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ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

UNIT III

THE LINE AT RADIO FREQUENCY

PART-A (2 MARK QUESTIONS)

a) Reflection coefficient.

b) VSWR interms of ZR and Z0. (Nov/Dec 2012)

a) S = (1 + │K│)/(1 - │K│)

b) S = ZL / Z0.

A quarter wave line is used for impedance matching. ie., it matches the load with the

source and ensures the maximum power is being transferred to the load.

wave ratio if the receiving end impedance is 800+ j 0.0 Ω. (Nov/Dec 2010)

Given :

Z0 = 400Ω, ZR = 800 + j0.0Ω

K = (ZR - Z0) / (ZR + Z0) = 1/3,

S = (1 + K) / (1 - K) = (1 + [1/3]) / (1 – [1/3]) = 2.

4. Write the expressions for the input impedance of open and short circuited

dissipationless lines. (Nov/Dec 2010)

Input impedance :

Open circuited line ZOC = -jR0 / (tan βS) = -jR0cos (2πS/λ).

Short circuited line ZSC = jR0 tan (2πS/λ).

5. For the line of zero dissipation, what will be the values of attenuation constant and

characteristics impedance?(Nov/Dec 2011)

i) For a line of zero dissipation R is very small and G is assumed to be zero.

ii) Attenuation constant α = 0.

iii) Phase constant β = ω √LC radians/m.

iv) Characteristics impedance Z0 = R0 = √(L/C)

Z0 = R0 = resistive.

The ratio of the maximum to minimum magnitudes of voltages or currents on a line

having standing waves is called standing wave ratio and is denoted by S.

S = │Emax / Emin│= │Imax / Imin│

i) Single stub matching requires the stub to be [laced at a definite point on the

line.

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

ii) It requires two adjustment to be made, these being the location and the length

of the stub.

iii) Single stub matching is adequate for open wire lines. But for coaxial lines

this is not suitable because it is difficult to obtain the location of voltage

minimum without slotted line section. That is for coaxial lines placement of a

stub at exact point is difficult.

8. Write the relationship between SWR and reflection coefficient. (May/Jun 2012)

S = (1 + │K│)/(1 - │K│)

Or

│K│ = (S - 1)/(S + 1)

9. Give the minimum and maximum value of SWR and reflection coefficient. (Nov/Dec

2008)

SWRmin = 1, SWRmax = ∞

Reflection coefficient Kmin = 0, Kmax = 1.

10. Why is the quarter wave line called as copper insulator? (Nov/Dec 2008)

Quarter wave line input impedance is equal to ∞, if it is shorted at the other end.

Hence it is called copper insulator.

11. If the reflection coefficient of a line is 0.3∟-66˚, calculate the standing wave ratio.

(May/Jun 2009)

Reflection coefficient K = 0.3∟-66˚

Standing wave ratio S = (1 + │K│)/(1 - │K│) = (1 + 0.3) / (1 – 0.3) = 1.8571.

12. What is the value of Z0 for the dissipationless line? (May/Jun 2009)

Z0 for dissipationless line is

Z0 = R0 = √(L/C).

13. Distinguish between series stub and shunt stub. (Apr/May 2010)

Single stub Double stub

1. It has one stub to match the It requires two stub for impedance

Transmission line impedance. Matching.

2. It requires stub should be The location of stub is is arbitrary.

Placed at a definite place on a

Line.

14. List the procedural steps to find the impedance from the given admittance using

smith chart. (Apr/May 2010)

1. Find out normalized impedance ZL = ZL / ZO.

2. Admittance point is rotated clockwise to a point on a impedance circle, where it

intersects the R = 1.

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

15. Express standing wave ratio in terms of a reflection coefficient. (Apr/May 2011)

Standing wave ratio S = (1 + │K│)/(1 - │K│)

│K│= Reflection coefficient.

i) Used to couple of transmission line to a resistive load such as antenna.

ii) It can also be used as a matching network if load is not pure resistive.

17. Design a quarter wave transformer to match a load of 200 ohm to a source

resistance 500 ohm. The operating frequency is 200 MHz. (May/Jun 2013)

Given :

ZR = 200 ohm, ZS = 500ohm, f = 200 MHz.

ZS = R02/ZR √ZS.ZR = √ 500 . 200 = 316.22Ω

Input impedance of λ/4 transformer R0 = 316.22Ω

The frequency of operation is f = 200 MHz.

Wavelength λ = C/f = (3 x 108) / (200 x 106) = 1.5 m.

The length of the quarter wave line s = λ/4

s = λ/4 = 1.5/4 = 0.375 m.

The ratio of the maximum to minimum magnitudes of voltage or current on a line

having standing waves is called the standing wave ratio or voltage standing wave ratio

(VSWR).

S = │(Vmax / Vmin)│= │(Imax / Imin)│

19. Design a quarter wave transformer to match a load of 200Ω to a source resistance

500Ω. The operating frequency is 200 MHz. (Nov/Dec 2006)

Given :

ZL = 200Ω

ZS = 500Ω

f = 200 MHz

λ = c/f = (3 x 108)(200 x 106)

λ = 1.5 m

Length of quarter wave line = λ/4 = 1.5/4 = 0.375 m or 3705 cm

Characteristics impedance, Z0 = √(ZS.ZL) = √(200 x 500)

Z0 = 316.22 Ω

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

1. Show that the incident and reflected waves combine to produce a standing wave.

(Apr/May 2010)

When the transmission line is not matched to its load ie., load impedance is not equal

to the characteristics impedance (ZR ≠ Z0), the energy delivered to the load is reflected

back to the source. The combination of incident and reflected waves gives rise to the

standing waves.

Vmin

Vmax

Distance

The above figure shows the standing waves along the length of transmission

line terminated in a load other than Z0.

The figure shows the standing waves along the line for either open or short circuit.

The plot of current variation along the line is the same as that of voltage variation

except for a λ/4 shift in the position of maximum and minimum. Nodes are points of zero

voltage or current in the standing wave systems, antinodes or loops are points of

maximum voltage or current. A line terminated in its characteristics impedance has no

standing waves and thus no nodes. It is called a smooth line.

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

For open circuit voltage nodes occur at distances of λ/4, 3λ/4, 5λ/4 and so on, from

the open end. For short circuit voltage nodes occur at 0, λ/2, λ and so on, whereas current

nodes occur λ/4, 3λ/4, 5λ/4 and so on. For a resistive load greater than R0, the voltage

and current minimum occur at voltage and current nodal points for an open circuited line.

For a resistive load less than R0, the voltage and current minima occur at the voltage abd

current nodal points for a short circuited line.

The equations for voltage and current at any point on a transmission line from the

receiving end are given below.

EC 2305 – TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES -V SEM ECE

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

These two equations comprise of incident wave and reflected wave with definite

maxima and minima along the line. The term involving ejβx is the incident wave whereas

the term involving e-jβx is the reflected wave. The reflected wave depends upon the

reflection coefficient.

2. It is required to match a 200 ohms load to a 300 ohms transmission line to reduce

the SWR along the line to 1. What must be the characteristics impedance of the

quarter wave transformer used for this purpose if it is directly connected to the

load? (Nov/Dec 2010)

Given :

3. What are the drawbacks of single stub matching and open circuited stubs?

i) Single stub matching is applicable for single frequency. For variable frequency the

location of the stub is not fixed.

ii) For final adjustment the stub has to be moved along the line slightly. So it is possible

only in open wire lines.

line producing a voltage reflection coefficient of 0.5 (0.866 + j0.5). calculate the

length and position of the stub to match the line. (Nov/Dec 2010)

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

5. Explain the applications of smith chart. A 30 m long lossless transmission line with

Z0 = 50Ω operating at 2 MHz is terminated with a load ZL = 60 + j 40Ω. If V = 0.6 C

on the line, find the reflection coefficient, the standing wave ratio S and the input

impedance. (Apr/May 2011) (Nov/Dec 2012)

v) Used to analyse the single stub matching and double stub matching.

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

= 0.3523 ∟56˚

V = ω/β , β = ω/v

Zin = 24.01∟3.22˚ Ω

terminated with a load ZL = 60 + j 40 Ω. If U = 0.6 C on the line, find

i) Reflection coefficient

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

7. What are the drawbacks of single stub matching ?Briefly discuss how it is overcome

by double stub matching. (Nov/Dec 2009)

- The input admittance of a transmission line is changing from maximum to

minimum conductance , minimum to maximum conductance and so on and cycle

repeat for λ/2.

- An appropriate length of a short circuited open circuited with the transmission

line is shunted at this point to achieve the impedance matching.

- The input impedance of the transmission line at this point is Z = Z0.

- The line from the source to this [point is then terminated with R0 and is a smooth

line.

To avoid the disadvantages of single matching, double matching is introduced.

Double stub matching is one in which two short circuited stub, whose lengths are

adjustable independently are fixed.

8. Derive the expression that permit easy measurements of power flow on a line of

negligible losses. (Nov/Dec 2011)

Currents and voltages on the dissipationless line :

The equations for voltage at any point (l = x) from the receiving end of the

transmission line is given by

V = [VR (ZR + Z0)/2ZR] {eγx + (ZR - Z0)/( ZR + Z0) e-γx}

The current of the transmission line is given by

I = IR (ZR + Z0)/2Z0] {eγx - (ZR - Z0)/( ZR + Z0) e-γx}

Rearranging,

For zero dissipation line Z0 = R0 and γ = jβ (Since α = 0)

V = [VR (ZR + R0)/2ZR] {ejβ x + (ZR - R0)/( ZR + R0) e-jβ x}

I = IR (ZR + R0)/2Z0] {e jβ x - (ZR - R0)/( ZR + R0) e- jβ x}

Rearranging

V = [VR / 2ZR] {(ZR - R0)ejβ x + ( ZR + R0) e-jβ x}

= [VR / 2ZR] {(ZR (ejβ x + e-jβ x) + R0( ejβ x - e-jβ x )}

= [VR / ZR] {[ZR (ejβ x + e-jβ x) / 2 ]+ [j R0( ejβ x - e-jβ x ) /2j]}

V = VR cos β x + j IR R0 sin β x

Similarly for I

I = [IR / 2 R0] {(ZR + R0)ejβ x - ( ZR - R0) e-jβ x}

= [IR / 2 R0] {(ZR (ejβ x - e-jβ x) + R0( ejβ x + e-jβ x )}

= [IR / R0] {[ R0 (ejβ x - e-jβ x) / 2 ]+ [j ZR ( ejβ x - e-jβ x ) /2j]}

V = IR/R0 {R0cos β x + j IR R0 sin β x}

Therefore,

I = IR cos β x + j VR / R0 sin β x

V = VR cos β x + j IR R0 sin β x

If the line is open circuited, IR = 0

V = VR cos β x

I = +j IR R0 sin β x

Where β = 2π/λ

If the line is short circuited, VR = 0

EC 2305 – TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES -V SEM ECE

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

V = j IR R0 sin β x

I = IR cos β x.

9. Discuss the various parameters of open-wire and coaxial lines at radio frequency.

(Nov/Dec 2011)

Parameters of open wire line :

At high frequencies the current is flowing on the surface of the conductor in a skin of

very small depth. Since the internal flux and internal inductance are reduced to zero, the

inductance of open wire line becomes,

L = µ0 / 2π ln (d/a) H/m

Where

a is the radius of open wire line

d is the distance between the two open wire lines

µ0 = 4π x 10-7 H/m

The value of the capacitance of a open wire is not affected by skin effect or high

frequencies.

C = π ε0 / [ln (d/a)] F/m

Where

ε0 = 8.854 x 10-12 F/m

If the current flows at high frequencies over the surface of the conductor in a thin

layer, there is an increase in resistance of the conductor. The skin depth or the effective

thickness of the surface layer of current is

δ = 1 / √(πfµσ)

For direct current resistance of the open wire line is

Rdc = K/ πa2

For alternating current resistance of the open wire line is

Rac = K / πaδ

Therefore,

Rac = K √(πfµσ) /( πa)

= K / a [√(µσ) /( π)] √f ohm/m

This equation shows that the resistance increases with increasing frequency.

The parameters of the coaxial line are also modified by the presence of high

frequency currents on the line. Because o skin effect, the current flows only on the

surface of the conductor and it eliminates the flux linkages.

The inductance of the capacitance if the coaxial cable is

L = µ0 / 2π ln (b/a) H/m

Where

a is the outer radius of the inner conductor

b is the inner radius of the outer conductor.

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

The capacitance of the coaxial cable is not affected by high frequency current. The value

of the capacitance of coaxial cable is

C = 2 π ε / [ln (b/a)] F/m

Where ε = ε0 εr, permittivity of the medium.

Rac = K / πδ {(1/a) + (1/b)}

= K √(πfµσ) /( π) {(1/a) + (1/b)}

Rac = K [√(µσ) /( π)] √f {(1/a) + (1/b)} ohm/m

Resistance increases with an increase o frequency.

10. A low loss transmission line of 100 ohms characteristics impedance is connected to a

load of 200 ohm. Calculate the voltage reflection coefficient and the standing wave

ratio. (May/Jun 2012)

Given :

Z0 = 100ohms, ZR = 200 ohms

Voltage reflection coeeficient is given by

K = (ZR - Z0) / (ZR + Z0)

= (200 - 100) /(200 + 100)

= 0.333

Voltage standing wave ratio is given by,

VSWR = S = (1 + │K│) / (1-│K│)

= (1 + 0.333) / (1 – 0.333)

= 1.499.

11. An ideal loss less quarter wave transmission line of characteristics impedance 60

ohm is terminated in a load impedance ZL . Give the value of the input impedance of

the line when ZL = 0, ∞ and 60 ohm. (May/Jun 2012)

For the quarter wave line, the characteristics impedance is R0.

Input impedance = Zin = R02 / ZL

Case (i) ZL = 0, Zin = ∞

Case (ii) ZL = ∞, Zin = 0

Case (iii) ZL = 60Ω, Zin = (60)2 / 60 = 60Ω.

12. Write the concept of single stub and double stub matching. (May/Jun 2012)

(Nov/Dec 2006) (Nov/Dec 2012)

In general, the source or input impedance is a fixed one. By choosing the value of

load impedance to be equal to the input impedance, impedance matching is achieved. In

certain cases, the load impedance is also fixed. If the load impedance is not equal to the

complex conjugate of the input impedance, the maximum power transfer will not take

place. This is known as mismatching. So, it is necessary to introduce some form of an

EC 2305 – TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES -V SEM ECE

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

impedance transforming section between the source and load to achieve impedance

matching. Such a section is called an impedance matching device. Another means of

accomplishing impedance matching is the use of an open or short circuited line of

suitable length, called stub at a designated distance from the load. This is called

matching. There are two types of stub matching.

They are :

i) Single stub matching

ii) Double stub matching

A transmission line having a characteristics admittance Y0 terminated with

load conductance YR. Since YR is different from YS , standing waves are set up in

between source and load.

ls

Y0 YR

lt

conductance, minimum to maximum conductance and so on and the cycle repeats for

every λ/2. When the line is transverse from the point of maximum or minimum

conductance to that of minimum or maximum conductance, there will be a point at which

the real part of the admittance is equal to the characteristics admittance. An appropriate

length of a short circuited or open circuited line with the transmission line is shunted at

this point to achieve the impedance matching. The input impedance of the transmission

line at this point is ZS = R0. The line from the source to this point is then terminated with

R0 and is a smooth line. But there is a reflection between this point and load. Since the

distance is less than the wavelength, the losses will be less.

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

ZS = Z0. (ZR + Z0 tanhγl) / (Z0 + ZR tanhγl)

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

This can be obtained either by an open circuited or short circuited stub. But normally

short circuited stub is preferred because of the following advantages.

i) It radiates less power.

ii) Its effective length may be varied by means of a shorting bar.

The susceptance of a short circuited stub is equal to Y0 cotβlt.

YR

lt2 lt1

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

13. Write the concept of quarter wave length line and half wave length line. (May/Jun

2012) (Nov / Dec2006) (Nov/Dec 2009) (Nov/Dec 2010)

ZS = R02 / ZR

load of ZR to a source of ZS. Such a match can be obtained if the characteristics

impedance R0' of the matching quarter wave section of the line is properly chosen.

The R0' of the matching section should be equal to the geometric mean of the source

and load impedance.

A quarter wave transformer may also be used if the load is not a pure

resistance. It should then be connected between points corresponding to Imax or Vmin at

which the places the transformation line has resistive impedance given by R0/S or

SR0. For stepping down the impedance from the line value of R0, the matching

transformer characteristics impedance should be

The quarter wave transformer is also a single frequency or narrow band device. The

bandwidth may be increased by using two or more quarter wave sections in series.

λ/4

EC 2305 – TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES -V SEM ECE

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

transform a low impedance into a high impedance and vice versa. An important

application of the quarter wave matching section is to couple a transmission line to a

resistive load such as an antenna. This effect is illustrated by the action of λ/4 short

circuited line in transforming in the impedance.

Βx = (2π/ λ) (λ/2) = π

= R0 .( ZR / R0)

ZS = RR

It has application in connecting a load to a source in cases when the load and source

cannot be made adjacent.

ZL = 100Ω via a quarter wave section. Find the characteristics Impedance of the

quarter wave transformer. (Nov/Dec 2008)

Given :

Z0 = 75Ω, ZL = 100Ω

= √(75 x 100)

= 86.6 Ω.

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

50)Ω. Use the smith chart to find

2. VSWR,

3. Input impedance of the line, given that the line is 3.3λ long and

4. Input admittance of the line. (Nov/Dec 2008)

Given :

Z0 = 50Ω , ZL = 25 + j 50Ω

SWR = 4.3

= 82.8°

K = (S - 1) / (S + 1) = 0.62 ∟82.8°

= (0.275 – j 0.405) 50

= (1.125 + j 1.675)50

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

16. Describe single stub matching technique. Derive the expression for length and

location of the stub. (Nov/Dec 2010)

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

The location of the stub lS and the length of the stub lt can be determined, if the

reflection coefficient and frequency are known.

A short circuited stub is normally preferred because of its simple construction and

inability of the stub to remain open circuited. The short circuit can be easily established

with a large metal plate and it also has a lower radiation loss of energy.

17. Define standing wave ratio and obtain the expression of VSWR in terms of reflection

coefficient. (May/Jun 2009)

having standing waves is called the standing wave ratio or voltage standing wave

ratio (VSWR).

EC 2305 – TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES -V SEM ECE

MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI-621213.

Maxima of voltage along a line occurs at which the incident and reflected waves are

in phase.

S = (1 + │K│) / (1 - │K│)

Or │K│ = (S - 1) / (S + 1)

│K│

0 100

SWR

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