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2014/2015 Dr.

Fathy El-Wahsh 1
INTRODUCTION
 Refrigeration is defined as “the process of cooling of bodies or
fluids to temperatures lower than those available in the
surroundings at a particular time and place”.
 Cooling ,In general, is a heat transfer process down a
temperature gradient, it can be a natural, spontaneous process
or an artificial process.
 However, refrigeration is not a spontaneous process, as it
requires expenditure of exergy (or availability).
 “All refrigeration processes involve cooling, but all cooling
processes need not involve refrigeration”.
 The oldest and most well-known among refrigerants are ice,
water, and air. In the beginning, the sole purpose was to
conserve food.
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Methods of Producing Low Temperatures

1. Sensible cooling by cold medium

2. Endothermic mixing of substances

3. Phase change processes

4. Expansion of Liquids

5. Expansion of gases

6. Thermoelectric Refrigeration

7. Adiabatic demagnetization

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Sensible Cooling by Cold Medium

 The sensible cooling dependent on the temperature difference


between two substance.

 The sensible cooling can be approach by bringing the cooled


substance in thermal contact with the system to be refrigerated.

 The energy absorbed by the substance providing cooling increases


its temperature, and the heat transferred during this process is given
by:

 Where: m is the mass of the substance providing cooling, cp is its specific


heat and ΔT is the temperature rise undergone by the substance.

 To provide continuous refrigeration, a continuous supply of the cold


substance should be maintained, which may call for an external
refrigeration cycle.
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Endothermic Mixing of Substances

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Phase Change Processes

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Expansion of Liquids

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Expansion of Gases

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Thermoelectric Refrigeration
 Thermoelectric refrigeration is a novel method of producing low
temperatures and is based on the reverse Seebeck effect.

 As shown, in Seebeck effect an EMF, E is produced when the junctions of


two dissimilar conductors are maintained at two different temperatures
T1 and T2.

 This principle is used for measuring


temperatures using thermocouples.

 The electromotive force produced


is given by:

Where:
α is the thermoelectric power or Seebeck coefficient.
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Adiabatic Demagnetization  Magnetic refrigeration is
based on the magneto
caloric effect.

 There are some materials


that raise their temperatures
when adiabatically
magnetized, and drop their
temperature when
adiabatically demagnetized.

 Temperature very near the


absolute zero may be
obtained by adiabatic
demagnetization of certain
paramagnetic salts.

 Each atom of the


Fig.1.7. Schematic of a setup depicting paramagnetic salt may be
magnetic refrigeration considered to be a tiny
magnet
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 If the salt is not magnetized then all its atoms or the magnets are
randomly oriented such that the net magnetic force is zero.

 If it is exposed to a strong magnetic field, the atoms will align


themselves to the direction of magnetic field. This requires work and
the temperature increases during this process.

 If the salt is kept in a container surrounded by Helium, the heat will


be absorbed by Helium.

 Now if the magnetic field is suddenly removed, the atoms will come
back to the original random orientation. This requires work to be
done by the atoms.

 If there is no heat transfer from surroundings, the internal energy of


the salt will decrease as it does work. Consequently the salt will be
cooled.

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AIR CYCLE REFRIGERATION

SYSTEMS

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Air Standard Cycle Analysis
Assumptions
• The working fluid is a fixed mass of air that behaves as an ideal gas
• The cycle is assumed to be a closed loop cycle with all inlet and
exhaust processes of open loop cycles being replaced by heat
transfer processes to or from the environment
• All the processes within the cycle are reversible, i.e., the cycle is
internally reversible
• The specific heat of air remains constant throughout the cycle

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Basic Concepts

The temperature of an ideal gas can be reduced either by making


the gas to do work in an isentropic process or by sensible heat
exchange with a cooler environment.

When the gas does adiabatic work in a closed system by say,


expanding against a piston, its internal energy drops, and its
temperature also drops , i.e., W = m(u1 − u2 ) = mcv (T1 − T2 )

If the expansion is reversible and adiabatic, by using the ideal gas


equation Pv = RT and the equation for isentropic process is
Then the final temperature T2 related to (T, P) is:

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REFRIGERATORS AND HEAT PUMPS

The transfer of heat from a low-temperature


region to a high-temperature one requires special
devices called REFRIGERATORS.
Another device that transfers heat from a low-
temperature medium to a high-temperature one is
the HEAT PUMP.
Refrigerators and heat pumps are essentially the
same devices; differ in their objectives only.

The objective of a refrigerator is to remove heat (QL) for fixed values of QL


from the cold medium; the objective of a heat pump is and QH
to supply heat (QH) to a warm mediumDr.. Fathy El-Wahsh
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Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
The difference between refrigerators &
heat pumps.
The objective of a refrigerator is to
remove heat (QL) from the cold medium;
the objective of a heat pump is to supply
heat (QH) to a warm medium.
The performance of refrigerators and heat
pumps is expressed in terms of the coefficient
of performance (COP), defined as

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Reversed Carnot Cycle

Reversed Carnot cycle is an ideal refrigeration cycle for constant


temperature external heat source and heat sinks.

It is not a suitable model for refrigeration cycles since, the difficulty


of achieving isothermal heat transfer during processes 2-3 and 4-1.
All actual processes are irreversible, hence completely reversible
cycles are idealizations only. Process 1-2 involves the compression of
a liquid–vapor mixture, which requires a compressor that will handle
two phases, and process 3-4 involves the expansion of high-
moisture-content refrigerant in a turbine

Process 1-2: Reversible, adiabatic compression in a compressor


Process 2-3: Reversible, isothermal heat rejection in a compressor
Process 3-4: Reversible, adiabatic expansion in a turbine
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Reversed Carnot Cycle

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the work of isentropic expansion, W3-4 exactly matches the work of
isentropic compression W1-2. the COP of the Carnot system is given by:

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Ideal Reverse Brayton Cycle
This is a modification of reversed Carnot cycle, as the two isothermal
processes of Carnot cycle are replaced by two isobaric heat transfer
processes.
The ideal cycle consists of the following four processes:
Process 1-2: Reversible, adiabatic compression in a compressor
Process 2-3: Reversible, isobaric heat rejection in a heat exchanger
Process 3-4: Reversible, adiabatic expansion in a turbine
Process 4-1: Reversible, isobaric heat absorption in a heat exchanger
Process 1-2
Process 2-3

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Process 3-4

Process 4-1

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2

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Actual Reverse Brayton Cycle

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Aircraft cooling systems
• In an aircraft, cooling systems are required to keep the cabin
temperatures at a comfortable level.

• Cooling of cabin is required whoever, outside temperatures are very


low at high altitudes, Why?

• For low speed aircraft flying at low altitudes, cooling system may not
be required, however, for high speed aircraft flying at high altitudes, a
cooling system is a must.

• The COP of air cycle refrigeration is very low compared to vapor


compression refrigeration systems???

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Simple aircraft refrigeration cycle:

Figure (2.5. )Schematic of a simple aircraft refrigeration cycle


The cold air at state 5 is supplied to the cabin. It picks up heat as it flows through the
cabin providing useful cooling effect. The power output of the turbine is used to
drive the fan, which maintains the required air flow over the air cooler.
.This simple system is good for ground cooling (when the aircraft is not moving) as
fan can continue to maintain airflow over the air cooler
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Bootstrap system (modification aircraft refrigeration cycle):

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 As shown in the figure, this system consists of two heat exchangers (air
cooler and after-cooler), in stead of one air cooler of the simple system.

 It also incorporates a secondary compressor, which is driven by the turbine


of the cooling system.

 The ambient air at state 1 is pressurized to state 2 due to the ram effect,
this air is further compressed to state 3 in the main compressor.

 The air is then cooled to state 4 in the air cooler, the heat rejected in the
air cooler is absorbed by the ram air at state 2.

 The air from the air cooler is further compressed from state 4 to state 5 in
the secondary compressor. It is then cooled to state 6 in the after cooler,
expanded to cabin pressure in the cooling turbine and is supplied to the
cabin at a low temperature T7.

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VAPOR-COMPRESSION

REFRIGERATION CYCLE

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• What is Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
• Refrigeration and air conditioning is used to cool products or a
building environment.
• The refrigeration or air conditioning system are transfers heat
from a cooler low-energy reservoir to a warmer high-energy
reservoir

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• Some Applications for Refrigeration Plants:
• Foodstuff conservation
• Process refrigeration
• Air conditioning plants
• Drying plants
• Fresh water installations
• Refrigerated containers
• Heat pumps
• Ice production
• Freeze-drying
• Transport refrigeration

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• Alternative methods of refrigeration.
• Ice refrigeration - making cooling effect with ice.
• Evaporative cooling - Cooling effect with the evaporation of
liquid e.g.: Desert bag.
• Vapour compression cycle - Cooling effect by vaporization of
liquid.
• Vapour absorption cycle - Cooling effect by absorption of liquid.
• Air refrigeration cycle - Cooling effect due to expansion of air.

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Units, HVAC&R

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• Refrigerants for vapour compression cycles
The requirements for the working fluid are as follows:
1. A high latent heat of vaporization
2. High density of suction gas
3. Non-corrosive, non-toxic and non-flammable
4. Critical temperature and triple point outside the working range
5. Compatibility with materials of construction, with lubricating oils,
and with other materials present in the system
6. Convenient working pressures, i.e. not too high and preferably not
below atmospheric pressure
7. High dielectric strength (for compressors having integral electric
motors)
8. Low cost
9. Ease of leak detection
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• Types of refrigerant used in vapour compression systems
A variety of refrigerants are used in vapor compression systems. The required
cooling temperature largely determines the choice of fluid.
Commonly used refrigerants are in the family of chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFCs,
also called Freons): R-11, R-12, R-21, R-22 and R-502.
The properties of these refrigerants are summarized in Table 1 and the
performance of these refrigerants is given in Table 2 below.

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• The choice of refrigerant and the required cooling temperature and load
determine the choice of compressor, as well as the design of the
condenser, evaporator, and other auxiliaries.
• Additional factors such as ease of maintenance, physical space
requirements and availability of utilities for auxiliaries (water, power,
etc.) also influence component selection.

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Basic Components of a Refrigeration System
1- A refrigerant as a working medium

2.An evaporator in which the refrigerant


changes phase from liquid to vapor, thus
absorbing heat from the air and
producing a refrigeration effect (cooling
for air-conditioning).

3. A compressor for pumping the refrigerant vapor to a pressure whose


saturation temperature is higher than the outdoor temperature.

4.A condenser in which superheated refrigerant vapor is condensed to a


sub-cooled liquid. A liquid receiver for collecting the condensed liquid
refrigerant.

5.An expansion valve for throttling the refrigerant liquid from the
condenser pressure to the evaporator pressure; also controls refrigerant
flow
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CARNOT REFRIGERATION CYCLE

• The Carnot refrigeration cycle is a reverse engine cycle. All processes in


a Carnot refrigeration cycle are reversible, so it is the most efficient
refrigeration cycle.

• This Carnot cycle is composed of compressor, condenser, turbine and


evaporator all reversible processes:

• Refrigeration effect (q4- 1 = qe) is obtained at the evaporator as the


refrigerant undergoes the process of vaporization (process 4-1) and
extracts the latent heat from the low temperature heat source.

• The low temperature, low pressure vapour is then compressed


isentropically in the compressor to the heat sink temperature Tc.

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 The refrigerant pressure increases from Pe to Pc during the compression
process (process 1-2) and the exit vapour is saturated.
 Next the high pressure, high temperature saturated refrigerant undergoes
the process of condensation in the condenser (process 2-3) as it rejects
the heat of condensation (q2-3 = qc) to an external heat sink at Tc.
 The high pressure saturated liquid then flows through the turbine and
undergoes isentropic expansion (process 3-4). During this process, the
pressure and temperature fall from Pc, Tc to Pe, Te.
 Since a saturated liquid is expanded in the turbine, some amount of liquid
flashes into vapour and the exit condition lies in the two-phase region.
This low temperature and low pressure liquid-vapor mixture then enters
the evaporator completing the cycle.
 Thus as shown in Fig.3.1(b), the cycle involves two isothermal heat
transfer processes (processes 4-1 and 2-3) and two isentropic work
transfer processes (processes 1-2 and 3-4).
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 Heat is extracted isothermally at evaporator temperature Te during
process 4-1, heat is rejected isothermally at condenser temperature
Tc during process 2-3.

 Work is supplied to the compressor during the isentropic


compression (1-2) of refrigerant vapour from evaporator pressure Pe
to condenser pressure Pc, and work is produced by the system as
refrigerant liquid expands isentropically in the turbine from
condenser pressure Pc to evaporator pressure Pe.

 All the processes are both internally as well as externally reversible,


i.e., net entropy generation for the system and environment is zero.

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Fig. 3.1(b): Carnot refrigeration cycle on
T-s diagram

Fig.3.1(a): Schematic of a Carnot refrigeration system


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• Example: using the working fluid Refrigerant 22,evaporating at – 5°C and
condensing at 35°C, the pressures and enthalpies will be as shown in Figure

Enthalpy of fluid entering evaporator = 91.4 kJ/kg


Enthalpy of saturated gas leaving evaporator = 249.9 kJ/kg
Cooling effect = 249.9 – 91.4 = 158.5 kJ/kg

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Ideal reversed Carnot cycle

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Modified reversed Carnot cycle

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• A steady-flow Carnot refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working
fluid is considered. The coefficient of performance, the amount of heat
absorbed from the refrigerated space, and the net work input are to be
determined.

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• THE IDEAL VAPOR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE
• 1-2 Isentropic compression in a compressor
• 2-3 Constant-pressure heat rejection in a condenser
• 3-4 Throttling in an expansion device
• 4-1 Constant-pressure heat absorption in an evaporator

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SINGLE-STAGE IDEAL VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE

• Flow Processes
• Figures shows the refrigeration cycle on p-h and T-s diagrams.
• The refrigerant evaporates entirely in the evaporator and produces the
refrigerating effect.
• It is then extracted by the compressor at state point 1, compressor suction,
and is compressed isentropically from state point 1 to 2.
• It is next condensed to liquid in the condenser, and the latent heat of
condensation is rejected to the heat sink.
• The liquid refrigerant, at state point 3, flows through an expansion valve,
which reduces it to the evaporating pressure.
• In the ideal vapor compression cycle, the throttling process at the
expansion valve is the only irreversible process, usually indicated by a
dotted line.
• Some of the liquid flashes into vapor and enters the evaporator at state
point 4.
• The remaining liquid portion evaporates at the evaporating temperature,
thus completing the cycle.

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Standard Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS)

Process 1-2: Isentropic compression of saturated vapour in compressor


Process 2-3: Isobaric heat rejection in condenser
Process 3-4: Isenthalpic expansion of saturated liquid in expansion device
Process 4-1: Isobaric heat extraction in the evaporator

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a- comparison between Carnot and standard VCRS in terms of
refrigeration effect.

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b- Comparative evaluation of heat rejection rate of VCRS and Carnot
cycle

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Analysis of Standard Vapor Compression Refrigeration
System (VCRS)
Assumptions :
a) Steady flow
b) Negligible kinetic and potential energy changes across each component.
c) No heat transfer in connecting pipe lines.
The steady flow energy equation is applied to each of the four components.
Evaporator: Heat transfer rate at evaporator or refrigeration capacity, Qe,
Q e = mr (h1-h4) and Pe = Psat @Te

Compressor: Power input to the compressor, Wc,


W c = mr (h2-h1) and Pc = Psat @Tc
Condenser: Heat transfer rate at condenser, Qc
Q c = mr (h2-h3)

Expansion device: h3=h4

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• GRAPHICAL AND ANALYTICAL EVALUATION OF REFRIGERATION
• Pressure-Enthalpy (p-h) Diagram
• The pressure-enthalpy p-h diagram is the most common graphical tool for
analysis and calculation of the heat and work transfer and performance of a
refrigeration cycle.

The P-h diagram of an ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle.

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Skeleton of pressure-enthalpy p-h diagram for HCFC-22.
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• A commercial refrigerator with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is
considered. The quality of the refrigerant at the evaporator inlet, the
refrigeration load, the COP of the refrigerator, and the theoretical
maximum refrigeration load for the same power input to the
compressor are to be determined.

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Using saturated liquid enthalpy at the given temperature, for water we have

(b) The mass flow rate of the refrigerant may be determined from an
energy balance on the condenser

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• The waste heat transferred from the refrigerant, the compressor
power input, and the refrigeration load are

(c) The COP of the refrigerator is determined from its definition

(d) The reversible COP of the refrigerator for the same temperature limits
is

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Modifications of Standard Vapor Compression
Refrigeration System (VCRS)
1- Sub-cooling and super-heating

(a) Sub-cooling. (b) Super-heating.

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It is increases the refrigeration effect Useful superheating increases both the
by reducing the throttling loss at no refrigeration effect as well as the work of
additional specific work input. compression.
only liquid enters into the throttling As shown in the figure, with useful
device leading to its efficient superheating, the refrigeration effect, specific
operation. volume at the inlet to the compressor and
There is less vapour at the inlet to the work of compression increase.
evaporator which leads to lower
pressure drop in the evaporator.
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2014/2015
The superheat loss increases
only the work input to the
compressor, it does not
effect the refrigeration effect.

Dr. Fathy El-Wahsh

The throttling loss increases the


work input and also reduces the
refrigeration effect.
73
2- Use of liquid-suction heat exchanger (LSHX):
A LSHX, is a counterflow heat exchanger in which the warm refrigerant
liquid from the condenser exchanges heat with the cool refrigerant
vapour from the evaporator.

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Fig.4.7: Single stage VCRS cycle with LSHX (a) on T-s diagram; (b) on P-h diagram

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Grindley cycle
Grindley cycle, wherein the isentropic compression process can be
replaced by an isothermal compression leading to improved COP.
The temperature of the refrigerant vapour at the exit of LSHX is equal to
the condenser temperature, Tc, i.e., (T1 = T3 = Tc ) .

Though theoretically the


Grindley cycle offers higher
COP achieving isothermal
compression can be occurred
with screw compressor only
where the lubricating oil
provides large heat transfer
rates.

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Actual Vapor Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS)

 In actual systems the compression process involves frictional effects


and heat transfer.
 As a result, it cannot be reversible, adiabatic (even though it can be
isentropic).
 Pressure drops across the valves of the compressor increase the work
of compression and reduce the volumetric efficiency of the
compressor.
 Actual systems are also different from the theoretical cycles due to the
presence of foreign matter such as lubricating oil, water, air,
particulate matter inside the system.

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Real Vapor Compression Cycle(pressure loss) presentation on the p-h diagram

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• Example.1.

• A 500-ton (1760-kW) single-stage centrifugal vapor compression system uses


HCFC-22 as refrigerant. The vapor refrigerant enters the compressor at dry
saturated state. The compression process is assumed to be isentropic. Hot gas
is discharged to the condenser and condensed at a temperature of 95°F (35°C).
The saturated liquid refrigerant then flows through a throttling device and
evaporates at a temperature of 35°F (1.7°C). Calculate:
• 1. The refrigeration effect
• 2. The work input to the compressor
• 3. The coefficient of performance of this refrigeration cycle
• 4. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant
• Recalculate the COP and the energy saved in work input if the refrigerant is
subcooled to a temperature of 90°F (32.2°C).

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• 1. The enthalpy of the saturated liquid refrigerant at a
temperature of 95°F (35°C),point 3 as shown in Fig. 9.5a, is:

The enthalpy of saturated vapor refrigerant at a temperature of


35°F (1.7°C),point 1, is:

Then the refrigeration effect is calculated as:

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2. The enthalpy differential h2-h1 on the constant-entropy line corresponding to

3. The COP ref of the refrigerating system is calculated as:

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4. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant can be calculated as:

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Multi-Stage Vapour
Compression Refrigeration
Systems

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5.1. Introduction
 A single stage vapour compression refrigeration system has one
low side pressure (evaporator pressure) and one high side
pressure (condenser pressure).

 The performance of single stage systems shows that these


systems are adequate as long as the temperature difference
between evaporator and condenser (temperature lift) is small.

 The temperature lift can become large either due to the


requirement of very low evaporator temperatures and/or due to
the requirement of very high condensing temperatures.

 As the temperature lift increases the single stage systems


become inefficient and impractical.

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 Figure (5.1) shows the effect of decreasing evaporator
temperatures on T S and P h diagrams. It can be seen from the
T s diagrams that for a given condenser temperature, as
evaporator temperature decreases:

 As a result of this, the refrigeration effect decreases and work of


compression increases as shown in the P h diagram.
 The volumetric refrigeration effect also decreases rapidly as the
specific volume increases with decreasing evaporator
temperature.

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 Generally, for fluorocarbon and ammonia based refrigeration
systems a single stage system is used up to an evaporator
temperature of –30oC.

 A two-stage system is used up to –60oC and a three-stage system


is used for temperatures below –60oC.

 Apart from high temperature lift applications, multi-stage


systems are also used in applications requiring refrigeration at
different temperatures.

 A multi-stage system is a refrigeration system with two or more


low-side pressures. Multi-stage systems can be classified into:
a) Multi-compressor systems
b) Multi- evaporator system
c) Cascade systems, etc.

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Multistage cycles

• Where the ratio of suction to discharge pressure is high enough to


cause a serious drop in volumetric efficiency or an unacceptably
high discharge temperature, vapour compression must be carried
out in two or more stages.
• Two basic systems are in use. Compound systems use the same
refrigerant throughout a common circuit, compressing in two or
more stages (Figure ).
• Discharge gas from the first compression stage will be too hot to
pass directly to the high-stage compressor, so it is cooled in an
intercooler, using some of the available refrigerant from the
condenser.
• The opportunity is also taken to subcool liquid passing to the
evaporator. Small compound systems may cool the interstage gas
by direct injection of liquid refrigerant into the pipe.
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• The reasons for using a multistage vapor compression system
instead of a single-stage system are as follows:
1. The compression ratio Rcom -ratio of the compressor’s discharge
pressure Pdis to the suction pressure at the compressor’s inlet Psuc - of
each stage in a multistage system is smaller than that in a single stage
unit, so compressor efficiency is increased.

2. Liquid refrigerant enters the evaporator at a lower enthalpy and


increases the refrigeration effect.

3. Discharge gas from the low-stage compressor can be desuperheated at


the interstage pressure. This results in a lower discharge temperature
from the high-stage compressor than would be produced by a single-
stage system at the same pressure differential between condensing and
evaporating pressures.

4. Two or three compressors in a multistage system provide much greater


flexibility to accommodate the variation of refrigeration loads at various
evaporating temperatures during part-load operation. The drawbacks of
the multistage system are higher initial cost and a more complicated
system than that for a single-stage system.
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5.2. Flash gas removal using flash tank
 one of the problems with high temperature lift applications is the high quality of
vapor- develops during the throttling process- at the inlet to the evaporator.
 The vapor ( flash gas) has to be compressed to condenser pressure, Why?
 It is possible to improve the COP of the system if the flash gas is removed as soon
as it is formed and recompressed to condenser pressure by using flash tank.
 A flash tank is a pressure vessel, wherein the refrigerant liquid and vapor are
separated at an intermediate pressure.

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5.3. Intercooling in multi-stage compression

The specific work input, w

From the above expression, it can be seen that specific work input reduces
as specific volume, v1 is reduced. At a given pressure, the specific volume
can be reduced by reducing the temperature. This is the principle behind
intercooling in multi-stage compression.

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This type of inter-cooler is suitable for refrigerant of high discharge temperature like ammonia

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 Using liquid refrigerant from condenser in the flash tank in intercooling
process may or may not reduce the power input to the system,

 This is due to the heat rejected by the refrigerant during intercooling


generates additional vapor in the flash tank, which has to be
compressed by the high stage compressor.

 It is also possible to intercool the refrigerant vapor by a combination of


water-cooled heat exchanger and the refrigerant liquid in the flash
tank.

 As a result of using both water-cooling and flash-tank, the amount of


refrigerant vapor handled by the high-stage compressor reduces
leading to lower power consumption.

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 One of the design issues in multi-stage compression is the selection of
suitable intermediate pressure

 For air compressors with intercooling to the initial temperature, the


theoretical work input to the system will be minimum when the pressure
ratios are equal for all stages.

 For a two-stage air compressor with intercooling, the optimum


intermediate pressure, Pi,opt is: for ideal gases

where Plow and Phigh are the inlet pressure to the low-stage compressor and exit pressure
from the high-stage compressor, respectively

 For refrigerants, correction factors to the above equation are suggested,


for example one such relation for refrigerants is given by:

where Pe and Pc are the evaporator and condenser pressures, and Tc and Te are condenser
and evaporator temperatures (in K).

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5.4. Multi-stage system with flash gas removal and intercooling

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However, one disadvantage of the above system is that since refrigerant
liquid in the flash tank is saturated, there is a possibility of liquid flashing
ahead of the expansion valve due to pressure drop or heat transfer in the
pipelines connecting the flash tank to the expansion device. Sometimes
this problem is tackled by using a system with a liquid sub-cooler. As
shown in Fig.(5.7).

However, since the refrigerant at the inlet to the expansion valve is at


high pressure and is sub-cooled, there is less chance of flashing of liquid
ahead of expansion valve.

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5.5. Use of flash tank for flash gas removal
 Due to low discharge temperatures of refrigerants such as R 12 or R
134a the use of water-cooled heat exchangers is generally not possible.

 In these systems, in stead of passing the refrigerant vapor from the low-
stage compressor through the flash tank, vapor from the flash tank is
mixed with the vapor coming from the low-stage compressor.

 As a result, the inlet condition to the high-stage compressor will be


slightly superheated.

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5.6. Use of flash tank for intercooling only
Sometimes the flash tank is used for intercooling of the refrigerant vapor
between the low and high-stage compressors.
It is not used for flash gas removal. Figures 5.9 (a) and (b) show the system
schematic and P-h diagram of a two-stage compression system where the
flash tank is used for intercooling only

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Multi-Evaporator And
Cascade Systems

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6.1. Introduction
There are many applications where refrigeration is required at different temps.
One simple alternative is to use different refrigeration systems to cater to these
different loads. However, this may not be economically viable due to the high total
initial cost.
Another alternative is to use a single refrigeration system with one compressor and
two evaporators both operating at same temp.

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6.2. Individual evaporators and a single compressor with a pressure-
reducing valve
6.2.1. Individual expansion valves:
 This system uses individual expansion valves and a pressure regulating valve
(PRV) for reducing the pressure from that corresponding to the high
temperature evaporator to the compressor suction pressure.

 Compared to the earlier system, this system offers advantage of higher


refrigeration effect at high temperature evaporator [(h6-h4) against (h7-h5)].

 However, this advantage is counterbalanced by higher specific work input


due to the operation of compressor in superheated region. Thus ultimately
there may not be any improvement in system COP due to this arrangement.

 However, this system is still preferred to the earlier system due to proper
operation of high temperature evaporator.

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Figures 6.2 show system schematic and
P-h diagram of a multi evaporator system
that uses two evaporators at two different
temperatures and a single compressor.

Fig.6.2: Multi-evaporator system


with single compressor and
individual expansion valves
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6.2.2. Multiple expansion valves:

 It can be seen from the P-h diagram-Fig.6.3- that the advantage of this
system compared to the system with individual expansion valves is that
the refrigeration effect of the low temperature evaporator increases as
saturated liquid enters the low stage expansion valve.

 Since the flash gas is removed at state 4, the low temperature evaporator
operates more efficiently.

 COP obtained using the above multi-evaporator systems is not much


higher compared to single stage system as refrigerant vapor at
intermediate pressure is first throttled then compressed, and compressor
inlet is in superheated region.

 Performance can be improved significantly if multiple compressors are


used in place of a single compressor.

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Figures 6.3 show system schematic and
P-h diagram of a multi-evaporator with
a single compressor and multiple
expansion valves.

Fig.6.3: Multi-evaporator system with single


compressor and multiple expansion valves

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6.3. Multi-evaporator system with multi-compression, intercooling
and flash gas removal
 This system is good for low temperature lift applications with different
refrigeration loads. For example one evaporator operating at say –40º C for quick
freezing of food products and other evaporator operating at –25º C for storage of
frozen food.

 As shown in the system schematic, the pressure in the high temperature


evaporator (Evaporator-II) is same as that of flash tank. Superheated vapor from
the low-stage compressor is cooled to the saturation temperature in the flash tank.

 The low temperature evaporator operates efficiently as flash gas is removed in


the flash tank. In addition the high-stage compressor (Compressor-II) operates
efficiently as the suction vapor is saturated.

 Even though the high stage compressor has to handle higher mass flow rate due
to de-superheating of refrigerant in the flash tank, still the total power input to the
system can be reduced substantially, especially with refrigerants such as
ammonia.

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Figures 6.4: show the schematic
and P-h diagram of a multi-
evaporator system which
employs multiple compressors, a
flash tank for flash gas removal
and intercooling

Fig.6.4: Multi-evaporator system


with multiple compressors and a
flash tank for flash gas removal
and intercooling

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Figures 6.4 show the schematic of a multi-evaporator system which employs
multiple compressors, a flash tank for flash gas removal and intercooling.
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6.4. Multi-evaporator system with individual compressors and multiple
expansion valves

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Figures 6.5: show the schematic and
P-h diagram of a multi-evaporator
system which employs individual
compressors and multiple expansion
valves.

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6.5. Limitations of multi-stage systems
Though multi-stage systems have been very successful, they have certain
limitations. These are:
a) Since only one refrigerant is used throughout the system, the
refrigerant used should have high critical temperature and low freezing
point.

b) The operating pressures with a single refrigerant may become too high
or too low. Generally only R12, R22 and NH3 systems have been used in
multi-stage systems, as other conventional working fluids may operate in
vacuum at very low evaporator temperatures. Operation in vacuum leads to
leakages into the system and large compressor displacement due to high
specific volume.

c) Possibility of migration of lubricating oil from one compressor to other


leading to compressor break-down.

The above limitations can be overcome by using cascade systems.


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6.6. Cascade Systems
 In a cascade system a series of refrigerants with progressively lower
boiling points are used in a series of single stage units.
 The condenser of lower stage system is coupled to the evaporator of the
next higher stage system and so on.
 The component where heat of condensation of lower stage refrigerant is
supplied for vaporization of next level refrigerant is called as cascade
condenser.
 As shown from Fig.6.6: this system employs two different refrigerants
operating in two individual cycles. They are thermally coupled in the
cascade condenser.
 The refrigerants selected should have suitable pressure-temperature
characteristics.
 It is possible to use more than two cascade stages, and it is also possible to
combine multi-stage systems with cascade systems.
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Figures 6.6: show the schematic and
P-h diagrams of a two-stage cascade
refrigeration system.

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Applications of cascade systems:
i. Liquefaction of petroleum vapors

ii. Liquefaction of industrial gases

iii. Manufacturing of dry ice

iv. Deep freezing etc.

Advantages of cascade systems:


i. Since each cascade uses a different refrigerant, it is possible to select a
refrigerant that is best suited for that particular temperature range. Very
high or very low pressures can be avoided.

ii. Migration of lubricating oil from one compressor to the other is


prevented

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Optimum cascade temperature:

For a two-stage cascade system working on Carnot cycle, the optimum


cascade temperature at which the COP will be maximum, Tcc,opt is given by:

where Te and Tc are the evaporator temperature of low temperature cascade and
condenser temperature of high temperature cascade, respectively.

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6.7. Auto-cascade systems

 An auto-cascade system may be considered as a variation of cascade


system, in which a single compressor is used.
 The concept of auto-cascade system was first proposed by Ruhemann in
1946.
Figure 6.7: Show the schematic of a two-stage auto-cascade cycle and the
vapor pressure curves of the two refrigerants used in the cycle on D˘hring
plot
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 In a two-stage auto-cascade system two different working fluids; a low
boiling point (low temperature) refrigerant and a high boiling point (high
temperature) refrigerant are used.

 The vapor mixture consisting of both these refrigerants is compressed in


the compressor to a discharge pressure (Pdischarge).

 It is possible theoretically to separate the high temperature refrigerant in


liquid form from the partial condenser.

 Next this high temperature, high pressure liquid is expanded through the
expansion valve into the condenser operating at a pressure Psuction and its
temperature drops to a sufficiently low value (Te,h), then it can condense at
a temperature Tc,l in the condenser and then its throttled to the suction
pressure and is then made to flow through the evaporator, where it can
provide the required refrigeration effect at a very low temperature Te.

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 Both the high temperature refrigerant from condenser and low
temperature refrigerant vapor from evaporator can be mixed as they are
at the same pressure. This mixture is then compressed in the compressor
to complete the cycle.

 With using a single compressor, it is possible to obtain refrigeration at


very low temperatures using the auto-cascade system.

 In practice, more than two stages with more than two refrigerants can be
used to achieve very high temperature lifts. However, in actual systems,
it is not possible to separate pure refrigerants in the partial condenser.

 These systems are widely used in the liquefaction of natural gas.

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6.8Three-stage compound system with a two-stage flash cooler

Three-stage compound system with a two-stage flash cooler: (a) schematic diagram; (b)
refrigeration cycle
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• Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems with a Single Compressor
• Some applications require refrigeration at more than one temperature. This
could be accomplished by using a separate throttling valve and a separate
compressor for each evaporator operating at different temperatures. However,
such a system is bulky and probably uneconomical. A more practical and
economical approach would be to route all the exit streams from the
evaporators to a single compressor and let it handle the compression process
for the entire system.

Schematic and T-s diagram for a refrigerator–freezer unit with one compressor.
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• EXAMPLE 11-4: A Two-Stage Refrigeration Cycle with a Flash Chamber
Consider a two-stage compression refrigeration system operating between the
pressure limits of 0.8 and 0.14 MPa. The working fluid is refrigerant-134a.
The refrigerant leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid and is throttled to a
flash chamber operating at 0.32 MPa. Part of the refrigerant evaporates during
this flashing process, and this vapor is mixed with the refrigerant leaving the
low-pressure compressor.
The mixture is then compressed to the condenser pressure by the high-pressure
compressor. The liquid in the flash chamber is throttled to the evaporator
pressure and cools the refrigerated space as it vaporizes in the evaporator.
Assuming the refrigerant leaves the evaporator as a saturated vapor and both
compressors are isentropic, determine
(a) the fraction of the refrigerant that evaporates as it is throttled to the flash
chamber.
(b) the amount of heat removed from the refrigerated space and the compressor
work per unit mass of refrigerant flowing through the condenser.
(c) the coefficient of performance.
• Solution A two-stage compression refrigeration system operating between
specified pressure limits is considered.
The fraction of the refrigerant that evaporates in the flash chamber, the
refrigeration and work input per unit mass, and the COP are to be determined.

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(a) The fraction of the refrigerant that evaporates
as it is throttled to the flash chamber is simply
the quality at state 6, which is

(b) The amount of heat removed from the refrigerated


space and the compressor work input per unit mass of
refrigerant flowing through the condenser are

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• The enthalpy at state 9 is determined from an energy balance on the mixing
chamber,

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• A two-stage cascade refrigeration system is considered. Each stage
operates on the ideal vapor-compression cycle with refrigerant-134a
as the working fluid. The mass flow rate of refrigerant through the
lower cycle, the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the
power input to the compressor, and the COP of this cascade
refrigerator are to be determined.

• Analysis (a) Each stage of the cascade refrigeration cycle is said to


operate on the ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Thus the
compression process is isentropic, and the refrigerant enters the
compressor as a saturated vapor at the evaporator pressure. Also, the
refrigerant leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid at the condenser
pressure. The enthalpies of the refrigerant at all 8 states are determined
from the refrigerant

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The mass flow rate of the refrigerant through the lower cycle is determined from an
energy balance on the heat exchanger:

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• (b) The rate of heat removed by a cascade cycle is the rate of heat absorption
in the evaporator of the lowest stage. The power input to a cascade cycle is the
sum of the power inputs to all of the compressors:

(c) The COP of this refrigeration system is determined from its definition,

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• A two-stage compression refrigeration system with refrigerant-134a as the
working fluid is considered. The fraction of the refrigerant that evaporates as
it is throttled to the flash chamber, the rate of heat removed from the
refrigerated space, and the COP are to be determined.
• Analysis (a) The enthalpies of the refrigerant at several states are determined
from the refrigerant tables or charts to be

The fraction of the refrigerant that evaporates as it is throttled to the flash


chamber is simply the quality at state 6,
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Then the rate of heat removed from the refrigerated space and the
compressor work input per unit mass of refrigerant flowing through the
condenser are

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• A two-stage cascade refrigeration cycle with a flash chamber is
considered. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant through the high-
pressure compressor, the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated
space, the COP of the refrigerator, and the rate of heat removal and the
COP if this refrigerator operated on a single-stage cycle between the
same pressure limits are to be determined.

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The mass flow rate of the refrigerant through the high pressure compressor is
determined from a mass balance on the flash chamber

(b) The enthalpy at state 9 is determined from an energy balance on the mixing chamber:

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The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space is

(c) The power input and the COP are

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• (d) If this refrigerator operated on a single-stage cycle between the same pressure limits, we
would have

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the heat balance of the refrigerant entering and leaving the low-pressure flash
cooler, as shown in Fig. b, may be expressed as

From a heat balance of the refrigerants entering and leaving the mixing point before the
inlet of the second-stage impeller, as shown in Fig. c, the enthalpy of the mixture at point 3,

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Two-stage compound system with a vertical intercooler

Two-stage compound system with a vertical coil intercooler:(a) schematic diagram; (b)
refrigeration cycle

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• In the intercooler shell, some of the liquid refrigerant vaporizes to saturated
vapor at point 7, drawing latent heat from the liquid in the coil at point 5, further
subcooling it to point 10.
• This subcooled liquid is throttled by the expansion valve at point 10 and then
evaporates to saturated vapor at point 1 in the evaporator. Vapor refrigerant
from the evaporator at point 1 enters the low-stage compressor. The compressed
hot gas at point 2 discharges into the intercooler, mixing with the liquid from the
receiver at the interstage pressure.
• The liquid level in the intercooler is controlled by the saturated temperature at
the interstage pressure in the intercooler. The saturated vapor from the vertical
coil intercooler at point 7 enters the high-stage compressor. At point 4, hot gas is
discharged from the high-stage compressor and then condensed and subcooled
to point 5 in the condenser.
• In this system, x is the fraction of liquid refrigerant vaporized in the intercooler,
and h10 is the enthalpy of the liquid refrigerant that has been subcooled in the
vertical coil. Based on the heat balance of the refrigerants entering and leaving
the intercooler, as shown in Fig.

This type of system is often used in low-temperature refrigerated cold storage


and other industrial applications. Ammonia
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Dr. Fathy El-Wahsh
6.9: Comparison between Flash Cooler and Vertical Coil Intercooler
 Hot gas discharged from the low-stage compressor is always de-
superheated to a nearly saturated vapor state at the interstage pressure in
the vertical coil intercooler.

 This process is more appropriate for a refrigerant like ammonia, which


has a high discharge temperature. In flash coolers, de-superheating is
caused by the mixing of flashed vapor and hot gas, and will not result in a
dry saturated state. Therefore, flash coolers are usually used in
refrigeration systems using HCFCs or HFCs.

 The liquid refrigerant flowing inside the coils of a vertical coil can be
maintained at a slightly lower pressure than condensing pressure, whereas
the pressure of liquid refrigerant in the flash cooler is decreased to the
interstage pressure. Some refrigerant may be pre-flashed before the
throttling device, causing a waste of refrigerating capacity. For a flash
cooler, the available pressure drop in the throttling device is lower.
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Med Term Exam

1. Consider two vapor-compression refrigeration cycles. The refrigerant


enters the throttling valve as a saturated liquid at 30°C in one cycle and
as sub-cooled liquid at 30°C in the other one. The evaporator pressure for
both cycles is the same. Which cycle do you think will have a higher COP?

2. What are the functions of the rectifier, the absorber, the generator and
the regenerator in an absorption refrigeration system?

3. Refrigerant-134a enters the compressor of a refrigerator as superheated


vapor at 0 .1 4 MPa and -1 0 °C at a rate of 0 .0 5 kg/s and leaves at 0 .8
Mpa and 50°C. The refrigerant is cooled in the condenser to 26°C and 0 .7
2 Mpa and is throttled to 0 .1 5 MPa. Disregarding any heat transfer and
pressure drops in the connecting lines between the components,
determine (a) the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and
the power input to the compressor, (b) the isentropic efficiency of the
compressor, and (c) the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator.
Best Wishes
Dr. Fathy El-Wahsh
16 December 2013
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