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Question: Which stoichiometric defect in crystals decreases the density of

a solid?
[1 mark] [ 2011]
Answer:Schottky defect.( As Schotky defect is due to missing of cation and
anion from its position.)

Question: ‘Crystalline solids are anisotropic in nature’. What does this


statement mean?
[1 mark] [ 2011]
Answer: Anisotropic means when properties of crystal is viewed from different x,y and z coordinates,
it shows different properties .It means that some of the physical properties of
crystalline solids such as refractive index, electrical conductivity,
thermal expansion, etc. show different values when measured along different
directions in the same crystal.

Z
Crystalline – Anisotropic nature –properties are different in
all directions.

Question: What is meant by'doping' in a semiconductor?


[1 mark] [ 2012]
Answer:Doping is the process of increasing the conductivities of the
intrinsic semiconductors by adding suitable impurity.x

Dopping is the process of adding impurities into semiconductor to alter its


electrical properties.

Question: Write a point of distinction between a metallic solid and an


ionic solid other than metallic luster.
[1 mark] [ 2012]
Answer: Metallic solids do not ionize in aqueous state but ionic solids
ionize immediately.

Metallic solids conducts electricity in its solid due to free electrons,


where as ionic solids conduct electricity only in its molten or aqueous
form due to free ions.

Question:How many atoms constitute one unit cell of a face-centered cubic


crystal?
[1 mark] [ 2013]
Answer: 4 atoms constitute one unit cell of a face centered cubic crystal.
It can be determined from the number of atoms contributed from the faces
and the corners of the unit cell as:
1 1
( 8 cor ner s  atom per corner  1 atom) + ( 6 faces  atom per unit face  3
8 2
atoms)
Total number of atoms per unit cell  1  3  4 atoms.√

Question:What type of stoichiometric defect is shown by AgCl?


[1 mark] [ 2013]
Answer: Frenkel defect is shown by AgCl. √

Question: What type of substances would make better Permanent Magnets,


Ferromagnetic or Ferrimagnetic?
[1 mark] [ 2013]

Answer: Ferromagnetic substance would make better permanent magnets than


ferrimagnetic substances because in the first case, the spins due to all
unpaired electrons are alligned parallel. On the other hand, in
ferrimagnetic substances, the electron spins are alligned both in the
parallel and antiparallel directions in unequal number, so when the
ferromagnetic substance is placed in a magnetic field, all the domains get
oriented in the direction of the magnetic field producing strong magnetic
effect.This arrangement of domains persist even when the magnetic field is
removed and the ferromagnetic substance becomes a permanent magnet.

Question:What type of inter molecular attractive interaction exists in the


pair of methanol and acetone?
[1 mark] [ 2014]
Answer: Hydrogen bonding (intermolecular)

Question: Write the formula of a compound in which the element Y forms ccp
lattice and atoms of X occupy 1/3rd of tetrahedral voids.
[1 mark] [ 2015]
Answer:Y is present in ccp,

Let, the number of close packed spheres be N,

then:

The number of octahedral voids generated = N

The number of tetrahedral voids generated = 2N


1 1
∴ Number of atoms of Y= N   8   6  4
8 2

1 1
X is present at of T.V. , 𝑋 = × 2𝑁
3 3

1
X  8
3

Ratio of number of atoms X:Y = 8/3 : 4 = 2 : 3

So, Formula is X : Y or X 2Y3

Question: What is the coordination number of each type of ions in a rock-


salt type crystal structure?
[1 mark] [ 2016]
Answer: 6 : 6 or 6
Question: Give an example each of a molecular solid and an ionic solid.
[1 mark] [ 2016]
Answer:Molecular solids: Ice  H 2 0 and Solid Ammonia
Ionic solids: Sodium chloride  NaCI  , Magnesium oxide  MgO  and Zinc
Sulphide  ZnS 

Question: ‘Crystalline solids are anisotropic in nature’. What does this


statement mean?
[1 mark] [ 2016]
Answer: It means that some of the properties of crystalline solids such as
refractive index, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion,optical
properties etc, show different values when measured along different
directions in the same crystal.

Question: How do metallic and ionic substances differ in conducting


electricity?
[1 mark] [ 2017]
Answer:Metallic substances are conductors in solid state as well as in
molten state. Ionic substances are insulators in solid state as no free
ions are available. but conductors in molten state and in aqueous solution
due to free ions..

Question: Write a feature which will distinguish a metallic solid from an


ionic solid.

[1 mark] [ 2018]

Answer:

Metallic solids Ionic solids


Metallic solids are conductors of Ionic solids are insulators in
electricityin solid state as well solid state, but conductors in a
as in molten state. molten state and in aqueous
Metals are malleable and ductile solutions.
Ionic solids are hard and brittle.

Question: Explain how you can determine the atomic mass of an unknown metal
if you know its mass density and the dimensions of unit cell of its
crystal. [2 marks] [ 2011]
Answer:
We can determine the atomic mass of an unknown by using the formula.

d  a3  N A
M
z
By knowing d, a, N A & Z, We can calculate the M
Where,
d  density of the element
.
N A  Avogadro number
a  cell edge or edge length
Z  no. of atoms present in one unit
Question 10: Calculate the packing efficiency of a metal crystal for a
simple cubic lattice.

[2 marks] [ 2011]
z  Volumeof oneatom
Answer: Packing efficiency 
Volumeof cubicunit cell

4
1 r 3
 3
a3

For simple cubic lattice, a  2r


4
1 r 3
Therefore, packing efficiency  3  0.524 or 52.4%
8r 3

Question 9:
(a) Why does presence of excess of lithium makes L iCl crystals pink?
(b) A solid with cubic crystal is made of two elements P and Q. Atoms of Q
are at the corners of the cube and P at the body-centre. What is the
formula of the compound? [2 marks] [ 2013]

Answer:
(a) Presence of metal excess defect results due to presence of e– at the
position of –ve ions this results in Formation of F-centre and LiCl become
pink
Excess Lithium atoms losses electron to form Li+ ions, Cl-ions from the
crystal diffuse on the surface and combine with ionized Li to form LiCl The
released unpaired electrons occupy the anionic sites known as F- centres.
The pink color is formed because of the excitation of these electrons when
they absorb energy from visible light falling on them.

(b)

Effective number of P atoms  1


1
Effective number of Q atoms  8  1
8
Formula of compound is PQ

Question: Aluminium crystalizes in an fcc structure. Atomic radius of the


metal is 125pm. What is the length of the side of the unit cell of the
metal? [2 marks] [ 2013]

Answer:For F.C.C.

2a  4 r
2a  4  125pm

500
a  353.5pm
2

Question: An element with density 2.8 g cm–3 forms a f.c.c. unit cell with
edge length 4  108 cm . Calculate the molar mass of the element. (Given:
N A  6.022  10 mol 23 –1
)[2 marks] [ 2014]
z M
Answer:We know d 
v N A
d  2.8 g / cm , Z  4, a  4  10–8 cm

4M
2.8 
 4  10 
3
8
 6.02  1023

4M
2.8 
4  6.02  10 1
3

M  26.97 g mol-1

Question:
(i) Write the type of magnetism observed when the magnetic moments are
aligned in parallel and anti- parallel directions in unequal numbers.
(ii) Which stoichiometric defect decreases the density of the crystal?
[2 marks] [ 2014]

Answer:
(i).x

Ferrimagnetism is observed when the magnetic moments are aligned in


parallel and anti- parallel directions in unequal numbers

(ii) Due to Schottky defect vacancies are formed and density


decreases

Vacancy Defects: When some lattice sites left vacant while the formation of
crystal, the defect is called vacancy defects. In vacancy defects, an atom
is missing from its regular atomic site. Because of missing of atom the
density of substance decreases, i.e., because of vacancy defects.

Question.10. Examine the given defective crystal


Answer the following questions:
(i) What type of stoichiometric defect is shown by crystal?
(ii) How is the density of the crystal affected by this defect?
(iii) What type of ionic substances show such defect?
[2 marks] [ 2014]

Answer: (i) Schottky defect, as equal number of cations and anions are
missing.
(ii) The density of the crystal decreases as ions are missing from crystal
lattice.
(iii) Highly ionic substances with almost comparable size of cation and
anion show this defect, e.g. KCl .

Question: What is the formula of a compound in which the element Y forms


ccp lattice and atoms of X occupy 1/3 rd of tetrahedral voids?
[2 marks] [ 2015]

Answer:Given: Y form CCP lattice


No. of YCCP atom  1
No. of tetrahedral void  2
1 2
No. of X atom  2  
3 3
2
There ratio of X : Y  : 1
3

Formula of compound: X 2Y 3

Question: Calculate the number of unit cells in 8.1 g of aluminum if it


crystallizes in a face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) structure. (Atomic mass of
Al = 27g mo1-1) [2 marks] [ 2017]
Mass
Answer: Molesof Al =
Molecular mass
8.1
n Al   0.3 moles
2.7

We know that one unit of f.c.c., No. of atoms  4


4 - atoms are there in unit cell  1
1
1 - atoms are there in unit cell 
4
NA
(1 mole) NA atoms are found in unit cell 
4
N
0.3 moles atoms are found in unit cell  A  0.3  0.75  N A
4 = 4.51 x 1022 no.of
atoms.
Question.19. Silver crystallizes in face-centered cubic unit cell. Each
side of this unit cell has a length of 400 pm. Calculate the radius of the
silver atom. (Assume the atoms just touch each other on the diagonal across
the face of the unit cell. That is each face atom is touching the four
comer atoms).
[3 marks] [ 2011]
Answer: Given a  400 pm , r  ?
a
For FCC unit cell: r 
2 2
400 400
r  
2  1.4142 2.828
r  141.4 pm
Hence, radius of the silver is 141.4 pm

Question.19. The density of lead is 11.35g cm 3 and the metal crystallizes


with fee unit cell. Estimate the radius of lead atom. (At.mass of lead
 207 g mol 1 and N A  6.02  1023 mol 1 )
[3 marks] [ 2011]
Answer: Given: d  11.35g cm 3
According to the formula
Z M Z M
d  3 or a 3 
a N A d N A
For fcc lattice Z  4
828
a3   12.118  1023
68.327  1023
a 3  1.212  1022 cm 3

a  3 1.212  1022 cm 3

For fcc unit cell


a
r 
2 2
495  10 8 495  10 8
r  
2  1.414 2.828
Radius r  1.75  108 cm  175 pm

Question: Tungsten crystallizes in body centered cubic unit cell. if the


edge of the unit cell is 316.5 pm, what is the radius of tungsten atom?
[3 marks] [ 2012]
3
Answer:It is body centered cubic cell for which radius, r  a
4
a  316.5 pm (given)
3
Radius   316.5pm
4
1.732
  316.5
4
 137.04pm
Question: Iron has a body centred cubic unit cell with a cell dimension of
286.65 pm. The density of iron is 7.874 g cm 3 . Use this information to
calculate Avogadro's number
( At. Mass of Fe  55.845 u )
[3 marks] [ 2012]

Answer: a  286.65 pm
 286.65  1010 cm
Density  p   7.874 g cm 3
At mass of Fe  55.845 u
Z  2 (For body centric cubic unit cell )
Avogadro Number  N 0   ?
Z M
p
a3  N 0
𝑍×𝑀
𝑁𝐴 = = 2 × 55.845 ÷ [ (286.65 × 10−10 )3 × 7.874 ]
𝑎3 ×𝑑
111.69
= × 1023 = 6.037 × 1023
18.5

Question 18: Examine the given defective crystal:

Answer the following questions:


(i) Is the above defect stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric?
(ii) Write the term used for the electron occupied site.
(iii) Give an example of the compound which shows this type of defect.
[3 marks] [ 2015]

Answer:
(i) Non-stoichiometric defect, because ratio of cation and anion changes
after the formation of defect.
(ii) F-centre, The site at which e– is present is called as F-centre or
Farbe centre, which means colour because free e– absorb energy and transit
to higher energy state that makes compound coloured.
(iii) NaCl , when NaCl is heated in the presence ofNavapour this defect is
formed.

Question: An element with molar mass 27 g mol 1 forms a cubic unit cell with
edge length 4.05  108 cm . If its density is 2.7 g cm 3 , what is the nature of
the cubic unit cell?
[3 marks] [ 2015]
Answer: Given, Molar mass of the given element, M  27 g mol 1  0.027kg mol 1
Edge length, a  4.05  108 cm  4.05  1010 m
Density, d  2.7 g cm 3  2.7  103 kg m3
Z M
We know that d 
a3  N A
Where, Z is the number of atoms in the unit cell and N A is the Avogadro
number.
d a3  N A
Thus, Z 
M

 
3
2.7  103 4.05  10 10  6.022  1023
Z 
0.027
Z  4 or Z  4  f .c.c.
Since the number of atoms in the unit cell is 4, the given cubic unit cell
hats a face-centred cubic (fcc) or cubic-closed packed (ccp) structure.

Question:
An element crystallizes in a b.c.c. lattice with cell edge of 500pm. The
density of the element is 7.5g cm 3 . How many atoms are present in 300 g of
the element? [3 marks] [ 2016]
Answer:Given, a  500pm  500  1010 cm
z 2
m  300 g
M
m (M is molar mass)
NA

zM
Density, d 
a3N A

2 M
7.5 
 500   1030  6.02  1023
3

7.5   500   10 30  6.02  1023


3

M   282.1g / mol
2

Massof compound  N A
Molar mass, M 
No. of atoms

300  6.02  1023


282.1 
No.of at oms

No. of atoms  6.4  1023

Therefore, the number of atoms present in 300g of compound is 6.4  1023

Question: What is a semiconductor? Describe the two main types of


semiconductors and explain mechanisms for their conduction.[3 marks] [
2016]

Answer:The solids with intermediate conductivities between insulators and


conductors are termed semiconductors.
(i) n- type semiconductor : It is obtained by doping Si or Ge with a group
15 element like P. Out of5 valence electrons , only 4 are involved in bond
formation and the fifth electron is delocalizedand can be easily provided
to the conduction band. The conduction is thus mainly caused by the
movement of electron.
(ii) p - type semiconductor : It is obtained by doping Si or Ge with a
group 13 element like Gallium which contains only 3 valence electrons. Due
to missing of 4th valence electron, electron hole or electron vacancy is
created The movement of these positively charged hole is responsible for
the conduction.

Question: Silver crystallizes with face- centered cubic unit cells. Each
side of the unit cell has a length of 409 pm. What is the radius of an atom
of silver? (Assume that each face atom is touching the four corner
atoms.)[3 marks] [ 2017]
Answer:

The relation between the edge length of the unit cell and the radius of the
atom in a fcc lattice is given as:

4r
a
2
where, a = edge length  409 pm  409  1012 m
r = radius of the atom

a 2
r 
4
409  1012  1.411
r   289.2  1012 m
2

Question: An element ‘X’ (At. Mass  40g mol 1 ) having f.c.c. structure, has
unit cell edge length of 400 pm. Calculate the density of ‘X’ and the
number of unit cells in 4g of ‘X’. N A  6.022  1023 mol 1
 [3 marks] [ 2018]

Z M
Answer: We know d 
N A  a3

For FCC, Z is 4.

4  40
a  4.1514 gcm 3
 
3
10
6.022  10  400  10
23

4
Volume of 4 gm X is cm 3  0.96 cm 3
4.1514
Volume of 1 unit cell is   400  10 10  cm 3  64  10 24 cm 3
3

0.96
Number of unit cell   1.5  1022
64  1024 .