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(Affiliated to I. K. Gujral Punjab Technical University)

With an overwhelming sense of gratitude, I acknowledge the valuable guidance and
consistent encouragement extended to me by my project mentor Miss. Manisha. I am
thankful to her for her support and suggestions that enabled me to accomplish this
endeavour. Her years of experience have provided me with crucial inputs at critical
stages of the project.



ROLL NO. 1710700


I hereby declare that this report entitled “ADVERTISEMENT” submitted to Delhi
University, is a record of an original and authentic work done by me under the
College, and this project has not previously formed basis for the award of any degree.



ROLL NO. 1710700


S.No. CONTENTS Page. No.

1. Introduction of Advertisement 5

2. History 6-8

3. What is Advertisement 9-10

4. Types of Advertisement 11-14

5. Media and Advertising approaches 15-16

6. 1Modern Advertising Techniques 17-18

7. Literature Review 19-20

8. Criticism of Advertising 21-24

“The caterpillar does all the work but the butterfly gets all the publicity”
George Carlin

Advertising is an art not a science. Effectiveness of which cannot be

measuredw i t h a m a t he m a t i c a l o r e m p i r i ca l f o r m u l a s om e a dv e r t i s e r s a r g u e t h
a t a d v e r t i s i n gefforts go to waste, but every advertiser is keenly interested in measuring or in
evaluationof advertising effectiveness. Testing for the effectiveness of advertisement
will leadadvertisement testing must be done e ither before or after the
advertisement has done inthe media. I t is of two types, protesting which are done before
the advertisement has beenlaunched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done before
the advertisement has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done
after launching theadvertising campaign. The basic purpose of advertising effectiveness
is to avoid costlymistakes, to predict the relativeStrength of alternative strength of alternative
advertising strategies and to increasetheir efficiency. In measurement of advertisement
effectiveness feedback is always usefuleven if it costs some extra expenditure to the
advertiser .The objectives of all business are to makes profits and a merchandising
concerncan do that by increasing its sales at remunerative prices. This is possible, if the
productis widely polished to be audience the final consumers, channel members and
industrialusers and through convincing arguments it is persuaded to buy it. Publicity makes a
thingor an idea known to people. It is a general term indicating efforts at mass appeal.
As personal stimulation of demand for a product service or business unit by plantingcommercia
lly significant news about it in a published medium or obtaining favorable presentation
of it upon video television or stage that is not paid for by the sponsor.


Edo period advertising flyer from1806 for a traditional medicine called


Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters.Commercial messages and
political campaign displays have been foundin the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. Lost and
found advertisingon papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock
painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of anancient advertising form,
which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition of
wall painting can betraced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BCE.History
tells us that Out-of-Home advertising and Billboards are theoldest forms of advertising.As the
towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, and thegeneral populace was unable to read,
signs that today would saycobbler, miller, tailor or blacksmith would use an image associated
with their trade such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or even a
bag of flour. Fruits and vegetables were sold inthe city square from the backs of carts and
wagons and their proprietorsused street callers (town criers) to announce their whereabouts for
theconvenience of the customers.As education became an apparent need and reading, as well as
printing,developed advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17thcentury advertisements
started to appear in weekly newspapers inEngland. These early print advertisements were used
mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable withadvances

in the printing press; and medicines, which were increasinglysought after as disease ravaged
Europe. However, false advertising andso-called "quack" advertisements became a problem,
which ushered inthe regulation of advertising content.

An 1895 advertisement for a weight gain product.At the turn of the century, there were few
career choices for women in business; however, advertising was one of the few. Since women
wereresponsible for most of the purchasing done in their household,advertisers and agencies
recognized the value of women's insight uring the creative process. In fact, the first
American advertising touse a sexual sell was created by a woman – for a soap product.Although
tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured acouple with the message "The skin you
love to touch".In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radioequipment
manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As
time passed, many non-profitorganizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations,
andincluded: schools, clubs and civic groups. When the practice of sponsoring programs was
popularised, each individual radio programwas usually sponsored by a single business in
exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of thesponsored
shows. However, radio station owners soon realised theycould earn more money by selling
sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's
broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.

Public Service Advertising

The same advertising techniques used to promote commercial goodsand services can be used to
inform, educate and motivate the publicabout non-commercial issues, such as HIV/AIDS,
political ideology,energy conservation and deforestation.

Advertising, in its non-commercial guise, is a powerful educational toolcapable of reaching and

motivating large audiences. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest -
it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes." - Attributed toHoward
Gossage by David Ogilvy.Public service advertising, non-commercial advertising, public
interestadvertising, cause marketing, and social marketing are different termsfor (or aspects of)
the use of sophisticated advertising and marketingcommunications techniques (generally
associated with commercialenterprise) on behalf of non-commercial, public interest issues
andinitiatives.In the United States, the granting of television and radio licenses by theFCC is
contingent upon the station broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising. To meet
these requirements, many broadcaststations in America air the bulk of their required public
serviceannouncements during the late night or early morning when thesmallest percentage of
viewers are watching, leaving more day and prime time commercial slots available for high-
paying advertisers.Public service advertising reached its height during World Wars I andII under
the direction of several governments.


Advertising is a form of communication used to influence individualsto purchase products or

services or support political candidates or ideas.Frequently it communicates a message that
includes the name of the product or service and how that product or service could potentially
benefit the consumer. Advertising often attempts to persuade potentialcustomers to purchase or
to consume a particular brand of product or service. Modern advertising developed with the rise
of mass productionin the late 19th and early 20th centuries.Commercial advertisers often seek to
generate increased consumptionof their products or services through branding, which involves
therepetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the
brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages,
including traditionalmedia such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, billboards or direct

Advertising may be placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other

organization.Organizations that spend money on advertising promoting items other than a
consumer product or service include political parties, interestgroups, religious organizations and
governmental agencies. Non-profitorganizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a
publicservice announcement.Money spent on advertising has increased in recent years. In
2007,spending on advertising was estimated at more than $150 billion in theUnited States and
$385 billion worldwide, and the latter to exceed $450 billion by 2010. Many people are now
looking for less costly forms of advertising, as well as more effective forms of advertising. A
couple of very effective forms of advertising that are relatively low in cost are direct marketing
and promotional products.

Direct marketing involves face-to-face interaction with people, whereas promotional products
can be given out to people at an event, or even involved as part of a direct marketing campaign.
Promotional products are less costly because theyare most commonly purchased in bulk.
Business promotional products->combined with direct marketing produce a very effective
marketingcampaign for little money.

Advertising is the promotion of a company’s products and servicescarried out primarily to drive
sales of the products and services but alsoto build a brand identity and communicate changes or
new product/services to the customers. Advertising has become an essential elementof the
corporate world and hence the companies allot a considerableamount of revenues as
their advertising budget. There are severalreasons for advertising some of which are as follows:

•Increasing the sales of the product/service

•Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image.

•Communicating a change in the existing product line.

•Introduction of a new product or service.

•Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the company.Thus, several reasons for advertising and
similarly there exist variousmedia which can be effectively used for advertising. Based on
thesecriteria there can be several branches of advertising. Mentioned beloware the various
categories or types of advertising:

Print Advertising – Newspapers, Magazines, Brochures,Fliers

The print media have always been a popular advertising medium.Advertising products via
newspapers or magazines is a common practice. In addition to this, the print media also offers
options like promotional brochures and fliers for advertising purposes. Often thenewspapers and
the magazines sell the advertising space according tothe area occupied by the advertisement, the
position of theadvertisement (front page/middle page), as well as the readership of the
publications. For instance an advertisement in a relatively new and less popular newspaper
would cost far less than placing an advertisement ina popular newspaper with a high readership.
The price of print ads alsodepend on the supplement in which they appear, for example
anadvertisement in the glossy supplement costs way higher than that inthe newspaper
supplement which uses a mediocre quality paper.

Outdoor Advertising – Billboards, Kiosks, Tradeshowsand Events

Outdoor advertising is also a very popular form of advertising, whichmakes use of several tools
and techniques to attract the customersoutdoors. The most common examples of outdoor
advertising are billboards, kiosks, and also several events and tradeshows organized bythe
company. The billboard advertising is very popular however has to be really terse and catchy in
order to grab the attention of the passers by. The kiosks not only provide an easy outlet for the
company products but also make for an effective advertising tool to promote thecompany’s
products. Organizing several events or sponsoring themmakes for an excellent advertising
opportunity. The company canorganize trade fairs, or even exhibitions for advertising their
products.If not this, the company can organize several events that are closelyassociated with their
field. For instance a company that manufacturessports utilities can sponsor a sports tournament
to advertise its products.

Broadcast advertising – Television, Radio and theInternet

Broadcast advertising is a very popular advertising medium thatconstitutes of several branches

like television, radio or the Internet.Television advertisements have been very popular ever since
they have been introduced. The cost of television advertising often depends on theduration of the
advertisement, the time of broadcast (prime time/peak time), and of course the popularity of the
television channel on whichthe advertisement is going to be broadcasted. The radio might have
lostits charm owing to the new age media however the radio remains to bethe choice of small-
scale advertisers. The radio jingles have been very popular advertising media and have a

large impact on the audience,which is evident in the fact that many people still remember and
enjoythe popular radio jingles.

Covert Advertising – Advertising in Movies

Covert advertising is a unique kind of advertising in which a product or a particular brand

is incorporated in some entertainment and mediachannels like movies, television shows or even
sports. There is nocommercial in the entertainment but the brand or the product issubtly( or
sometimes evidently) showcased in the entertainment show.Some of the famous examples for
this sort of advertising have to be theappearance of brand

Nokia which is displayed on Tom Cruise’s phonein the movie Minority Report , or the use of

Cadillac cars in the movie Matrix Reloaded .

Surrogate Advertising – Advertising Indirectly

Surrogate advertising is prominently seen in cases where advertising a particular product is

banned by law. Advertisement for products likecigarettes or alcohol which are injurious to heath
are prohibited by lawin several countries and hence these companies have to come up
withseveral other products that might have the same brand name andindirectly remind people of
the cigarettes or beer bottles of the same brand. Common examples include Fosters
and Kingfisher beer brands,which are often seen to promote their brand with the help of

Public Service Advertising – Advertising for Social Causes

Public service advertising is a technique that makes use of advertisingas an effective

communication medium to convey socially relevantmessaged about important matters and social
welfare causes like AIDS,energy conservation, political integrity,
deforestation, illiteracy, poverty and so on .Oglivy once said,

"Advertising justifies its existencewhen used in the public interest - it is much too powerful a tool
to use solely for commercial purposes."

. Today public service advertising has been increasingly used in a non-commercial fashion in
several countries across the world in order to promote various social causes.

Priyanka Chopra is riding high these days with back-to-back successesand endorsements and
inaugurations and everything else under the sun.However, the actress makes it a point to keep
her feet grounded and doher bit for the society. She participated in “SAVE

Media and Advertising Approaches
Increasingly, other media are overtaking many of the "traditional"media such as television, radio
and newspaper because of a shift towardconsumer's usage of the Internet for news and music as
well as deviceslike digital video recorders (DVR's) such as TiVo.Advertising on the World Wide
Web is a recent phenomenon. Prices of Web-based advertising space are dependent on the
"relevance" of thesurrounding web content and the traffic that the website receives.Digital
signage is poised to become a major mass media because of itsability to reach larger audiences
for less money. Digital signage alsooffer the unique ability to see the target audience where they
arereached by the medium. Technology advances has also made it possibleto control the message
on digital signage with much precision, enablingthe messages to be relevant to the target
audience at any given time andlocation which in turn, gets more response from the advertising.
Digitalsignage is being successfully employed in supermarkets. Another successful use of digital
signage is in hospitality locations such asrestaurants and malls.E-mail advertising is another
recent phenomenon. Unsolicited bulk E-mail advertising is known as "spam". Spam has been a
problem for email users for many years. But more efficient filters are now availablemaking it
relatively easy to control what email you get.Some companies have proposed placing messages
or corporate logoson the side of booster rockets and the International Space Station.Controversy
exists on the effectiveness of subliminal advertising (seemind control), and the pervasiveness of
mass messages (see propaganda).Unpaid advertising (also called "publicity advertising"), can
providegood exposure at minimal cost. Personal recommendations ("bring afriend", "sell it"),
spreading buzz, or achieving the feat of equating a brand with a common noun (in the United
States, "Xerox" ="photocopier", "Kleenex" = tissue, "Vaseline" = petroleum jelly,"Hoover" =
vacuum cleaner, "Nintendo" (often used by those exposedto many video games) = video games,
and "Band-Aid" = adhesive bandage) — these can be seen as the pinnacle of any
advertisingcampaign. However, some companies oppose the use of their brandname to label an
object. Equating a brand with a common noun alsorisks turning that brand into a genericized
trademark - turning it into ageneric term which means that its legal protection as a trademark
islost.As the mobile phone became a new mass media in 1998 when the first paid downloadable
content appeared on mobile phones in Finland, itwas only a matter of time until mobile
advertising followed, also firstlaunched in Finland in 2000. By 2007 the value of mobile

advertisinghad reached $2.2 billion and providers such as Admob delivered billions of mobile
ads.More advanced mobile ads include banner ads, coupons, MultimediaMessaging Service
picture and video messages, advergames andvarious engagement marketing campaigns. A
particular feature drivingmobile ads is the 2D Barcode, which replaces the need to do any
typingof web addresses, and uses the camera feature of modern phones togain immediate access
to web content. 83 percent of Japanese mobile phone users already are active users of 2D
barcodes.A new form of advertising that is growing rapidly is social network advertising. It is
online advertising with a focus on social networkingsites. This is a relatively immature market,
but it has shown a lot of promise as advertisers are able to take advantage of the
demographicinformation the user has provided to the social networking site.Friendertising is a
more precise advertising term in which people areable to direct advertisements toward others
directly using socialnetwork service.

Modern Advertising Techniques:
Include seven that you should consider:1.Email Advertising2.Video Advertising3.Audio
Advertising4.Search Advertising5.Onsite Advertising6.Mobile Phone AdvertisingI recently
completed a series of posts on these modern advertising techniques. The posts provide additional
information on each technique so I’ve linked to them when relevant.

1. E-mail Advertising:

Email advertising tops this list of modern advertising techniques because it tops the listsof new
and growing advertising expenditures. From small Internet marketers to largeoffline and online
stores, email advertising is vital to modern advertising and marketingcampaigns.

2. Video Advertising:

Video Advertising can be done on and off line. Many local cable channels offer video adsand
infomercials on a search basis for viewers. So your ad is only seen by peopleinterested in what
you sell. Video marketing is also big on the Internet. Most onlinevideos are more promotion than
advertising, but they play an important role in onlinesuccess.37

3. Audio Advertising:

Audio advertising, whether across the Internet or the airwaves enables you to target anarrow
market and to deliver relevant and timely messages that encourage an
immediateresponse.Although second to video online, offline audio advertising (radio
advertising) provides allthe benefits of online audio advertising. And if you advertise on highly
targeted stationsand shows, it isn’t that expensive.

4. Search Advertising:

Search advertising, like Google’s Ad words, can provide much traffic for an online business, but
it can also cost far more than it returns in sales. To use search advertisingeffectively, you need to
constantly test your ads. Then rewrite and redesign them fromyour test results. There’s both skill
and science to search advertising. So before you jumpin, read some e books and study the search
engine’s documents about their pay per click programs.

5. Onsite Advertising:

Onsite advertising can be considerably less expensive than search advertising. Generallya click
from an ad on site costs less than the same click from a search. With Google’snew Ad Planner, it
will be easy to target a market with ads across the Internet. You caneven pick the sites that you
want to carry your ads and deny ones that you don’t.

6. Mobile Phone Advertising:

Mobile phone advertising is projected to grow from just under 500 million in 2006 to aalmost 5
billion by 2011.And why not. It’s interactive, unobtrusive, and immediate. Most people have
their mobile phones with them all the time. So they can react instantly to banner phone ads that
catch their attention.

According to Wheeler, “Advertising is any form of paid non-personal presentation of ideas,
goods or services for the purpose of inducing people to buy”.According to William J. Stanton,
“Advertising consists of all the activities involved in presenting to a group a non-personal, oral
or visual openly sponsored message regardinga product service or idea. This message is called
on advertisement is disseminatedthrough one or more media and is paid for by an identified

Basic Features of Advertising:

On the basis of various definitions it has certain basic features such as:1.It is a mass non-personal
communication.2.It is a matter of record.3.It persuades buyers to purchase the goods
advertised.4.It is a mass rapid communication.5.The communication media is diverse such as
print (newspapers andmagazines)6.It is also called printed salesmanship because information is
spread bymeans of the written and printed work and pictures so that people may beinduced to act
upon it.

Functions of Advertising:

For many firms advertising is the dominant element of the promotionalmix – particulars for those
manufacturers who produce convenience goods such asdetergent, non – prescription drugs,
cosmetics, soft drinks and grocery products.Advertising is also used extensively by masters of
automobiles, home appliances, etc, tointroduce new product and new product features its uses its
attributes, pt availability etc.Advertising can also help to convince potential buyers that a firm’s
product or service is superior to competitor’s product in make in quality, in price etc. it can
create brand image and reduce the likelihood of brand switching even when competitors lower
their prices or offer some attractive incentives.

Advertising is particularly effective in certain other spheres too such as:

i)When consumer awareness of products or service is at a minimum.

ii)When sales are increasing for all terms in an industry.

iii)When a product is new and incorporates technological advance not strong and.

iv)When primary buying motive exists.

It performance the following functions:

i)Promotion of sales

ii)Introduction of new product awareness.30

iii)Mass production facilitationiv)Carry out research

v)Education of people

Criticism of Advertising
While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it isnot without social costs.
Unsolicited Commercial Email and other forms of spam have become so prevalent as to have
become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as being a financial burdenon internet
service providers. Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, which
some critics argue is a form of child exploitation. In addition, advertising frequently uses
psychological pressure (for example, appealing to feelings of inadequacy) on the intended
consumer, which may be harmful.

Advertising and constitutional rights

Advertising is equated with constitutionally guaranteed freedom of opinion and speech.

Therefore criticizing advertising or any attempt torestrict or ban advertising is almost always
considered to be an attack on fundamental rights (First Amendment in the USA) and meets
thecombined and concentrated resistance of the business and especially theadvertising
community. “Currently or in the near future, any number of cases are and will be working their
way through the court system thatwould seek to prohibit any government regulation of ...
commercialspeech (e. g. advertising or food labelling) on the grounds that suchregulation would
violate citizens’ and corporations’ First Amendmentrights to free speech or free press.” An
example for this debate isadvertising for tobacco or alcohol but also advertising by mail or
fliers(clogged mail boxes), advertising on the phone, in the internet andadvertising for children.
Various legal restrictions concerningspamming, advertising on mobile phones, addressing
children, tobacco,alcohol have been introduced by the US, the EU and var ious other countries.
Not only the business community resists restrictions of advertising. Advertising as a means of
free expression has firmlyestablished itself in western society. McChesney argues, that
thegovernment deserves constant vigilance when it comes to suchregulations, but that it is
certainly not “the only antidemocratic force inour society. ...corporations and the wealthy enjoy a
power every bit asimmense as that enjoyed by the lords and royalty of feudal times” and
“markets are not value-free or neutral; they not only tend to work to theadvantage of those with
the most money, but they also by their verynature emphasize profit over all else….Hence, today
the debate is over whether advertising or food labelling, or campaign contributions arespeech...if

the rights to be protected by the First Amendment can only be effectively employed by a fraction
of the citizenry, and their exercise of these rights gives them undue political power
andundermines the ability of the balance of the citizenry to exercise thesame rights and/or
constitutional rights, then it is not necessarilylegitimately protected by the First Amendment.” In
addition, “thosewith the capacity to engage in free press are in a position to determinewho can
speak to the great mass of citizens and who cannot”.

The Price of Attention and Hidden Costs

Advertising has developed into a billion-dollar business on which manydepend. In 2006 391
billion US dollars were spent worldwide for advertising. In Germany, for example, the
advertising industrycontributes 1.5% of the gross national income; the figures for other
developed countries are similar. Thus, advertising and growth are directly and causally linked.
As far as a growth based economy can be blamed for the harmful human lifestyle (affluent
society) advertisinghas to be considered in this aspect concerning its negative impact, because its
main purpose is to raise consumption. “The industry isaccused of being one of the engines
powering a convoluted economicmass production system which promotes
consumption.”Attention and attentiveness have become a new commodity for which amarket
developed. “The amount of attention that is absorbed by the media and redistributed in the
competition for quotas and reach is notidentical with the amount of attention, that is available in
society. Thetotal amount circulating in society is made up of the attentionexchanged among the
people themselves and the attention given tomedia information. Only the latter is homogenised
by quantitativemeasuring and only the latter takes on the character of an
anonymouscurrency.”According to Franck, any surface of presentation that can guarantee a
certain degree of attentiveness works as magnet for attention, e. g. media which are actually
meant for information andentertainment, culture and the arts, public space etc. It is this
attractionwhich is sold to the advertising business. The German AdvertisingAssociation stated
that in 2007 30.78 billion Euros were spent onadvertising in Germany, 26% in newspapers, 21%
on television, 15% by mail and 15% in magazines. In 2002 there were 360.000 peopleemployed
in the advertising business. The internet revenues for advertising doubled to almost 1 billion
Euros from 2006 to 2007,giving it the highest growth rates.Spiegel-Online reported that in the
USA in 2008 for the first time moremoney was spent for advertising on internet (105.3 billion

US dollars)than on television (98.5 billion US dollars). The largest amount in 2008was still spent
in the print media (147 billion US dollars). For that sameyear, Welt-Online reported that the US
pharmaceutical industry spentalmost double the amount on advertising (57.7 billion dollars) than
itdid on research (31.5 billion dollars). But Marc-André Gagnon und JoelLexchin of York
University, Toronto, estimate that the actual expensesfor advertising are higher yet, because not
all entries are recorded bythe research institutions.

Influencing and Conditioning

Advertising for McDonald's on the Via di Propaganda, Rome, ItalyThe most important element
of advertising is not information butsuggestion more or less making use of associations,
emotions (appeal toemotion) and drives dormant in the sub-conscience of people, such assex
drive, herd instinct, of desires, such as happiness, health, fitness,appearance, self-esteem,
reputation, belonging, social status, identity,adventure, distraction, reward, of fears (appeal to
fear), such as illness,weaknesses, loneliness, need, uncertainty, security or of prejudices,learned
opinions and comforts. “All human needs, relationships, andfears – the deepest recesses of the
human psyche – become mere meansfor the expansion of the commodity universe under the
force of modernmarketing. With the rise to prominence of modern marketing,commercialism –
the translation of human relations into commodityrelations – although a phenomenon intrinsic to
capitalism, hasexpanded exponentially.”Cause-related marketing’ in which advertiserslink their
product to some worthy social cause has boomed over the past decade.

The Commercialisation of Culture and Sports

Performances, exhibitions, shows, concerts, conventions and most other events can hardly take
place without sponsoring. The increasing lack arts and culture they buy the service of attraction.
Artists are gradedand paid according to their art’s value for commercial purposes.Corporations
promote renown artists, therefore getting exclusive rightsin global advertising campaigns.
Broadway shows, like ‘La Bohème’featured commercial props in its set.Advertising itself is
extensively considered to be a contribution to culture. Advertising is integrated into fashion. On
many pieces of clothing the company logo is the only design or is an important part of it. There

is only little room left outside the consumption economy, inwhich culture and art can develop
independently and where alternativevalues can be expressed. A last important sphere, the
universities, isunder strong pressure to open up for business and its interests.

Inflatable billboard in front of a sports stadiumCompetitive sports have become unthinkable

without sponsoring andthere is a mutual dependency. High income with advertising is only
possible with a comparable number of spectators or viewers. On theother hand, the poor
performance of a team or a sportsman results inless advertising revenues. Jürgen Hüther and
Hans-Jörg Stiehler talk about a ‘Sports/Media Complex which is a complicated mix of
media,agencies, managers, sports promoters, advertising etc. with partially common and partially
diverging interests but in any case with commoncommercial interests. The media presumably is
at centre stage becauseit can supply the other parties involved with a rare commodity,
namely(potential) public attention. In sports “the media are able to generateenormous sales in
both circulation and advertising.”

Occupation and Commercialisation of Public Space

Every visually perceptible place has potential for advertising.Especially urban areas with their
structures but also landscapes in sightof through fares are more and more turning into media for
advertisements. Signs, posters, billboards, flags have become decisivefactors in the urban
appearance and their numbers are still on the increase. “Outdoor advertising has become