the same method above.
- Dry the surface of specimen and take the reading of apparatus of
measuring the length difference another time .
-read the measure standard bar at every measuring specimen.
2.5.4 Calculation
Calculate the variation in the influence length at each specimen subtracting the
reading of apparatus of measuring the length before and after autoclave deal.

24
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Ratio of variation in the influence length shall be calculated to the nearest 0.01%
by autoclave and record this ratio as the expansion resulting by autoclave method.
The positive result denotes to increase in length and the negative result denotes to
decrease in length.
2.6 Hydration temperature
2.6.1 Scope
This method is concerned with determination of cement hydration
temperature by determining the specific heat of dry cement and specific heat
of cement solution of which a part started by hydration in part after 7 and 28
days, and the difference between the two values shall be the hydration
temperature during a specified period.

2.6.2 Apparatus
2.6.2.1 Calorimeter
It is composed of the following (Look Fig. 6):
A) Thermos (vacuum bottle) of capacity 0.47 l having a wide
opening with a cork stopper. The thermos shall be fitted to another
insulating container that suits and holds it in place besides protecting
it from changes in unwanted temperature. The inner surface of the
thermos shall be lined with a hydrofluoric acid proof material such as
prepared phenol resins or chloride phenyl acetate resins or a layer of
honey wax. The protective lining shall be closely adhered and free
from cracks. It shall be inspected periodically and renewed when
necessary. The lining may be composed of a layer of plastic foils.
Temperature of the thermos contents shall not differ by more than
0.001°C / minute for each difference equalling one centigrade degree
at room temperature when left full to a volume of 425 g of nitric acid
of concentration of 2 normal and covered for 30 minutes, this
temperature is the reference and is nearly the initial temperature
during test.
B) The Insulating container. It shall be lined by an insulating
material such as cotton and of thickness not less than 25 mm. It shall
be tightly sealed in all sides of the thermos so that it shall allow taking
the thermos out of it easily.
C) Thermometer for measuring difference in temperatures It shall
be graded to accuracy not less than 0.01°C allowing for a range of
variation till 6°C and can be adjusted so that the maximum limit of its
range is the room temperature.
The part immersed inside the calorimeter is coated with a layer that
protects it against hydrochloric acid and renders it readable suitably.
D) Funnel: it is the funnel through which the specimen shall be
inserted and should be made from glass or plastic and having a stem
of about 67 mm length and internal diameter of at least 6 mm.
E) Stirring assembly: the stirring fan shall be made from
polyethylene plastic and as close as possible to the calorimeter bottom.

25
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

The stirring device (stirrer) shall be of a kind that maintains required


speed constant and shall be equipped with a driver allowing limitation
of speed from 350 to 700 revolutions/ minute.
F) Mixer: it shall be mechanic like the milk mallet and capable of
mixing cement with water in order to obtain a homogenous
paste.
G) Mortar: of a diameter of about 200 mm and a pestle for grinding
partially hydrated specimens.
H) Plastic flasks of the size 80*25 mm with tight stoppers.
I) Drying furnace: it shall maintain temperature of 100 to 110 °C.
J) Bottles of a height of about 40 mm and breadth of 25 mm with
suitable stoppers.
K) Stop watch.
L) Sieves No. 100 (150 micron) and No. 20 (850 micron).
M) Platinum crucibles of capacity 30 m; with stoppers for
determination of the loss by burning.
N) Burning oven maintain the temperature (900-950)ºC
O) Sensitive balances and balances of suitable capacity and
accuracy.
P) Stirring assembly: the stirring blade shall have 3 blades made
from polyethylene plastic and as close as possible to the
calorimeter bottom.
The stirring driver shall be equipped with a driver capable of
maintaining the required speed lying between 350 – 700
revolutions/minute.

2.6.2.2 Reagents and materials


Standard analytical chemicals shall be used.
a) Concentrated hydrofluoric acid of specific weight 1.15.
b) Normal nitric acid 2 for use in calorimeter. It shall be prepared in
sufficient amounts.
c) Paraffin wax or any kind suitable for tightly sealing the flasks.
d) Zinc oxide shall be used at 900 to 950°C for 1 hour then shall be
cooled in a storage container then it shall be ground such that it
passes through sieve No. 100 (150 micron) then stored.
Immediately before testing, heat 7 g of it at 900 - 950°C for 5
minutes and cool it at room temperature in a storage container. It
shall be weighed accurately till it is inserted into the calorimeter.
2.6.3 Procedure
2.6.3.1 Determination of thermal capacity of the apparatus

26
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

The thermal capacity is the number of calories or rounds required for


raising the temperature of the calorimeter with its contents by one
centigrade degree using the method for measuring heat resulting from
melting of 7 g of burnt zinc oxide in the mixture of designated acid as
follows:
a) Put 400 g nitric acid 2 normal which has been cooled to a
temperature 4 - 5°C less than room temperature in a vacuum bottle
(thermos). Add 8 ml of hydrofluoric acid (specific weight 1.15)
then add to it another amount of nitric acid so that the total weight
of solutions in thermos reaches 425 g.
Assemble and install the calorimeter and start the stirring driver
taking into account that the stirring device (stirrer) shall not come
into contact with the thermos or with the sides and bottom of the
thermos or the cork stopper. The funnel stem shall be extended to 6
mm under the lower surface of the stopper and above liquid level
by not less than 12 mm. The lower swelling part of the thermos
shall be immersed by not less than 38 mm under liquid surface level
provided that it shall be at the same level in all determination
operations.
Take temperature after initial mixing for not less than 20 minutes
till temperature of all system is homogenous. Record room
temperature to accuracy 0.1°C and also record the acid temperature
to the nearest 0.001°C then write down time. Immediately insert
prepared zinc oxide gradually through the funnel at regular rate and
within a time period of 1 minute to 2 minutes. Using a brush, push
downward the matter suspending on the funnel stem.
b) Read temperature to the nearest 0.001°C after the 20-minute period,
then read again temperature after a period of 40 minutes starting
from placing the specimen.
The time of the first 20 minutes shall be the raise in the unadjusted
temperature and the other 20-minute period shall be the time period
to be considered.
c) The difference between temperatures recorded at 20 , 40 minutes is
the correction factor that shall be added or subtracted from
unadjusted temperature according to decrease or increase in
calorimeter temperature during the period of calculating the
correction mean factor.
d) The corrected raise in temperature shall be calculated as follows:
Ro= D20 – Tz
R=Ro – (T40 – T20)
where:
Ro= Raise observed in temperature, °C.
T20= Calorimeter temperature after 20 minutes, °C.
Tz= Calorimeter temperature on addition of materials, °C.

27
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

R= Corrected raise in temperature, °C.


T40= Calorimeter temperature after the end of the period of
calculating he mean correction (40 minutes), °C.
e) The thermal capacity of the calorimeter and its contents shall be
calculated as follows:

Wz [256.1 + 0.1(30 - Tf) + 0.12(Tz - Tf)]


Ca =
R
Where:
Ca= Thermal capacity of apparatus. Calorie/°C.
Wz= Weight of zinc oxide, g.
Tf= Final temperature of calorimeter, °C.
Tz= temperature of zinc oxide (the same room temperature), °C.
R=corrected raise of temperature, °C

Note:
the melting temperature for zinc oxide solution is 256.1
calorie/g at a temperature of 30°C . This value increases by 0.1
calorie/g for each centigrade degree decrease if temperature is
less than 30°C. The thermal capacity of zinc oxide is 0.12
calorie/g. The heat needed for zinc oxide to reach the final
temperature of the calorimeter shall enter the influence heat of
the solution.

e) If more than a slight trace of zinc oxide is suspending on the end of


the funnel or on stopper after opening the calorimeter, test shall be
rejected.
f) Determination shall be performed again for the thermal capacity in
the following cases:
- On resetting of the thermometer.
- When making a new lining for the thermometer or stirring device
(stirrer) or thermos.
- When using a new thermometer or new stirring device (stirrer) or
thermos.
- When using a fresh amount of acid.
- When the person performing the test decides according to
conditions.

2.6.3.2 Preparation of test specimen


A) Preparation of the cement paste

28
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

- Store cement and mixing water at a constant temperature of


(23±1.7°C) till it is homogenous with atmosphere temperature
before the start of mixing.
- Mix 150 g of cement with 60 ml of mixing water using a
spoon then mix them automatically for 5 minutes.
- place equal amounts of cement paste in 4 plastic bottles or
more so that each bottle shall be full to the level of 13 mm in
the top.
- Close tightly the bottles, and in case of doubt in tightly sealing
them, put molten wax on stoppers to make them tightened, and
then store them in a water basin so that they always remain in
upright position at (23±1.7°C) till time of testing.
B) Preparation of a partially-hydrated specimen for the determination
of the specific heat of liquid:
- At the age designated for testing, take out a bottle of a
partially-hydrated specimen from storage basin and within the
tolerances of the standard age.
- During the first 20-minute period (which is the period of
mixing the primary contents of the calorimeter) break the
bottle and grind its contents by the mortar till its particles can
pass through sieve No. 20 (850 micron) then and quickly place
them into a bottle for determination of weight with a tight
stopper. Attention shall be drawn to the specimen of the age 7
days because it is allowed to be exposed to air for the least
time possible in order to reduce the effect of carbon dioxide
and to prevent any loss of humidity in it.

2.6.3.3 Method of testing


A) Method of using the calorimeter for dry cement
The dissolution temperature of dry cement solution shall be
determined by the same method as in 2.6.3.1 but by using 3 g of
dry cement instead of zinc oxide (weight to be to the nearest
0.001 g) and a representative and homogenous specimen shall be
secured. Calculation and reporting the results shall be made on
the basis of weight resulting from burning loss as in clause (C)
below. This testing shall be preceding the testing of the partially-
hydrated specimen for 7 days.
B) Method of using the calorimeter for testing the partially-hydrated
specimen.
Testing shall be made as in clause (A) above but by using (4.18±
0.05 g) of the partially-hydrated specimen (weight shall be to the
nearest 0.001 g) and calculate results on the basis of burning
results.

29
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

C) Loss by burning
- weigh the specimen to be put in the calorimeter before and after
testing. Another specimen shall be weighed having the weight
of tested specimen in platinum crucible for determining
burning outcome. The value to be considered shall be the
mean results of two specimens. Burn the dry cement specimen
at 900 - 950°C for at least one hour and a half.
- Place the crucible immediately after removing it from the
furnace in a storage container to cool to room temperature.
Then weigh crucible immediately.
- When determining the loss by burning for the partially-hydrated
specimen, it shall be dried at 900 - 950°C for one complete
night or in a suitable incinerator for at least 5 hours.
- Minimize the cement specimen weight placed in the calorimeter
on the basis of the weight that has been burnt for use in the
following final calculation:

A
W1= ( )W
B

Where:
W1= weight of specimen for the calorimeter on the basis of burnt
weight, g.
A= weight of burnt specimen, g.
B= weight of specimen before burning, g.
W= weight of specimen placed in calorimeter, g.
2.6.4 Calculation
2.6.4.1 Specific heat for dry cement solution
Raise in temperature corrected as in item 2.6.3.1 shall be calculated and
the adjustment of final dissolution temperature of testing shall be made
if temperature is different from that at the beginning of inserting the
specimen. For example, for the dry cement having a specific heat of
about 0.2 calorie/g, if the calorimeter temperature is more than that of
cement when inserted, additional correction of 0.2 calorie/g shall be
made for each difference of one centigrade degree when calculating the
specific heat of liquid.
Temperature of dry cement solution shall be calculated as follows:

RCt
H1= ( )-0.2(Rt- Ft)
W1

30
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Where:
H1= Temperature of dry heat solution, calorie/ºg.
R= adjusted raise in temperature, ºC.
Ct= Thermal capacity, calorie/ ºC.
W1= Weight of specimen for calorimeter on the basis of burnt weight,
g.
Rt= room temperature when placing the specimen, ºC.
Ft= final temperature of calorimeter at the end of dry cement test, ºC.
2.6.4.2 Temperature of the partially-hydrated cement specimen solution
Calculate it by the same method for dry cement with the following
modifications:
- Since raise in temperature by one centigrade degree in the test
solution leads to a reduction of 0.3 calorie/g in solution specific heat, if
temperature of the partially-hydrated cement specimen exceeds the dry
cement temperature, then there shall be a correction of 0.3 calorie/g for
each centigrade degree and should be added to the temperature of the
partially-hydrated cement specimen solution.
- The value of the solution heat shall be corrected if the calorimeter
final temperature differs from its temperature on insertion of test
specimen. For example, for the partially-hydrated cement solution
whose heat is about 0.4 calorie/g of burnt cement, if the calorimeter
final temperature exceeds the temperature on insertion of specimen,
then add 0.4 calorie/ g to each temperature difference when calculating
the solution heat.
- The solution heat of the partially-hydrated cement specimen shall be
calculated as follows:
RCt
H2=( ) – 0.4 (Rt- Ft)-0.3(Ft - Ft 2)
W1

Where:
H2= Heat of the partially-hydrated cement specimen solution, calorie/g.
R, Ct, W1, Rt, Ft are the same as defined previously.
Ft2= the final temperature of the calorimeter at the end of testing the
partially-hydrated cement specimen solution, ºC.
D) The final hydration heat
The final temperature of calorimeter of 25ºC is the basis to be referred to
when speaking about hydration heat and the effect of the change in
temperature shall be considered when referring to or calculating the
results since the increase in the final temperature by one centigrade
degree increases the hydration heat by 0.1 calorie/g ºC. For example, if
the final temperature is 27ºC, then 0.2 calorie/g shall be subtracted from
the hydration heat outcome till compared to that at the standard heat, 25ºC.

31
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Hydration heat shall be calculated as follows:


H=H1-H2-0.1(Ft2-25)
Where:
H= cement hydration heat on the basis of the burnt weight. Calorie/g.
H1, H2, Ft2 are defined previously.
2.6.2 Retesting
In case the specimen does not satisfy the requirements at the age of 28 days,
a part of the cement paste shall be kept for testing later with the addition of a
correction of 0.5 calorie/g for each day exceeding the assumed age, i.e. 28
days, till it is easy for comparison as a standard reference and the excess
duration shall be limited to 4 days as a maximum. In case of being
nonconforming to requirements of results at the age of 7 days, retesting shall
be performed from its beginning and a mix shall be made.
2.7 Whiteness degree
There shall be an agreement between the supplier and the purchaser regarding the
required whiteness degree and it shall be tested according to the following
method:
2.7.1 Apparatus
Use for this test a spectrophotometer equipped with a diffusing or sensitive
photoelectric reflector within the optical spectrum range.
Procedure:
A) By pressing below a pressure of (420 ± 5) kg/cm2, condition the cement
specimen in the form of disks or squares of thickness not less than 5 mm.
B) Condition for comparison a specimen of magnesium oxide obtained by
burning a strip of pure magnesium metal and collecting smoke on a suitable
surface till the formation of a layer of magnesium oxide not less than 1 mm
thickness.
C) Place the specimen and magnesium oxide in the testing apparatus and
determine the rate of light reflection or penetration on each of the following
waves whose lengths are expressed in millimicrons: 489, 515, 530, 541, 552,
562, 573, 585, 601, and 627.
D) Obtain the sum of the ten readings and multiply it by the number 0.1. Te
product of multiplication, expressed as a percentage, is considered as the
whiteness degree of the specimen in relation to magnesium oxide ratio.

2.7.2 The alternative method


Colour can be determined by apparatus of measuring colour ordinates using the
system CIE/Lab according to the American standard ASTM E 308 or according
to calculation of the difference in colour ordinates according to the American
standard ASTM D 2244 after agreement on the values of these ordinates
between the seller and purchaser.

32
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

33
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Plunger 10mm
in diameter
Movable rode
weighing 300 g

Entire 50mm
length graduated
in millimeters

Adjustable Indicator Screw

Removable Frame
Rigid conical Needle(1mm in
ring diameter and 50
mm in length)
Non absorptive
square Base plate

_`abcX (‫ة )ب‬Z[\‫ا‬


WX3.3 WX 1×1d[ZX
WX1.13 Zbc[ ZhijkX ‫أو‬

WX 10 WX 6.4
WX 50 WX 0.5 WX 0.5
WX 5

(H<=F;‫ود )ا‬8F;‫( ا‬3)


(‫ة )ب‬89:; ‫ة‬8<=> ?@AB>

34
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Fig.(3)

35
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

4 5
3 6
4
2
7
1 5 3
6 8
2
7
8 1

Rounds1 and 3 Rounds2 and 4

Fig.(4): Order of Tamping in Molding of Test Specimens

36
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Fig.(5): Molds (SI units)

37
GSO STANDARD GSO 1915/2009

Fig.(5): Calorimeter

38