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Technical English Study materials

Part A
Subject verb Agreement

A verb must agree with its subject in number and person.

Now consider the following table:

(i)Plural in form but singular in meaning.. (i) Compoud subjects joined by

Eg : Mathematics, statistics, Physics,News “and” are plural
etc Eg:A pencil and eraser make
writing easier.
(ii)Two or more nouns are taken as a whole The dog and cat are outside.
unit (ii) With one of those we use plural
Eg: title of the books, novels, short stories.. verb
Eg: He is one of those people
(iii)Two or more nouns joined by “and” who like to read the comic
concern one idea. books..
Eg : Bread and butter, Slow and steady, rise (iii) Scissors, spectacles, pants and
and fall, Time and tide etc. trousers takes plural verb
Eg: The scissors or on the table
(iv)Subjects which starts in indefinite (iv) Several, few, both, many ,several
pronouns. of, lots of many of, most of with
Eg; Everyone in our class has paid the fees. a plural noun takes plural verb...
Every one, anyone, someone, no one, Eg; Several of paintings were
somebody, something, either, neither, many destroyed in the fire accident.
a, each etc. (v) A number of Plural verb
Eg: A number of people grow
(v)One of the tomatoes every year..
Each of the (vi) Some + Plural countable noun
Neither of the Plural Noun (some boys)
Neither of the (vii) Some condensers are known as
Everyone of the jet condensers.
Eg: One of the boys has lost his pen.

(vi) Two nouns qualified by “each” and

every eventhough connected by “ and” takes
singular verb.
Each and every girls has given the sweet

(vii) If the subject is unit of measurement or (viii) if two nouns are used in a same
mathematical unit. sentence and both the noun are provided by
Eg: five minutes, ten miles, six hundred the definite article “ the”, then it takes plural
etc..Ten minutes is allowed for the exam verb..
.. Eg; The poet and the scientist are coming..
(viii) class collections takes singular verb..
Eg: Furniture, luggage, Cutlery etc..
The luggage is carried by a boy..

(ix) if two nouns are used in a same

sentence and both the noun are not
provided by the definite article “ the”, then
it takes plural verb..
Eg; The poet and scientist is coming..

(x) “No”…..”or” gives singular verb

Eg: No smoking and drinking is allowed.

(x) None,
None of+Plural,
Some + uncountable noun,
A packet of= plural noun,
A crowd of + Plural Noun
A series of +plural noun
The behaviour of + plural noun
The standard of + plural
The number of+ Plural noun takes
singular verb..
Eg: The number of volunteers grows
tomatoes every year..

(xi)With only one of those we use plural

Eg: He is only one of those people who
likes to read the comic books..
(i) Collective Nouns like Government, jury, committee, class, team, group, crowd,
class, family takes both
Eg: The committee sits this evening.
The committee express different opinions over this issue.
The jury was unanimous in the verdict.
The jury were divided among themselves.
(ii) Sentences with “ Neither…Nor+ Either….or” May also be problematic. In this case
, the verb agrees with the last phase. (that is with the nearer)
Eg: Neither the boy nor the girls are participating the programme..
Either my brother or sister is attending the function.
(iii) Expressions such as with, together with, as well as, accompanied by, in addition to,
along with, in this case, verb is applied by seeing the first phase..
Eg: He,as well as his wife was invited for the function.
My father as well as my sisters does not like this reply.


Basic Tense chart for changing direct into indirect speech


Present tense- Past tense

Present continuous tense Past continuous tense
Present perfect Past perfect
Present perfect Continuous Past perfect Continuous
Past tense Past perfect
Past continuous tense Past perfect Continuous
Past perfect No change
Past perfect Continuous No change
Future Conditionals Future past conditionals
Will-would/Shall-should/Can-could/ May-might/Must-had to
Is/am-was, are-were, has/have-had
Study the following examples carefully to understand the rules mentioned

Direct: She said to me, ‘Are you coming with us?’

Indirect: She asked me if I was going with them. OR She asked them if I was coming with
Direct: She said to me, ‘Are you unwell?’
Indirect: She asked me if I was unwell.
Direct: She said to him, ‘Am I to wait for you till eternity?’
Indirect: She enquired of him if she was to wait for him till eternity.
Direct: I said to him, ‘Were you present at the meeting yesterday?’
Indirect: I asked him whether he had been present at the meeting the day before (or the
previous day).
Direct: The woman asked the stranger, ‘Should I help you?’
Indirect: The woman asked the stranger whether she should help him.
Note that the auxiliary verbs should, could, would, ought to and might do not
change in the indirect speech.
Direct: I said to him, ‘Who are you?’
Indirect: I asked him who he was.
Direct: The mother said to the daughter, ‘Do you know where John is?’
Indirect: The mother asked the daughter whether she knew where John was.
Direct: ‘Have you anything to say on behalf of the accused?,’ said the judge to the lawyer.
Indirect: The judge enquired of the lawyer if he had anything to say on behalf of the accused.
Rewrite the following into direct and indirect statements
1. She said to Radha, “It may rain today”.
She told Radha that it might rain that day.
2. The teacher said, “Truth always triumphs”.
The teacher said that truth always triumphs.

1. Ramya said to Rani, “Where is your house?”

Ramya asked Rani where her house was.
2. Sundar said to Raja, “when did you meet your friend?”
Sundar asked Raja when he had met his friend.


1. The captain said to his soldiers; “Open fire”.

The captain ordered his soldiers to open fire.

2. The student said to his teacher, “Please demonstrate the experiment once again, Sir” The
student requested his teacher to demonstrate the experiment once again.
3. The mother said to her son, “Don’t drive too fast”.
The mother advised her son not to drive too fast.


1. He said, “Alas! I have lost my purse”.

He exclaimed sorrowfully that he had lost his purse.
2. He said, “Bravo! You have done well”
3. He applauded him saying that he had done well.
I. Change Direct to Indirect speech of Interrogative sentence
1 .She said to me, “How are you?”
2 .Doctor said to him, “what is your name?”
3. He said to him, “why did you come late?”
4 .She said, “when will they come?”
5 .She asked his brother, “why are you crying?”
6. He said to me, “Do you like books?”
7 .She said, “Will he participate in the dance competition?”
8. I said to him, “Are you feeling well?”
9. They said to me, “Did u go to temple?”
10 .He said to me, “Have you taken the breakfast?”
1.He asked me how I was. (Not, how was I)
2.Doctor asked him what his name was.
3.He asked him why he had come late.
4. She asked when they would come.
5.She asked her brother why he was crying.
6. He asked me if I liked books or He asked me whether I liked books.
7She asked me if he would participate in dance competition.
8. I asked him if he was feeling well.
9. They asked me if I had gone to temple.
10. He asked me if I had taken the breakfast.

Impersonal Passive voice

Basics for impersonal passive voice:
Present tense Obj+am/is/are+Verb 3
Past tense Obj +was/were+verb 3
Future tense Obj+will be/shall be+verb 3
Present continuous tense Obj+am/is/are+being +v3
Past continuous tense Obj+was/were +being +verb 3
Present perfect Obj+ has/have+been +verb 3
Past perfect Obj+ had+been +verb3
Future perfect Obj+will have+been+verb 3
Change the following into Active and Passive voices
1. The dog killed the cat (into passive)
The Cat was killed by the dog.
2. People speak English in many countries. (Into Passive)
English is spoken in many industries.
3. Nuclear radiation attacks living tissues. (into Passive)
Living tissues are attacked by nuclear radiation.
4. Sleep enchances memory. (Into Passive)
Memory enhances by the sleep.
5. Most nations adopted the gold standard. (into Passive
The gold standard was adopted by many nations.
6. The prizes were distributed by the President. (into Active)
The President distributed the prizes.
7. The current generation is ruled by money. (Into Active)
Money rules the current generations.
8. Gold coins were used by most nations. (Into Active)
Most nations used Gold coins.
9. The test has been carried out by the operator. (Into Active)
T he operator has carried out tests.
10. Memory enhances by the sleep (Into Active)
Sleep enhances memory


Change the following into impersonal passive.

1. They sell radio here.

2. They opened the theatre only last week.
3. They constructed this house forty years ago.
4. We call these support bearings.
5. He lubricated the ball-bearing.
6. We clamp the two metal plates together.
7. They may construct a bridge across the river.
8. We can do this work now itself.
9. A skilled operator can carry out many operations.
10. You must take care not to damage the machinery.
1. The radio is sold.
2. The theatre was opened last week.
3. This house was constructed forty years ago.
4. We call these support bearings.
5. The ball bearing was lubricated.
6. The two metal plates were clamped together.
7. The bridge may be constructed.
8. The work can be done now itself.
9. Many Operations Can be carried out.
10. The machinery must be taken care not to damage.
1.Internet – The internet is an international computer network which connects other networks
and computers from companies, universities, organization ,etc.
2.Catalyst – A catalyst is a substance that makes a chemical reaction faster without
being changed itself
3.Satellite –A satellite is an electronic device that is sent into space and moves around the earth
or another planet
4.Laptop – A laptop is a small computer that can work with battery and be easily carrie
5. A lathe-A lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material to perform various
operations such cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling or deformation like metal spinning with tools
that are applied to the work piece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of
6. A capacitor -A capacitor is a device for storing electric charge. Simple capacitors usually
consist of two plates made of an electrically conducting material (e.g a metal) separated by a
non-conducting material, or dielectric (e.g. air, ceramic, glasses, mica, oil, paper, paraffin, or
plastic). If an electric potential (voltage) is applied to the capacitor plates, the plates will become
charge, one positively and negatively.
7. Microprocessor -Microprocessor is an integrated circuit that interprets and executes
instructions from a computer program. When combined with other integrated circuits that
provide storage for data and programs, often on a single semiconductor base to form a chip, the
microprocessor becomes the heart of a small computer or microcomputer.
Present tense Will +V1
Past tense Would+ V1
Past Perfect Would have+V3
1.If I study well, I will get good grades.
2.If I studied well, I would get good grades
3. If I had studied well, I would have got good grades.
A recommendation is a suggestion that something is good or suitable for a
particular purpose or job. We make use of set of phrases like,

It is recommended to +V1
It is suggested to+V1
It is advised to + V1..
Object +Should be/ must be + V3
1.Write set of 8 recommendations to your friend who is studying in a rural
engineering college to score good marks in the university exam.
 It is recommended to devote more time to your studies than other activities.
 It is advised to make proper time table, giving some extra time to hard subjects, and apply
it in your daily routine.
 All the important formulas should be noted down and learned regularly.
 It is highly recommended to take some break instead of reading continuously to keep
your mind fresh.
 It is advised to leave the subject and switch to another one if you are getting bored and
feel sleepy.
 It is recommended to discuss tough questions with your teacher or friends in class and try
to find out the solutions.
 It is advised to have written practice which will help you to find your mistakes.
 It is recommended to study during the morning hours since the mind will be fresh.

2. Write set of 8 recommendations for the maintenance of the electrical

equipment in your department.
 Exposed live parts should be covered with necessary taps in order to avoid electric
 It is recommended to switch off the equipment If the voltage is frequently fluctuating.
 It is recommended to avoid leaving the equipments switched on and unattended for
longer duration since it may result in accidents.
 It is suggested to use a voltage stabilizer to extend the life time of the equipment.
 Old power cards must be checked for any leakages and should be replaced with new ones
at regular intervals.
 Spilling of water and any other liquids near the equipment should be avoided at any cost
as it may result in accidents.
 It is advised to use the right tool for the job-using a screwdriver for a job that requires a
fuse puller is an invitation to an accidents.
 Only the authorized persons should be allowed to service the equipments. Students
should not try to diagnose the malfunction of any equipment.

Minutes of a meeting
When a formal meeting is held, the proceedings are recorded in the form of minutes. This is an account
of what took place at the meeting , issues discussed, suggestions made, decisions taken etc.. Apart from
details about date and venue, the minutes also recorded the agenda of the meeting and the people

Sample of the minutes of a meeting held in an office.

Date : 15 March 2018

Time: 11 AM
Subject: Quarterly Meeting III for 2018.Venue: Board room
 Passing minutes of the previous meeting.
 Discuss sales trends of new products.
 Debate use of social media to improve marketing.
 Any other matter.
Persons Present:
Mr. D.Rahul (Director)
Ms.s.Shanthi Rani (Division Manager)
Mr. Anuj Sharma (Marketing Head)
Mr. R.V. Chandran (Assistant Manager)
Mr. Chandran (________ )
Ms.Shailaja (_______ )

Person absent: Nil

The following points discussed during the meeting:

 Ms. Shanthi (____) Rani welcomed everyone to the meeting. The minutes of the previous
meeting held on !5 feb 2018 were passed unanimously.
 Mr. Rahul(_____) explained the sales trends of the new products marketed by the company. He
explained that the new pumps being manufactured had positive feedback. However, the price
was deemed to be higher than the competitor’s prices.
 Ms.Rasheela (_____) explained that the high price was due to better quality material being used
in manufacture.
 Mr. Chandran(______) has added that this would add improve the life of the pump and in the
long run would be beneficial to the customer.
 Ms. Anuj sharma (______) was concerned about the high price and wanted to know how to
convince customers to buy our product.
 Ms.Shailaja (_____) Suggested to use wide variety of marketing techniques. It was also decided
to make use of the social media marketing to improve visibility as well as customer loyalty
 Date of the next meeting was fixed for 19 January 2019
Prepared by, Director

Data Interpretation
Understanding and interpreting the technical messages contained in visuals aids such as tables,
graphs, maps, drawings . It requires an analysis and comparison of the given facts and drawing
conclusions based on the given data.

1.Problem areas identified by employees of different ages

Different Ages Vs Identified Problems


10 20-29


Problem Areas
INTERPRETATION: The analysis shows that the employees grouped between 20-29 and
50-59 are facing more health problems (66%) than the other age group 30-39 and 40-49
and this is because of stress factors like performance anxiety, workload and meeting

It can be inferred that there is a strong correlation between health and psychology
because the later as a direct impact on health. Problems like mental tension, anxiety,
depression, loss of memory and concentration, which arise due to psychological problems.
And finally it can be found that the age group 20-29 and 30-39 are having problem in their
work itself (67%) as these are the up coming employees with new positions.

It has been found that the employees though they are facing more stress they are still
able to maintain better interpersonal relationship with their peers, subordinates and
superiors this may be because to reduce the stress and to complete the task with their

Example: 2

The given table shows the trend of motor vehicles in Chennai city. Write a paragraph interpreting the
details found in the table.

Growth trend of motor vehicles in Chennai

Year Total registered vehicle

1981 1,20,000
1986 2,28,000
1991 5,44,000
1996 8,12,000
1998 9,75,000
2012 37,60,000


The table given above shows the growth trend of motor vehicle in Chennai. The
growth trend has been represented from the year 1981 to 2012 and it has shown a steady
increase. The total registered motor vehicles in the year 1981 was 1,20,000 only. From here it
has gradually increased to 2,28,000, in the year 1986, 5,54,000 in the year 1991 and 8,12,000 in
the year 1996. The total registered vehicles in the year 1998 was 9,75,000 only.

The growth between these years shows a difference of 1,63,000 vehicles only.
But during the year 2012 the growth trend has extensively increased in a very large quantity and
has attained a peak limit of 37,60,000. There had been nearly 27,85,000 new motor vehicle
registration increased in the year 2012. Thus the table shows that the demand of motor vehicles
has constantly increased from the year 1981 to 2012.

How to make notes

Step:1 The students are required to read the passage to get the gist of the passage, to know what
it is all about, or what the theme is.

STEP:2 The main idea or the central theme should be found out.

STEP:3 The important points related to the main theme are noted

STEP:4 Add sub points, no need to give examples.

STEP 5: Make your notes in the proper format and use abbreviations wherever necessary.


Read the following passage and carefully make notes.

The work of the heart can never be interrupted. The heart’s job is to keep oxygen rich
blood flowing through the body. .All the body’s cells need a constant supply of oxygen,
especially those in the brain. If the oxygen in the blood cells cut off, it causes death to the entire

The heart is a specialised muscle that serves as a pump. This pump is divided into four
chambers connected by tiny doors called valves. The chambers work to keep the blood flowing
round the body in a circle.

At the end of each circuit, veins carry the blood to the right atrium, the first of the four
chambers. From the right atrium the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the second
chamber, the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts when it is filled , pushing the blood
through the pulmonary artery, which leads to the lungs- in the lungs, the blood gives up its
carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen. Then it travels to the third chamber the left atrium.
When this chamber is filled it forces the blood through the valve to the left ventricle. From here
it is pushed into a big blood vessel called aorta and sent round the body by way of arteries.

Heart disease can result from any damage to the heart muscle, the valves or the pace maker.
If the muscle is damaged, the heart is unable to pump properly. If the valves are damaged, blood
cannot flow normally and easily from one chamber to another. And if the pacemaker is defective,
the contractions of the chamber will become un- coordinated.
Until the 20th century, few doctors dared to touch the heart. In 1953 all this changed. After
20 years of work , Dr .John Gibbon in the USA had developed a machine that could take over
temporarily from the hearts and lungs. Blood could be routed through the machine bypassing the
heart. so that surgeons could work inside it and see what they were doing. Thus the era of open
heart surgery began.

In the operation theatre, it gives surgeons the chance to replace the defective heart. Many had
plastic valves inserted in their hearts when their own was faulty. Many people are kept alive with
tiny battery operated pace makers; none of these replacement would be possible without this
heart- lung machine. But this machine has certain limitations. It can be used only for a few
hours at a time because its pumping gradually damages the blood cells..



1. Function of Heart
(i) Vital for living.

(ii) Supplies oxygen rich blood to different parts of the body.

2. Structure of the heart

(i) Divided into four chambers connected by valves.
(ii) Blood purified in the lungs.
(iii) Arteries carry pure blood to different parts of the body.
3. Heart disease- Causes
(i) Weak Muscles
(ii) Defective Valves
(iii) Defective Pace maker
4. History of open heart Surgery.
(i) 1953 – Dr. Gibbon inv. Heart – lung Machine
(ii) Blood could pass through the machine.
(iii) Enabled open heart surgery.
(iv) Limitations
(a) Can be used only for a few hrs. at a time
(b) Damages blood cells.