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Pollution

introduction of contaminants into the


natural environment that cause adverse
change

Pollution tests in Nigeria

Pollution is something harmful


substances are added to the environment.
Polluted water or garbage in the water
bodies is a type of pollution. . It adds
germs and viruses. There are these kinds
of pollution: water pollution, air pollution,
noise pollution, soil pollution and thermal
pollution.

As pollution grows, ways to combat it have


grown. Solar energy and wind energy give
people clean ways to power their homes.
When people use these alternative forms
of energy, they put less carbon dioxide into
the environment. [1]

Air pollution
Smoke coming out from a chimney is an example of air
pollution.

Air can be polluted by many things.


Examples include poisonous gases,
sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon
monoxide and very small particulates.
Smoke and harmful gases released by
fires, industries, and thermal power plants
cause air pollution. Using coal and wood
as fuels for fire cause a lot of air pollution.
Petroleum produces less pollution per ton,
but it causes a lot of pollution since a lot
of it is burned globally. Air pollution may
cause health problems such as asthma or
other breathing problems.

Air pollution causes global warming and


acid rain. This makes it difficult for some
living things to survive.

Water pollution

Waste from a sewer pipe is an example of water


ll ti
pollution

Water pollution is the presence of harmful


materials in water, such as sewage,
dissolved metal, waste from farms,
factories and crude oil spilled from oil
tankers. The three main substances that
pollute water are nitrates from fertilizers,
sewage and detergents.

Activities such as bathing and washing


clothes near lakes, ponds or rivers add
nutrients like nitrate and phosphate into
the water bodies.This leads to excessive
growth of algae on the surface of water. It
blocks the penetration of sunlight and air,
thus reducing oxygen.

It causes harm to organisms living in


water and can also harm people's health.
In extreme cases, it may cause diseases
like cancer.[2]

Noise pollution

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A sample of noise pollution

Noise pollution also known as sound


pollution is harmful to the brain and
hearing of all animals and humans. This
includes the sound of vehicles, loud
speakers, airplanes, jets, train horns etc.
Noise pollution can cause ear problems or
even permanent deafness, especially to
older people. The schools which are
beside the roads suffer from noise
pollution. Students cannot concentrate in
their studies. Peoples admitted in
hospitals which is near to the main roads
also suffer. It also causes brain related
problems.

Soil pollution
Soil pollution (also known as land
pollution) is caused when man-made
chemicals, such as hydrocarbons, heavy
metals, and solvents, get into the soil.
These chemicals come from industrial
activities and using chemical fertilizers
and from improper waste in disposal in
leaky landfills. Soil pollution can cause
health risks. The chemicals can produce
harmful vapors, or they can contaminate
water supplies underneath the polluted
soil.

Plastic pollution is the accumulation of


plastic products in the environment that
adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat,
or humans. It is caused because plastic
takes thousands of years to decompose or
mix in the earth. Cancer, including
leukemia may be caused by the contact
with soils contaminated with chemicals.
Nervous system damage may be caused
by the presence of lead (Pb) in soil, and
affects especially children.

Thermal pollution
Thermal pollution is the harmful release of
heated liquid into a body of water or heat
released into the air as a waste product of
a business.
A common cause of thermal pollution is
the use of water as a coolant by power
stations and industrial manufacturers.
This puts back warm water, and so raises
the temperature and decreases the oxygen
content of the water. The heat released
into the air will cause the air to be warmer
which may result in global warming.

References
1. "United States Environmental Protection
Agency" . Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
October 6, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
2. Spill in China underlines environmental
concerns March 2, 2013 The New York
Times
Rutledge, Sarah. "Save the Earth" . save
the planet today. Weebly. Retrieved April
16, 2018.

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