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Judul Asli: A Study on Dielectric Strength and Insulation Property of SF6 N2 Mixtures for GIS

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104~109, 2012

of SF6/N2 Mixtures for GIS

Abstract – SF6(sulphur hexafluoride) is the gas most commonly used in high voltage power equipments.

Due to the fact that SF6 is a greenhouse gas with a very high global warming potential, alternatives have

been searched for over the last years.

This paper presents the fundamental insulation characteristics of SF6/N2 mixtures(50% SF6_50%N2,

20%SF6_80%N2) in sphere-plane and rod-plane configurations. The electrode gap spacing and the

relative gas pressure were varied within the range of 10~50mm and of 3~7bar respectively. To get the

50% breakdown value under lightning impulse of both polarity and AC, the up and down method was

applied. In addition, both mixtures were tested in earthing switch and disconnecting switch sections of

GIS model. The test result is applied to make design criteria for mixtures.

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely used in the electrical 2.1 Gas mixture

equipments such as gas insulated switchgear (GIS) and gas

circuit breaker (GCB), due to its excellent insulation and We considered two methods to make gas mixtures. They

arc extinguishing characteristics and thermal stability. are methods by ratio of gas pressure and gas mass. The first

Despite its important advantages, SF6 gas became the focus method is to make gas mixtures by checking the gas

of environmental influence, because SF6 gas causes the pressure gauge during gas injection. This method has higher

serious green house effect by its emission in the atmosphere. error number than the second method because of human

Due to this problem, SF6 gas was classified as regulated gas errors and environmental factors such as temperature and

on Kyoto Protocol(1997) and many countries are studying atmospheric pressure. So, we used the method by ratio of

it for reduction of SF6 gas. gas mass and measured the ratio of each gas through Korea

Reduction of using SF6 gas in electrical equipments has Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS) for the

been going in various methods. Japanese makers developed more exact experiment.

72/84kV SF6 gas-free switchgear using dry air and solid

insulation. [4] Korean makers are also developing the Table. 1 The ratio analysis result of gas mixtures

product using them. And studying about gas insulated line Ratio Manufacturer KRISS

(GIL) using SF6/N2 gas mixture rated 20:80 are active by 20% (SF6 gas) 20.01% 19.92%

50% (SF6 gas) 49.92% 49.52%

the manufacturer. It is already developed up to 550kV GIL.

LS cable corporation are testing the long-term overvoltage

test after developing 362kV GIL in Korea. [3] 2.2 Test setup in uniform and non-uniform field

In this paper, we will report the test result and the design

criteria for SF6/N2 gas mixtures through studying on Fig. 1 shows layouts of lightning impulse voltage test

insulation properties of 2 kinds of SF6/N2 gas mixture and AC withstand voltage test. We measured the breakdown

(50%SF6_50%N2,20%SF6_80%N2) as a basic step for voltage using the up and down method with 5kV step. LI

developing environmental friendly products. breakdown voltage was measured 15 times and AC

breakdown voltage was 10 times every case.

Fig. 2 shows the shape of each electrode with radius of 2,

† Corresponding Author: Switchgear Research Team, R&D Center, 5, 8, and 25 mm. All electrodes are made of aluminium.

Hyosung Corporation, Korea (wdcvgy@hyosung.com)

* Switchgear Research Team, R&D Center, Hyosung Corporation,

Korea (wdcvgy@hyosung.com)

Received: December 26, 2011; Accepted: December 28, 2011

Su-Youl Woo, Dong-Hoon Jeong, Kyoung-Bo Seo and Jin-Ho Kim 105

each case. These equations were used for checking each

electric field [kV/mm] during test. Fig. 3 shows the simu-

lation results about each electrode.

and table.3.

Fig. 4. The results of simulation about sphere electrode(up)

Ratio of Mix Gas Pressure Radius of

(SF6/N2) (guage) Electrode

Gap Distance Polarity and rod(R 2mm) electrode.

20:80/ 3/4/5/6/7 2/4/5/8/25 10/20/30/ Positive/

50:50 (%) (bar) (mm) 40/50(mm) Negative Table. 4 E-field equations by changing gap distance be-

tween electrodes

Table. 3 The case of AC Test R(mm) Gap(mm) E-field(kV/mm)

Ratio of Mix Gas Pressure Radius of 10 y = 0.43667x + 1.8267e-4

Gap Distance 20 y = 0.3462x – 5.52532e-4

(SF6/N2) (guage) Electrode

20:80/ 10/20/30/ 2 30 y = 0.29702x + 0.00224

3/4/5/6/7 (bar) 2/4/5/8/25 (mm) 40 y = 0.27985x + 0.00224

50:50 (%) 40/50(mm)

50 y = 0.26244x + 0.00107

10 y = 0.2812x – 0.0012

2.3 Simulation

20 y = 0.21185x + 4.45261e-4

4 30 y = 0.18635x + 0.0011

40 y = 0.16962x – 8.94468e-4

50 y = 0.15983x – 5.37087e-4

10 y = 0.21082x – 4.97684e-4

20 y = 0.16463x – 4.34216e-4

5 30 y = 0.14202x – 3.68367e-4

40 y = 0.12964x – 4.65046e-4

50 y = 0.12164x – 4.80372e-4

10 y = 0.19203x – 6.84509e-4

20 y = 0.13821x – 2.69001e-4

8 30 y = 0.11905x – 4.70693e-4

40 y = 0.10767x – 7.6008e-5

Fig. 3. Simulation of electric potential and electric field 50 y = 0.10142x – 2.37238e-5

about sphere-plane electrode(left) and rod-plane 10 y = 0.12813x – 0.12786e-5

electrode (right). 20 y = 0.07919x + 3.57503e-4

25 30 y = 0.06377x – 5.764e-5

40 y = 0.05564x – 1.6757e-4

We checked the dielectric strength between electrodes 50 y = 0.05105x – 1.47308e-4

and predicted the breakdown voltage through the simulation

106 A Study on Dielectric Strength and Insulation Property of SF6/N2 Mixtures for GIS

voltage values from 0V to 600kV is presented as the

simulation graph shown in Fig. 4 and the formula shown

table. 4. The formulas presented the linear function are used

for calculating the electric field with 50% breakdown

voltage each gap distance. We could analyze the test results

comparing with these calculated electric fields on test.

3. Result

by the characteristics of the electrically lowest part in

insulation breakdown phenomena. The statistical method

like Weibull distribution is widely used for analyzing its

insulation breakdown phenomena. We analyzed 50%

breakdown strength in accordance with Weibull distribution

and used equation.1 for them.

V1 : Scale Parameter (64% Probability Strength)

m : Shape Parameter (Deviation)

slope of the curve decreases steadily in both sphere-plane

electrode and rod-plane electrode.(Fig. 5) These effects

indicate deviations to Paschen’s law. Breakdown strength

(Vs) of gas medium under ideal gas condition is the

function for only N(gas density) and d(gap distance). So,

dielectric strength((E/N)lim=Vs/Nd) having fixed d should

be independent of sufficiently high value of N.

Consequently, breakdown strength on ideal gas have to be

linear in theory. But, deviations to Paschen’s law related to

decreasing the slope of the curve about breakdown voltage

are influenced by the shape, structure, and surface of

electrode. The change of the electric field uniformity

Fig. 5. Graphs of 50% breakdown voltage.

caused these factors increase more effective ionization

(1) 20%, 10mm gap (2) 50%, 10mm gap

coefficient(ā/N(=(a-η)/N)) than ineffective ionization

(3) 20%, 30mm gap (4) 50%, 30mm gap

coefficient(a/N). As the reason, the attachment coefficient

(η/N) decreases and the electron energy move to the higher

3.2 Impulse polarity

energy with improved electric field strength. The influence

of these reasons is getting increase when gas pressure

In negative polarity, electrons or positive ions by first

increases. Therefore, the slope of the breakdown voltage

streamer corona, flow in rod electrode and negative ions

curve is decreased by increasing gas pressure.

remain in front of rod electrode. Diffusion and extinction of

space charges(negative ions) are suppressed according to

the increasing gas pressure. It makes to be easy the creation

Su-Youl Woo, Dong-Hoon Jeong, Kyoung-Bo Seo and Jin-Ho Kim 107

and the progress of leader pulse. So, the breakdown voltage utilization factor(η) was used as comparing data under tests.

is decreased. On the other hand, the breakdown voltage is

increased by corona stabilization effect in positive

polarity.[5]

voltage.

Fig.6. The comparison of 50% breakdown voltage between 3.4 GIS model test

polarities (1) 20%, 10mm gap (2) 20%, 30mm gap

Fig. 8 are the layout and the sections of GIS model for

3.3 Electric field utilization factor testing. We performed the electric field simulation before

test and could predict the weak points of each section. Fig.

We derived the electric field utilization factor(η) of 9 and Fig. 10 show the weak points under simulation and

various electrode shape through the test result applied the the flashover points under test and the position of each

confidence level of 95%. The electric field utilization point was similar. We measured the breakdown voltage

factor(η) is presented a ratio of mean electric field and using the up and down method with 10kV step. The

maximum electric field as a calculated result about the breakdown voltage was measured 15 times every case.

electric field strength and distribution. The factor(η) is

independent of the voltage and is determined by the shape

and the arrangement of electrode. So, the electric field

utilization factor of the similar electrode arrangements

should be almost same. The value of each factor(η) is 1 in

the uniform field and 0<η<1 in the non-uniform field.[2]

Fig. 7 show graphs of calculated factor(η) using Eq. 2.

η = Emean/Emax (2)

Fig. 8. The layout and the sections of GIS model.

Emean: Mean electric field

Emax : Maximum electric field The breakdown voltage of each SF6 gas mixture was

measured up to 120% of rated voltage (1050kV). The

Next, we performed insulation tests about SF6 gas mixtures breakdown voltage of 50% SF6 gas mixture is about 8~12%

under an earthing switch section and a disconnecting switch higher than 20% SF6 gas mixture, although each ratio of gas

section of 245kV GIS. The graphs of electric field pressure is different. (Fig. 11) The slope of 50% breakdown

108 A Study on Dielectric Strength and Insulation Property of SF6/N2 Mixtures for GIS

voltage according to gas pressure is similar to the test Through the analysis of the test data and the electric field

results between electrodes. Negative breakdown voltages utilization factor in uniform field and non-uniform field, we

are also lower than positive breakdown voltages. could calculate the breakdown strength of SF6 gas mixtures.

And it was verified by GIS model test and was finally used

make the design criteria about SF6 gas mixtures shown Fig. 12.

50% SF6 gas mixture BDE = 1.228·P0.324 (4)

P : Gas Pressure

4. Conclusion

Fig. 10. The flashover points under test.

This study is performed to make the insulation design

criteria about mixtures of SF6 gas and N2 gas, as the

fundamental step to develop the environmental friendly

product of HV class level.

8~12% higher than 20% SF6 gas mixture.

2) The more non-uniform field, the slope of breakdown

voltage is decreased.

3) When the gas pressure is increased 1 bar, the breakdown

voltage is increased about 10%.

4) The breakdown Voltage of positive polarity is higher

than the breakdown voltage of negative polarity under

lightning impulse test.

criteria through this study using test chamber. And we also

performed the electric test about the effect of metallic

particle and the temperature rising test for the application of

products using this design criteria. Now, we are reviewing

Fig. 11. 50% breakdown voltage. the results. Finally, we think the results will be used as the

basic data of SF6-N2 gas mixtures to develop the

(1) 20% SF6 gas mixture (2) 50% SF6 gas mixture environmental friendly power equipments.

Su-Youl Woo, Dong-Hoon Jeong, Kyoung-Bo Seo and Jin-Ho Kim 109

electrical engineering from Kyungbook

[1] L. G. Christophorou et al., “SF6/N2 Mixtures”, Trans. National University. His research in-

of IEEE, Vol. 2 No5, pp. 952-1003, 1995. terests is HV switchgear development.

[2] Ozcan Kalenderli et al., “Computing the Corona Onset

and the Utilization Factor of Rod-Plane Electrode by

Using Charge Simulation Method” Trans. of IEEE,

2001.

[3] X. Waymel,“Low SF6 concentration Sf6/N2 mixtures

for GIL” Gaseous Dielectrics VⅢ, pp. 345-351

[4] D. H. Jeong et al., “Insulation characteristic of HV

switchgear applied dry air”, Trans. KIEE, Vol. 57, No.

10, 2008.

[5] A Quenin et al., “Lightning impulse withstand of SF6-

N2 mixtures with low SF6 content under homo-

geneous and divergent field”, Trans. of IEEE, 2000.

[6] T.Ishii et al., “Non-uniform field flashover charac-

teristics in SF6 gas under negative steep-front and

oscillating impulse voltages” Gaseous Dielectrics VI,

pp. 239-246

in electrical engineering from Chun-

gang University. His research interests

is insulation medium in switchgear.

M.S degree in electrical engineering

from Pukyung National University. His

research interests is insulation medium

in switchgear.

electrical engineering. His research

interests is HV switchgear development.

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