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Chapter 7 : Antenna Synthesis

• Continuous sources vs. Discrete sources

• Schelkunoff polynomial method
• Fourier transform method
• Woodward-Lawson method
• Triangular, cosine and cosine-squared
amplitude distributions

1
Continuous sources
Recall the array factor
N
AF   an e j ( n 1) ;  kd cos   
n 1

If the number of elements increases in a fixed-length array,

the source approaches a continuous distribution.
In the limit, the array factor becomes the space factor, i.e.,
l/2
SF   I n ( z ' )e j[ kz 'cos n ( z ')]dz '
l / 2
The radiation characteristics of continuous sources can
be approximated by discrete-element arrays, i.e.,

an e j ( n 1)   I n ( z ' )e jn ( z ')

2
Schelkunoff polynomial
method
The array factor for an N-element, equally spaced, non-
uniform amplitude, and progressive phase excitation is given
by N
AF   an e j ( n 1) ;  kd cos   
n 1

Let z  x  jy  e j  e j ( kd cos   )
N
AF   an z n 1  a1  a2 z  L  a N z N 1
n 1

which is a polynomial of degree (N-1).

3
Schelkunoff polynomial
method (2)
Thus
AF  a N ( z  z1 )( z  z2 ) L ( z  z N 1 )
where z1,z2,…,zN-1 are the roots. The magnitude then
becomes
| AF || a N || z  z1 || z  z 2 | L | z  z N 1 |

Note that
z | z | e j | z |   1
2
  kd cos     d cos   

z is on a unit circle.
4
Schelkunoff polynomial
method (3)

VR=Visible Region
IR=Invisible Region
β =0

5
Schelkunoff polynomial
method (4)

VR=Visible Region
IR=Invisible Region
β = π/4

6
Schelkunoff polynomial
method (5)

7
Schelkunoff polynomial
method : Example
Design a linear array with a spacing between the elements
of d=λ/4 such that it has zeros at θ=0,π/2,π. Determine the
number of elements, their excitation, and plot the derived
pattern.

8
Schelkunoff polynomial
method : Example pattern
4−element array factor
0

−5

−10

−15

−20
|(AF)n| [dB]

−25

−30

−35

−40

−45

−50
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
θ [Degree]
9
Fourier Transform Method
The normalized space factor for a continuous line-source
distribution of length l can be given by
l/2 l/2
j ( k cos  k z ) z ')
SF ( )   I ( z ' )e dz '   I ( z ' )e jz ' dz '
l / 2 l / 2

   kz  1
  k cos   k z    cos  
 k 
where kz is the excitation phase constant of the source. If
I(z’)=I0/l,
 kl  k z 
sin   cos   
 2 k 
SF ( )  I 0
kl  kz 
 cos   
2 k 
10
Fourier Transform Method (2)
Since the current distribution extends only over -l/2≤z’≤ l/2,

SF ( )  SF ( )   I ( z ' )e jz ' dz '

The current distribution can then be given by
1  1 
 
 jz '
I ( z' )  SF ( )e d  SF ( )e  jz ' d
2  2 

The approximate source distribution Ia (z’) is given by

 1 
I ( z' ) 
I a ( z' )   2 
SF ( )e  jz ' d l / 2  z '  l / 2
0 elsewhere
l/2
Thus SF ( ) a  SF ( ) a   I a ( z ' )e jz ' dz '
l / 2

11
Fourier Transform Method :
Example 7.2
Determine the current distribution and the approximate radiation
pattern of a line source placed along the z-axis whose desired
radiation pattern is symmetrical about θ=π/2, and it is given by
1  / 4    3 / 4
SF ( )  
0 elsewhere

12
Fourier Transform Method :
Example
Fourier Transform Method :
Linear Array
For an odd number of elements, the array factor is given by
M
AF( )  AF( )   m
a
m M
e jm

For an even number of elements,

1 M
AF( )  AF( )   m
a
m M
e j [( 2 m 1) / 2 ]
  m
a
m 1
e j [( 2 m 1) / 2 ]

where   kd cos   
z m'  md , m  0,1,2, K , M
Odd-number
 2m  1
Elements’ locations  d 1 m  M
 2
zm  
'

 2m  1 d
Even-number
 2  M  m  1
14
Fourier Transform Method :
Linear Array (2)
For an odd number of elements, the excitation coefficients can
be obtained by
1 T /2 1 
am   AF( )e  jm
d   AF( )e  jm d
T T / 2 2 

M m M
For an even number of elements,
1 
 2 
 j [( 2 m 1) / 2 ]
AF ( )e d  M  m  1
am  
1 

 j [( 2 m 1) / 2 ]
 AF ( )e d 1  m  M
 2 
where   kd cos   
15
Fourier Transform Method :
Example
Same as Example 7.2 with d = λ/2; non-zero only
 / 4    3 / 4
thus   / 2    kd cos      / 2
therefore  m 
sin 
1  / 2  jm 1  2
am  
2  / 2
e d 
2 m
2
a0  1.0 a 4  0.0578 a8  0.0496
Result a1  0.3582 a5  0.0895 a9  0.0455
a 2  0.2170 a 6  0.0518 a10  0.010
a3  0.0588 a 7  0.0101
16
Fourier Transform Method :
Example
Quiz
A 5-element uniform linear array with a
spacing of λ between elements is designed
to scan at θ=π/3. Assume that the array is
aligned along the z-axis.
a) Find the array factor
b) Find the angle of the grating lobe.
c) Find the condition such that there exists no
grating lobe.
Quiz solution
5−element array factor
1
d=λ
0.9 d=5λ/8

d=λ/2
0.8

0.7

0.6
|(AF)n| [dB]

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
θ [Degree]
Woodward-Lawson Method
• Sampling the desired pattern at various discrete
locations.
• Use composing function of the forms:

bm sin( m ) / m or bm sin( Nm ) / N sin m

as the field of each pattern sample
• The synthesized pattern is represented by a finite
sum of composing functions.
• The total excitation is a sum of space harmonics.
Woodward-Lawson Method:
Line-source
Let the source be represented by a sum of the following constant
current source of length l.
bm  jkz 'cos m
im ( z ' )  e l / 2  z '  l / 2
l
Then the current source can be given by
1 M
I ( z ' )   bm e  jkz 'cos m where m  1,2, K , M (for 2M even number)
l m M m  0,1,2, K , M (for 2M  1 odd number)

The field pattern of each current source is given by

 kl 
sin  cos   cos  m 
sm ( )  bm  2 
kl Composing function
cos   cos m 
2
Woodward-Lawson Method:
Line-source (2)
For an odd number samples, the total pattern becomes
 kl 
M
sin  2 cos   cos  
m 
SF( )   bm 
kl
m M
cos  cos m 
2
bm can be obtained from the value at the sample points θm, i.e.,
bm  SF(   m ) d
In order to satisfy the periodicity of 2π and faithfully reconstruct
the desired pattern,

kz '  | z '|l  2   
l
Woodward-Lawson Method:
Line-source (3)
Thus the location of each sample is given by
 
cos  m  m  m , m  0,1,2,K for odd samples
l
 2m  1 2m  1   
    , m  1,2, K
2 2 l
cos  m   for even samples
 2m  1   2m  1   , m  1,2, K
 2 2 l

Therefore, M should be the closest integer to M=l/λ.

Woodward-Lawson Method:
Example
Same as Example 7.2; for l = 5λ.
Since l = 5λ, M = 5 and ∆ = 0.2.
 m  cos 1 (m)  cos 1 (0.2m), m  0,1,2, K ,5
m θm bm m θm bm
0 90 1
1 78.46 1 -1 101.54 1
2 66.42 1 -2 113.58 1
3 53.13 1 -3 126.87 1
4 36.87 0 -4 143.13 0
5 0 0 -5 180 0
Woodward-Lawson Method:
Example (2)

Composing functions for line-source (l = 5λ)

Woodward-Lawson Method:
Linear array
The pattern of each sample (uniform array) can be written as
(assuming l = Nd)
N 
sin  kd cos   cos  m 
f m ( )  bm 2  Composing function
kd
N sin cos   cos  m 
2
For an odd number elements, the array factor becomes
N 
M
sin  2 kd cos   cos  
m 
AF( )   bm 
kd
m M
N sin cos   cos  m 
2
bm can be obtained from the value at the sample points θm, i.e.,
bm  AF(   m ) d
Woodward-Lawson Method:
Linear array (2)
The location of each sample is given by
  
cos  m  m  m , m  0,1,2, K for odd samples
 Nd 
 2m  1 2m  1   
   , m  1,2, K
2 2  Nd 
cos  m   for even samples
 2m  1   2m  1   , m  1,2, K
 2 2  Nd 

The normalized excitation coefficient of each element is given by

M
1
an ( z ' ) 
N
b e
m M
m
 jkz n cos m
Woodward-Lawson Method:
Example
Same as Example 7.2; for N=10 and d = λ/2.
The coefficients can be found to be
Element number Position Coefficient
n z’n an
±1 ±0.25λ 0.5696
±2 ± 0.75λ -0.0345
±3 ± 1.25λ -0.1001
±4 ± 1.75λ 0.1108
±5 ± 2.25λ -0.0460
To obtain the normalized amplitude pattern of unity at θ=π/2,
the array factor has been divided by  an  0.4998
Woodward-Lawson Method:
Example
1.4
Line−source
Linear Array (N=10,d=λ/2)

1.2

1
Normalized magnitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
θ [Degree]
Triangular, cosine, cosine
squared distributions
Mutual Coupling
• Consider two antennas
V1  Z11 I1  Z12 I 2 V1   Z11 Z12   I1 
V    Z Z 22   I 2 
V2  Z 21 I1  Z 22 I 2  2   21
If reciprocal, Z12  Z 21
Equivalent Circuit

Two-port Network
T-Network Equivalent Circuit
32
Mutual Coupling: 2 antennas
V1 V1 Z12  Z 21
Z11  Z12 
I1 I 2 0 I2 I1  0
for reciprocal networks
V2 V2
Z 21  Z 22  Z11 , Z 22 :
I1 I 2 0 I2 I1  0 Input impedance
active
Z1d  point impedance
2d driving
V1 I2 V2 I1
Z1d   Z11  Z12 Z 2d   Z 22  Z 21
I1 I1 I2 I2
I2 I1
Note : Z1d depends on ; Z 2 d depends on
I1 I2
Mutual Coupling: 2 antennas (2)
• As I1 and I2 change, the driving point
impedance changes.
• In a uniform array, the phase of I1 and I2
is changed to scan the beam.
• As the beam is scanned, the driving port
impedance in each antenna changes.
• In general, Z11,Z12=Z21,Z22 can be
calculated using numerical techniques.
• For some special cases, they can be
calculated analytically.
Mutual Coupling: N antennas
V1   Z11 Z12 L Z1 N   I 1  V  ZI
V   Z Z 22 L Z 2 N   I 2 
 2    21 Vi
M   M M O M  M  Z ij 
     Ij
VN   Z N 1 Z2N L Z NN   I N  I k 0,k  j

j ( n 1) 
In an N-element uniform array I n  I 0e
V1
Z1d   Z11  Z12 e j  L  Z1N e j ( N 1) 
I1
N
  Z1n e j ( n 1) 
n 1

Note : Z1d changes as  changes.

Mutual Coupling: 2 dipoles
Mutual Coupling: 2 dipoles (2)