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# 6 Control Charts for

Variables
CHAPTER OUTLINE

## 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.4 THE SHEWHART CONTROL

6.2 CONTROL CHARTS FOR x CHART FOR INDIVIDUAL
AND R MEASUREMENTS
6.2.1 Statistical Basis of the 6.5 SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES FOR x ,
Charts R, AND s CHARTS
6.2.2 Development and Use of x 6.6 APPLICATIONS OF VARIABLES
and R Charts CONTROL CHARTS
6.2.3 Charts Based on Standard Supplemental Material for Chapter 6
Values
S6.1 s2 IS NOT ALWAYS AN UNBIASED
6.2.4 Interpretation of x and R
ESTIMATOR OF s 2
Charts
S6.2 SHOULD WE USE d2 OR d *2 IN
6.2.5 The Effect of Non-normality
ESTIMATING s VIA THE RANGE
on x and R Charts
METHOD?
6.2.6 The Operating-Characteristic
S6.3 DETERMINING WHEN THE PROCESS
Function
HAS SHIFTED
6.2.7 The Average Run Length for
the x Chart
VARIABILITY WITH INDIVIDUAL
6.3 CONTROL CHARTS FOR x AND s OBSERVATIONS
6.3.1 Construction and Operation S6.5 DETECTING DRIFTS VERSUS SHIFTS
of x and s Charts IN THE PROCESS MEAN
6.3.2 The x and s Control S6.6 THE MEAN SQUARE SUCCESSIVE
Charts with Variable Sample DIFFERENCE AS AN ESTIMATOR
Size OF s 2
6.3.3 The s2 Control Chart

## CHAPTER OVERVIEW AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

A quality characteristic that is measured on a numerical scale is called a variable. Examples
include dimensions such as length or width, temperature, and volume. This chapter presents
Shewhart control charts for these types of quality characteristics. The x and R control charts
are widely used to monitor the mean and variability of variables. Several variations of the x

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