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Practical Report Date : Friday, March 03rd 2019

System Analysis and Class : K3


Decision Making Lecturer : Dr.Ir. Marimin, MSc

CHARACTERIZATION AND POTENCY OF KAPOK PLANT

Arranged by:
Nathasa Indah Paningan F34160078

DEPARTMENT OF AGROINDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY


FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL TECHONOLGY
BOGOR AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
BOGOR
2019
DISCUSSION

POHON INDUSTRI RANDU (Ceiba petandra)

Randu

Daun Serat buah (kapuk) Biji Buah Kulit Batang Akar Arang

-Obat Batu Ginjal -Benang Ekstrak Bubur Bahan Pure


-Obat Disentri -Pembuat kasur Bangunan
-Antiseptik -Textile
-Pengisi jok
kendaraan Arang

-Bahan Baku Sabun -Obat Herbal Bahan Pembuat


-Minyak Goreng -Pakan ternak Kertas

Pupuk pembasmi
jamur (tabur)

According to Widhianti (2011), kapok plants (Ceiba pentandra Gaertn.) are


tropical trees that have a classification of Kingdoms: Plantae, Division:
Magnoliophyta, Class: Magno liopsida, Order: Malvales, Family: Malvaceace
(formerly Bombacaceae), Genus: Ceiba, and Species: Ceiba pentandra Gaertn. This
plant is widely cultivated in the tropics because it requires a high rainfall condition,
between 16˚ LU to 16˚ LS including in Indonesia. Kapok (C. pentandra Gaertn) has
a height reaching 8-30 m and has a main tree trunk that is large enough to reach a
diameter of 3 m. Kapok is resistant to water shortages, besides kapok (C. pentandra
Gaertn.) can grow on various types of soil, from sandy soil to well drained clay,
alluvial soil, slightly acidic to neutral potency of randu (kapok).
Kapok has compound leaves running, alternating and crowding at the end
of the branch. The stem length is 5-25 cm, red in the base, slim, and not hairy. It
has 5 - 9 leaflets, 1.5 - 5 cm wide, oval to oval breech, tapered tip, breech triangle
base separated from each other, dark green at the top and light green at the bottom.
Compound hanging flowers, clustered on twigs, hermaphrodites, whitish and large.
Flower petals are bell-shaped, 1 cm long with 5 - 10 short protrusions, 3 - 3.5 cm
flower crowns with 5 bumps. The flowers are white to pink, the pistil with a
protruding ovary, near the long and curved tip, the pistil head enlarges (Heyne
1987).
Kapok plants (Ceiba pentandra Gaertn.) are traditionally only used as
ingredients or fillers for mattresses, even though kapok randu is very beneficial for
farmers in barren land and dry climates. Besides being economically valuable, it
also functions as a land barrier from erosion, preventing flooding and as a greening
plant that can be relied upon for efforts to preserve land and conserve natural
resources. The use of traditional medicines from kapok randu includes external
medicine and internal medicine such as to overcome fever, diarrhea, diabetes,
hypertension, headache, wound medicine, and so on. In addition, kapok kapok
plants have many other uses, including the leaf part can be used for animal feed and
seed oil for industry. Young kapok leaves, flowers, and young kapok can be
consumed as vegetables, while very young kapok pods are a favorite of many
Javanese.
Kapok is a source of fiber, which has long been used in various industries,
including the furniture, electronics, health and spinning industries. In the furniture
industry, kapok fibers are used to fill pillows, mattresses, upholstery and mattresses.
Kapok fiber is used for heat insulators and sound absorbers in the electronics
industry. In the world of health, kapok fiber fibers are used as fillers for helper belts,
wound pads, and protective clothing fillers. Kapok fiber is also used to make yarns
in the spinning industry. Apart from the fruit, other parts of kapok also have
benefits. Dry cotton kapok is used as fuel. Oil-containing seeds are used in industry
as lubricants and oil lamps, so they can be used as energy raw materials. Kapok has
high economic value. Stretched wood is processed into various products, such as
boards that can be used to make packaging boxes or crates, tables for table tennis,
salons or sound systems, and metal foundry boards in buildings. Kapok wood can
also be processed into paper-making raw materials. Leather stretch bars can be used
as material to make straps. Leaves are traditionally used as herbal medicines and
are believed to be able to treat coughs, diarrhea, drugs to eliminate scars, hair
fertility drugs, eye pain medications. Kapok is also used in making soap. Ash from
kapok fruit, as quoted by the research and Ambarwati's team in 2006, can be used
as a mixture in making soap, it is also proven to be used as fertilizer because it
contains a lot of potassium. In addition to fruit husk ash, kapok seeds that contain
lots of oil, can also be used for soap-making ingredients. Cakes, can be used for
animal feed or organic fertilizer.
Inside the leaves also contain reducing sugars, saponins, polyuronoid,
polyphenols, tannins, plobatanin, resin, charcoal hydrates, and flavonoids. The
young leaves contain phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phytate,
oxalate, trypsin inhibitors, and hemagglutinin. The hypoglycaemic and
hypolipidaemic effects possessed by the leaves of randu can be a reference that
leaves Ceiba pentandra plants play an important role in the treatment of diabetes
and its complications such as coronary heart disease (Asare and Oseni 2012).
Since 1928 until now Indonesia is still an exporter of kapok, but the number
continues to decline. In 2003 the export of kapok fiber decreased to 1,496 tons of
fiber. The decline in kapok exports was partly due to the large number of
unproductive old kapok, cutting down kapok without being offset by rejuvenation,
increasing use of domestic kapok fiber, and competition with synthetic materials
such as foam rubber. In 2004, the amount of kapok plant reached 17,870 hectares
with production reaching 8,370.71 tons. The level of productivity reaches 554
kilograms per hectare. In the following year the number of production land fell
1,386 hectares to only 16,484 hectares. The reduced area of land also affected the
amount of production in 2005 with only reaching 8,344.15 tons.
Generally kapok which is classified as Indica type, starts flowering in the
fourth year after the seeds are planted and every year continues to flower,
sometimes the flowers are many and sometimes also a little. The harvest itself
usually occurs in November. Indica type kapok seeds with BW 5 x SS 23 hybrids
can produce an average of 1,579 / glondong / tree / year. As well as 14.6 cm fruit
basket. Kapok cultivation will provide a very lucrative advantage if done seriously
and correctly (Adisewojo 1955).
Tabel 1. Tanaman Kapuk di Pati, Jawa Tengah
Tahun Lahan (Hektar) Hasil Produksi (Ton)
2004 17.870 8.370,71
2005 16.484 8.344,15
2006 16.330 119,31

REFERENCES
Adisewojo RS. 1955. Bertjojok Tanam Kapuk. Jakarta(ID): Pusat Djawatan
Pertanian Rakyat Bag. Publikasi & Dokumentasi
Andaka A. 2008. Hidrolisis minyak biji kapuk dengan katalisator asam khlorida.
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses. 2(2): 45-48
Asare P and Oseni LA. 2012. Comparative Evaluation of Ceiba pentandra Ethanolic
Leaf Extract, Stem Bark Extract and The Combination Thereof for In Vitro
Bacterial Growth Inhibition. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2(5):
44-49.
Heyne K. 1987. Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia. Jakarta(ID): Yayasan Sarana.
Juanda D dan Cahyono B. 2003. Ubi Jalar, Budi Daya dan Anslisis Usaha Tani.
Yogyakarta(ID): Kanisius.
Pratiwi RH. 2014. Potensi kapuk randu (Ceiba pentandra Gaertn.) dalam
penyediaan obat herbal. Widya Kesehat an dan Lingkungan. 1(1): 53-60.
Widhianti WD. 2011. Pembuatan Arang Aktif dari Biji Kapuk (Ceiba pentandra L.)
sebagai Absorben Zat Warna Rhodomin B. [Skripsi]. Surabaya(ID):
Universitas Airlangga.