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CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  Movement – A process that consists of the

locomotion of cells by means of special

Mathias Schleiden
structure like cilia and flagella.
 Studied plant tissues and proposed that all  Irritability – the process by which cells
plants are made up of cells.
respond or react to external factors or
Theodore Schwann conditions around them.

 Made the same observation for animals.  Respiration – The process of breaking
down food molecules into chemical energy
As a result of their work, they published the first that cells need to function.
statement of the cell theory: all living things are
composed of cells.  Cellular reproduction – A process by
which cell copies or replicates DNA and
The field of cytology (FROM THE GREEK WORD increases in number by cell division.
“CYTO” MEANING “CELL”) began based on this

Rudolf Virchow Cells, the basic units of organisms, can only be

observed under microscope
 Proposed that cells come from preexisting
cells. Three Basic types of cells include:

Cell 1. Animal Cell

2. Plant Cell
 The smallest unit that is capable of 3. Bacterial Cell
performing life functions.
Number of Cells
 Unicellular – composed of one cell
 Nutrition – The process by which cells  Multicellular- composed of many cells that
obtain food molecules to support their may organize into tissues, etc.
Multicellular Organisms
 Digestion – The process by which food
particles are broken down with the help of  Cells in multicellular organisms often
enzymes into smaller, soluble units suitable specialize (take on different shapes &
for cell uses functions)

 Absorption – The process by which cells Cell Specialization

absorb from their environment water,
 Cells in a multi-cellular organism become
minerals, etc.
specialized by turning different genes on
 Biosynthesis – The process by which all and off
cell organizes complex chemical from  This is known as DIFFERENTIATION
simple building units or substances.
Specialized Animal Cells: Muscle Cells, Red
 Excretion – The process by which cell by- Blood Cells, and Cheek Cells
products that are not needed for further cell
Specialized Plant Cells: Guard Cells, Xylem Cells,
functioning are eliminated.
and Pollen
 Egestion – The process by which insoluble,
undigested particles are eliminated by the
cell. Prokaryotes – The first Cells
 Secretion – the process by which  Cells that lack a nucleus or membrane-
substances that are synthesized by the cells bound organelles
are expelled from the elimination process.  Includes bacteria
 Simplest type of cell
 Single, circular chromosome Glycoproteins
 Nucleoid region (center) contains the DNA
 Recognize “self”
 Surrounded by cell membrane & cell wall
 Have carbohydrate tails to act as markers
for cell recognition
 Contain ribosomes (no membrane) in their
cytoplasm to make proteins CELL PARTS
Eukaryotes Surrounding the Cell
 Cells that HAVE a nucleus and membrane- Cell Membrane
bound organelles
 Includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals  Outer membrane of cell that controls
 More complex type of cells movement in and out of the cell
 Contain 3 basic cell structures:  Double layer: Phospholipid bilayer
o Nucleus  Serve as a boundary between the
o Cell Membrane environment and the inside of the cell.
o Cytoplasm with organelles  It gives the shape of the cell.
 Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells:  in Plants, lies immediately against the cell
o Plant Cell wall in plant cells
o Animal Cell  Pushes out against the cell wall to maintain
cell shape
Cell Wall
 Very small (Microscopic)
 Perform various functions for a cell  Nonliving layer
 Found in the cytoplasm  Found in plants, fungi, & bacteria
 May or may not be membrane-bound  Made of cellulose in plants
 Made of peptidoglycan in bacteria
Cell or Plasma Membrane  Made of chitin in Fungi
 Composed of double layer of phospholipids  Supports and protects cell
and proteins  Found outside of the cell membrane
 Surrounds outside of ALL cells Cytoplasm
 Controls what enters or leaves the cell
 Living layer  Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell
Phospholipids  Provides a medium for chemical reactions
 Heads contain glycerol & phosphate and to take place
are hydrophilic (attract water)  Contains organelles to carry out specific
 Tails are made of fatty acids and are jobs
hydrophobic (repel water)  Found in ALL cells
 Make up a bilayer where tails point inward
Inside the Cell
toward each other
 Can move laterally to allow small molecules Nucleus – The Control Organelle
(O2, CO2, & H2O to enter)
 “Control center of the cell”
Cell Membrane Proteins  Contains the DNA in chromosomes
 Bounded by a nuclear envelope
 Proteins help move large molecules or aid
(membrane) with pores
in cell recognition
 Usually the largest organelle
 Peripheral proteins are attached on the
 Each cell has fixed number of
surface (inner or outer)
chromosomes that carry genes
 Integral proteins are embedded completely
 Genes control cell characteristics
through the membrane
 Nuclear Envelope
Double membrane surrounding o Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
nucleus (Rough ER)
o Also called nuclear membrane  Has ribosomes on its surface
o Contains nuclear pores for materials  Makes membrane proteins
to enter & leave nucleus and proteins for EXPORT out
o Connected to the rough ER of cell
 Inside the Nucleus o Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
o The genetic material (DNA) is found (Smooth ER)
o DNA is spread out and appears as  Smooth ER lacks ribosomes
CHROMATIN in non-dividing cells on its surface
o DNA is condensed & wrapped  Is attached to the ends of
around proteins forming as rough ER
CHROMOSOMES  Makes cell products that are
in dividing cells USED INSIDE the cell
o What Does DNA do?  Makes membrane lipids
 DNA is the hereditary (steroids); Regulates calcium
material of the cell (muscle cells); Destroys toxic
 Genes that make up the DNA substances (Liver)
molecule code for different
 “Protein factories of the cell”
 Made of PROTEINS and rRNA
 Inside nucleus  Each cell contains thousands
 Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli  Make proteins through the process called
 Disappears when cell divides protein synthesis
 Makes ribosomes that make proteins  Found on ribosomes & floating throughout
the cell
Mitochondrion (plural = mitochondria)
 Helps cell maintain cell shape
 Also help move organelles around  “Powerhouse” of the cell
 Made of proteins  Generate cellular energy (ATP)
 Microfilaments are threadlike & made of  More active cells like muscle cells have
ACTIN MORE mitochondria
 Microtubules are tube-like & made of  Both plants & animal cells have
TUBULIN mitochondria
Endoplasmic Reticulum
 “Manufacturing shippers of the cell”  Surrounded by a DOUBLE membrane
 Moves materials around in cell  Has its own DNA
 Smooth type: lacks ribosomes  Folded inner membrane called CRISTAE
 Rough type (pictured): ribosomes (increases surface area for more chemical
embedded in surface reactions)
 Network of hollow membrane tubules  Interior called MATRIX
 Connects to nuclear envelope & cell Golgi APPARATUS/ GOLGI Bodies
 Functions in Synthesis of cell products &  Protein “packaging counter of the cell”
Transport  Named after Camillo Golgi, who discovered
its presence in 1898.
 Move materials within and out the cell
 It is composed of smooth flattened
membranous sacs called “cisternae”, which
resemble a stack of pancakes.
 3 areas of the Golgi apparatus  Inner membrane modified into sacs called
o The cis face Thylakoids
o Medial region  Thylakoids in stacks called Grana &
o Trans face interconnected
 Stroma – gel like material surrounding
 “Suicide bags of the cell”  Contains its own DNA
 Contain digestive enzymes  Contains enzymes & pigments for
 Makes possible the destruction of Photosynthesis
microorganisms or harmful foreign bodies  Never in animal or bacterial cells
inside the cell.  Photosynthesis – food making process
 Break down food and worn out cell parts for Centrioles
 Programmed for cell death (AUTOLYSIS)  “Helper in cell division”
 Lysosome Digestion  Found only in animal cells
o Cells take in food by phagocytosis  Paired structures near nucleus
o Lysosomes digest the food & get rid  Made of bundle of microtubules
of wastes  Appear during cell division forming mitotic
 Help to pull chromosome pairs apart to
 Membrane-bound organelles similar to opposite ends of the cell
lysosomes. Cilia & Flagella
 They have a single membrane that contains
digestive enzymes for breaking down toxic  Made of protein tubes called microtubules
materials in the cell.  Microtubules arranged (9 + 2
 It holds on to enzymes that require oxygen. arrangement)
 Also contain enzymes that are able to assist  Function in moving cells, in moving fluids, or
in synthesizing cholesterol and breaking in small particles across the cell surface
down lipids.  Cilia are shorter and more numerous on
 Flagella are longer and fewer (usually 1-3)
 “Storage tanks of the cell” on cells
 Membrane-bound sacs for storage,
digestion, and waste removal
 Contains water solution
 Help plants maintain shape
 Small or absent in animal cells
 Plant cells have a large Central Vacuole
 No vacuoles in bacterial cells
 In plants, they store Cell Sap
 Includes storage of sugars, proteins,
minerals, lipids, wastes, salts, water, and
 Found only in producers (organisms
containing chlorophyll)
 Contains green chlorophyll
 Where photosynthesis takes place
 Surrounded by DOUBLE membrane
 Outer membrane smooth