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Sample Calculation

Pipe characteristics:
Outside diameter of the inner pipe, Do = 0.625 inch = 0.01588 m

Inner diameter of the inner pipe, Di = 0.527 inch = 0.01338 m

[Reference: Copper Development Association Inc. (2010), The Copper Tube Handbook (Table-
2a, pp. 21). New York: Madison Avenue.]

Length of the inner pipe, L = 1.6256 m.

Condenser area exposed to cooling water, Ac = πDoL

= 3.14×0.01588×1.6256 m2

= 0.081 m2

For observation no. 5 at 10 psig steam pressure,

Inlet water temperature, T1 = 29.5 °C

Outlet water temperature, T2 = 35.5 °C

T1 +T2 (29.5+35.5)
Mean temperature, TM = = °C= 32.5 °C
2 2

Weight of condensate collected, Wc = 44.7 g

Condensate collection time, tc = 34 sec

Mass flow rate of condensate, Mc = Wc/tc = 44.7/34 = 1.315 g/s

V 1
Volumetric flow rate of water, Vw = = L/s = 0.108 L/s
tw 9.22

Properties at of water at mean temperature (32.5 °C):

Density of water, ρM = 994.93 kg/m3


[Reference: Holman, J. P., & Bhattacharyya, Souvik (2011). Heat Transfer In SI Units (10th ed.,
pp. 609). New Delhi: McGraw-Hill.]

Specific heat of water, CP,M = 4174 J/kg.K


[Reference: Holman, J. P., & Bhattacharyya, Souvik (2011). Heat Transfer In SI Units (10th ed.,
pp. 609). New Delhi: McGraw-Hill.]

Mass flow rate of water, Mw = Vw × ρM = 0.108 × 10−3 × 994.8 kg/s = 0.107 kg/s

Properties of steam at 10 psig:

Saturation temperature of steam at pressure 10 psig, TS = 115.2 °C


[Reference: Felder, Richard M., & Rousseau, Ronald W. (2012). Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Wiley.]

Latent heat of vaporization of water at saturation temperature, λS = 2215.7 KJ/kg


[Reference: Felder, Richard M., & Rousseau, Ronald W. (2012). Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Wiley.]

Heat flow calculation:

Rate of heat taken up by water, QW = MWCP,M(T2-T1)

= 0.107 × 4174 × (35.5 − 29.5) W

= 2.70 KW

Rate of heat given up by steam, QC = MCλS

= 1.315 × 10−3 × 2215.7 KW

= 2.91 KW

QW + QC 2.68+2.91
Mean rate of heat flow, Qm = = KW = 2.81 KW
2 2

QC − QW 2.91−2.70
Percent heat loss = × 100% = × 100% = 7.23%
QC 2.91

Calculations for steam side heat transfer coefficient:

Ts +Tm 115.2+32.5
Tube wall temperature on steam side, TW = = = 73.85 °C
2 2

Ts +Tw 115.2+73.85
Film temperature, Tf = = 2
= 94.525 °C
2
Density of water at film temperature, ρf = 962.45 kg/m3
[Reference: Holman, J. P., & Bhattacharyya, Souvik (2011). Heat Transfer In SI Units (10th ed.,
pp. 609). New Delhi: McGraw-Hill.]

Thermal conductivity of water at film temperature, kf = 0.679 W/m.K


[Reference: Holman, J. P., & Bhattacharyya, Souvik (2011). Heat Transfer In SI Units (10th ed.,
pp. 609). New Delhi: McGraw-Hill.]

Coefficient of viscosity of water at film temperature, μf = 3.01 × 10-4 N.s/m2


[Reference: Holman, J. P., & Bhattacharyya, Souvik (2011). Heat Transfer In SI Units (10th ed.,
pp. 609). New Delhi: McGraw-Hill.]

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.81 m/s2

0.25
ρ2f gλs k3f
Steam side heat transfer coefficient, h0 = 0.943( )
Lμf (Ts −Tw )

0.25
962.452 ×9.81×2215.7×103 ×0.6793
= 0.943( )
1.6256×3.01×10−4 ×(115.2−73.85)

= 3958.6 W/m2.K

[Reference: Holman, J. P., & Bhattacharyya, Souvik (2011). Heat Transfer In SI Units (10th ed.,
Eqn. 9-10). New Delhi: McGraw-Hill.]

Calculations for velocity of water flow, v:

Volumetric flow rate of water, VW = 0.108 L/s = 0.108×10-3 m3/s

D2i
Cross-sectional flow area of water flow, Ai = π( )
4

0.01342
= 3.1416 × m2
2

= 0.000141 m2

Vw 0.108×10−3
Velocity of water flow, v = = m/s = 0.77 m/s
Ai 0.000141
Calculations for overall heat transfer coefficient, U:

Temperature difference at inlet, ΔT1 = TS-T1 = (115.2-29.5) °C = 85.7 °C

Temperature difference at outlet, ΔT2 = TS-T2 = (115.2-35.5) °C = 79.7 °C

ΔT1−ΔT2 85.7−79.7
Log mean temperature difference, ΔTln = ΔT1 = 85.7 = 82.66 °C
ln( ) ln( )
ΔT2 79.7

Qw 2702.5
Overall heat transfer coefficient, U = = W/m2-K
∆Tln ×Ac 82.66×0.081

= 403.25 W/m2.K

Calculations for thickness of condensate film:

Distance from the top of the column, z = 0.5 m

4μf kf z(Ts −Tf ) 0.25


Fim thickness, yf = ( )
gλs ρf (ρf −ρv )

0.25
4×3.01×10−4 ×0.679×0.5×(115.2−94.525)
=( )
9.81×2215.7×103 ×962.45×(962.45~0)

= 0.00017 m

Average film thickness = (0.000170+0.000171+0.000171+0.000171)/4 m

= 0.000171 m

Calculations for local heat transfer coefficient:

Distance from the top of the column, z = 0.5 m

0.25
ρf (ρf −ρv )gλs k3f
Local heat transfer coefficient, hlocal = ( )
4μf z(Ts −Tw )

0.25
962.452 ×9.81×2215.7×103 ×0.6793
=( )
4×3.01×10−4 ×0.5×(115.2−73.85)

= 3985.9 W/m2.K
Average local heat transfer coefficient = (3971.11+3963.65+3962.1+4055.59) W/m2.K

= 3971.55 W/m2.K