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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)

International Open Access Journal | www.ijtsrd.com

ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | Volume - 3 | Issue – 1 | Nov – Dec 2018

Pedagogic Challenges Involved in the Teaching of Citizenship in


Public Secondary Schools in the South West Region of Cameroon
Tamuh Divine Chenwi
B. A, M.Ed, Phd in View, University of Buea, South West Region, Cameroon

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this research was to find out some Certificate of Examinations Board (G.C.E Board) and
pedagogic challenges involved in the teaching of also a broad field created. Keer. (1999). indicates that
Citizenship in Government Secondary Schools in the as part of an on-going review of the national
South West Region of Cameroon. This paper stated curriculum, Citizenship Education was also examined
one objective, and was carried out using the same as and it was realized that the subject was so important
the research question which was later translated to both for the schools and the nation, the syllabus
research hypothesis to ascertain the finding of the content is a broad field. Allan, and Francis. (2009),
study. The survey research design was used, and the describe broad fields as an inter-disciplinary design that
sample was selected using the simple random attempts to integrate content that fit together logically,
sampling technique. The sample consisted of 150 for example, the content of Geography, Economics,
Teachers in five out of the six Divisions of the South History, Political Science, Anthropology, Sociology,
West Region of Cameroon. The questionnaire was the Philosophy and Religion which are fused into social
main instrument used in the study to collect data. The studies. Nyanyoh (2010), remarks that the syllabus for
data was analyzed using, the descriptive and Citizenship, has been so extensively broadened to
inferential statistics and the obtained showed that include all areas of human relationships, political,
teachers have been trained in their main subjects, but social, economic, traditional, moral and even the
not Citizenship. spiritual well being of the Cameroonian citizen.
Citizenship therefore has been tailored to meet the
Key Words: PEDAGOGY, CHALLENGES, aspirations of policy makers as well as to take into
TEACHING, CITIZENSHIP, PUBLIC, SECONDARY, consideration the prevailing socio- economic, political
SCHOOLS and cultural atmosphere of the country in line with
global trends. Tazifor. (2006) sees Citizenship as the
INTRODUCTION training of youths for intellectual, civic and moral
Education is a national priority in Cameroon as such it development aiming at a smooth integration into the
is a vital element in national and international society. On her part, Nyanyoh (2010), states that,
development Proper education therefore assures a Citizenship aims at informing, clarifying, inculcating,
nation of a skilled labour force, effective leadership promoting and deepening in every Cameroonian and
and good and loyal citizens. In May 1995, a National very specially the youths of Cameroon the essential
Forum on Education was organized in Yaounde. Its values of nationhood and good citizenship. Though
purpose was to discuss or deliberate on new this subject is seen as being very significant in the
perspectives on education in Cameroon. The results of Cameroonian context today, it should be noted that no
the forum were enacted as the law on education that is teacher training college is yet training instructors to
law No 98/004 of 14th April 1998 to lay down teach it. As such, the Ministry of Secondary
guidelines for education in Cameroon. In view of this, Education (MINESEC), has therefore assigned all
policy makers proposed and reviewed subjects and social science teachers that is teachers of History,
syllabuses, created new subjects and broad fields. Geography, Economics, Philosophy and Religious
Citizenship is one of the subjects whose syllabus was Studies with the responsibility to teach the subject.
reviewed in April 2011 by the Cameroon General This researcher sees some possible challenges that

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
these teachers will face in teaching it, especially as it products especially with the much talk of falling
is not in their subject discipline and because the standards of our educational system and the high level
content is drawn from different subject specialties. of moral decadence in our society. Since instructors of
this subject are not experts, there is the likelihood that
In view of this, this researcher intends to research on the they may encounter some difficulties as they teach
pedagogic challenges teachers face in the teaching of this 'pretty new subject'.
Citizenship in secondary grammar schools in the
South West Region of Cameroon. The focus will be It is therefore on this premise that the researcher seeks
on the challenges involved with the quality of the to investigate the pedagogic challenges faced by
teachers and their attitudes towards the subject, the teachers of Citizenship in the South West Region
use of instructional materials, assessment strategies, precisely in Government Secondary Grammar
as well as teaching methods. Schools. Thus when these challenges are identified
and remedies given, it is hoped that the objectives of
Objectives of the study teachers and the aims of the subject and policy
To bring out the problem of the quality of teachers makers, would have been achieved.
who teach Citizenship
Research Question BACK GROUND TO THE STUDY
Historically, Citizenship got its foundation from
Hypothesis ancient Greek times in small-scale organic
Null Hypothesis (Hoi) communities of the polis. Citizenship was concerned
with the daily life in the polis where everybody was
The quality of Citizenship teachers is not appropriate very active. To show citizenship, Aristotle was quoted
to teach the subject. Alternative Hypothesis (Hal) at saying "to take no part in the running of the community's
affairs is to be either a beast or a god." Thus members had
The quality of Citizenship teachers is appropriate to obligations to the community and not rights given
teach the subject. them by it.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Citizenship at this time as well as in mediaval cities


The introduction of Citizenship Education in the that practiced polis citizenship was exclusive and
secondary school curriculum meant an end to Civics inequality of status was widely accepted. In the
which hitherto dealt with the rights and duties of Roman Empire, citizenship was expanded to the entire
citizens. Civics was taught mostly by History teachers empire so as to legitimize Roman rule over conquered
and some Geography teachers. But with the new areas. Thus the concept of Citizenship has evolved
orientations in education, Citizenship took its place. over centuries in different dimensions in different
Now all social science teachers i.e. History, areas and has had different definitions. Citizenship is
Geography, Economics, Religion and Philosophy the state of being a citizen of a particular social,
teachers have to teach Citizenship as stipulated in political, national, or human resource community.
ministerial secular letter No
31/06/MJNESEC/IGE/IGP-SH of 12 June 2006 Virginia (1999) equates Citizenship as connoting "a
concerning the creation of the council for the teaching bundle of rights-primarify, porrtfcai participation in
of Citizenship. Though the teaching of the subject has the life of the community, the right to vote and the
been entrusted in the hands of social science teachers, right to receive certain protection from the community
they have not been trained to teach it. Also, no as well as Obligations.
Teacher Training College is currently training
instructors in this discipline. These teachers are Tazifor (2006) describes it as the training of youths
therefore bound to apply the methodology and for intellectual, civic and moral development aiming
experiences in teaching their trained subjects to at the smooth integration into society bearing in mind
teaching Citizenship which cannot be very effective the prevailing socio-cultural, political and moral
since it is a broad field cutting across many topics and factors.
subject disciplines. The teacher is seen as the
guarantor of quality education. For this to be Recently, citizenship has moved from communities or
achieved, he should be trained to offer the desired nations and has taken a wider dimension. It is best

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
identified with being a member of a particular nation. but emphasizes on the importance of moral and civic
To some extent certain entities cross national education in the training of the citizens. This is the
boundaries such as trade organizations, Non case of Cameroon as stated in law No 98/004 of 14th
Governmental Organizations and multinational April 1998, article 4 on the orientation of education in
corporations have made the notion of citizenship to go Cameroon.
international Thus members of these bodies have
either acquired citizenship where they are or it has Tambo, (2003) states that by 2003, formal education
simply been conferred on them by their host or western type schools in Cameroon was one
governments. Generally though, citizenship is hundred and fifty nine years old. It was introduced by
obtained through blood (ancestry or etihnicity), the missionaries from Jamaica who was sponsored by
through birth (local nativity), through marriage and the Baptist Missionary Society based in London.
naturalization. There isalso honorary citizenship Reverend Joseph Merrick, who led the religious order,
which is awarded to someone irrespective of his/her opened the first school in Bimbia in 1844. As a man
area of origin. of God, it is without doubt that moral education which
was and is an aspect of citizenship education was not
Citizenship Education was brought about from the left out even though their focus was on Religion. Thus
notion of active citizenship. This is. a philosophy that as education later evolved through the pre colonial,
citizens should work towards the improvement of colonial and post colonial era, moral and civic
their community through economic participation, education has simply changed from one form or from
public volunteer work etc one name to another.

Others see it as learning activities, curriculum and/or Nyanyoh (2010) stipulates that Civics as a subject in
educational programs at any level, concerned with the school curriculum, from which Citizenship later
rights and responsibilities of citizenship -with the got its name, is as old as the English subsystem of
purpose to promote knowledge, skills, and attitudes education in Cameroon. She further indicates that
conducive to effective participation in civic life. Circular N0.53/D/64/MINEDUC/IGP/IPN-HG of 15
Nov, 1990, changed the name from Civics to
Derek (1998) indicates that the concept of citizenship Citizenship. However, the proper status or place of
has developed over the course of two and a half this subject was earlier recognized in the Francophone
millennia. It dealt with an individual acquiring a status sub-system of education. It is recently that the English
of right and independence in a community or nation sub-system is effectively implementing this decision.
through birth or naturalization. It is not surprising Thus the evolution of the subject has recently been an
therefore that constant accretions overtime have issue of national concern. Besides, the status of
rendered it extremely complex today. From it's origin citizens in Cameroon has been regarded to be very
in Greek City States, the concept has had variations important as seen in the constitutional evolutions that
when compared with most modern states. the country has witnessed for example, 1960, 1961,
Improvements were made during the period of 1972, 1985 and 1996 constitutions. It will be observed
Renaissance, In these societies, the status of citizen was that, from the 1998 law on education, Civics was
not only restricted in various ways, but women were finally coffined with Citizenship as the successor.
excluded. Following the Citizenship syllabus review of the
G.C.E Board, the title was proposed as Citizenship
From the late seventeenth century to the early Education. This title it should be noted is what is
twentieth century, Britain, France, and USA led the being used in most countries today like France,
way in defining what the rights of citizens should be England and Honduras. As part of the
in legal and political terms. This was seen in the implementation, subsequent decisions have been
American Bill of Rights and in a series of Acts of signed for example, circular No:
Parliament in Britain which was required from 1832 30/05/MINESEC/IGE/IGP/SH of 12th April 2005,
to 1969 to extend voting rights to all social classes, establishing the Citizenship syllabus for general
women and people between 18 and 21. secondary education. The evolution then continued in
classrooms, seminars and workshops and so on.
It is realized that Citizenship Education had gone Generally, it should be noted that the historical
beyond acquiring status as a citizen as times evolved, background of this subject is varied. Individual

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
communities or societies have different developments questions than those who learn from animation and
and dimensions as far as Citizenship is concerned. It text-based materials. Thus multimedia rather than
also varies with nations as well as their educational mono-media instruction is better. This theory will
developments and policies. adequately apply to this study because subject content
material on Citizenship in Cameroon is still very limited
Teachers and learners in the past have always had or better still spread in different subject discipline. As
difficulties in the teaching and learning process. These such different medias need to be consulted or used for
problems arise in specific subjects. As such, many the effective instruction of Citizenship.
schools of thoughts had emerged to bring out the
correlation between the problems or difficulties faced 4. Social Constructivism
and the process of teaching and learning. Some The theory focuses on learners and describes how the
theories that are relevant to this paper include. socio cultural background of learners helps them to
1. Constructivist theory create, discover and attain academic goals. The
2. Conceptual change theory society and schools therefore play significant roles in
3. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning child development and achievement.
4. Social constructivism
5. Expectancy theory. 5. Expectancy Theory
This theory deals with how an individual's behaviour
1. Constructivist Theory can be motivated leading to work related outcomes or
Constructivism is a set of theories made up of rewards that they value. The theory focuses on three
cognitive constructivism and social constructivism. It main variables that is expectancy, instrumentality and
is observed that cognitive constructivism which is valence which are obtained from the relation between
about how the individual learner understands things, efforts, performance and rewards or outcomes.
in terms of developmental stages and learning styles.
Social constructivism emphasizes how meanings and Conceptually, citizenship goes beyond individuals in
understanding grow out of social encounters. These the society and deals with their wholesome
theories of Piaget and Vygotsky will apply effectively participation and mil integration into the society. The
here as the teachers and learners of Citizenship are subject Citizenship from creation in Cameroon is
building on material which they had studied as they viewed to have so much contribution to youths, the
developed and also they interact with their community and nation as a whole. It thus prepares and
environment which is where the syllabus of ensures a smooth integration of youths in society by
Citizenship is drawn. developing civic and moral attitudes in them as well
as building a patriotic spirit amongst citizens.
2. Conceptual Change Theory
Po§ner, Strike, Hewson and Gertzog (1982) define INC A report of 16 countries indicates that the context
conceptual change as learning that changes an existing of Citizenship Education varies from one country to
conception that is, belief, idea or way of thinking. It is the other leading to variations in definitions and
supposed that teachers have a negative attitude approaches. Thus what works in one context dose not
towards Citizenship especially because they have not necessarily apply in the other? In this like , a careful
been trained to teach it, as well as the fact that it is not adaptation rather than wholesale adoption should be
yet a GCE subject, etc. In this theory, existing the watch word .The report identified a number of
conception is fundamentally changed or even contextual factors which influence the definitions and
replaced, and becomes the conceptual framework that approaches to Citizenship Education like; historical
both students and teachers are to use to solve tradition, geographical position, socio-political
problems, explain phenomena, and function in their structure, economic system and global trends.
world Davis. (2001)
Contextually in Cameroon, Citizenship Education
3. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning replaced Civics which dealt with rights and duties of
This theory shows learners in relation to multimedia citizens as well as current events. This means that
facilities to enhance their learning. It emphasizes that Civics has been revised or reviewed into Citizenship
students learning given multimedia with animation Education. All these to make the subject to suit the
and narration consistently did better on transfer present realities of globalization and develop

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
competencies or life skills in learners. This pretty new that is Cameroon and not depend on or look at the
subject therefore was not only for intellectual purposes Diaspora as a place filled with milk and honey.
but also to ensure a complete integration into society. Cultural diversity of the nation should be appreciated
by all youths irrespective of their region, tribe or
Another context which necessitated the birth of the village. Thus the over 250 ethnic groups would not be
subject is the high rate of moral decadence in the seen as a problem, but as a melting pot which brings
society-embezzlement, corruption and bribery, lies unity and strength thereby promoting national
telling, untimely deaths especially of youths, juvenile integration. So each citizen has the right to live, and
delinquency, internet theft 'scamming' , prostitution work in any part of the territory without fear or
etc. All these make the community not worth living. favouror discrimination.
These vices only produce a decayed community in
which competence, meritocracy, expertise do not have Biya, (1989) talked about rigour and moralization
a place. In this context, the subject being taught in all upon his ascension to the Supreme Magistracy of the
schools will help shape the minds and hearts of youths Country Cameroon. As head of state it became a
and adults towards a country where efforts and positive policy implemented by his heads of governments.
feelings are rewarded both by God and man or This culminated in the famous "operation Sparrow
society. This makes the subject indispensable in the Hawk", whereby corrupt government officials are
Cameroonian context where these vices exist. uplifted of their functions and detained. Thus to
promote rigour and moralization and to stop
Another context that provoked the putting into place embezzlement of state funds and mismanagement of
of Citizenship Education is the prevailing socio- state resources, Citizenship Education is seen as the
economic and political atmosphere that reigned in best thing in our context that would ensure a
Cameroon in the last two decades. During this period, transparent society void of these ills.
the country witnessed some events or upheavals in its
national life which warranted a subject like this to Global events also made the need for Citizenship
change the mindset of the population. Some of these Education to see the light of day in Cameroon.
events included Ghost Towns operations, which came Cameroon is not an island and thus, participates
with multipartism, post election violence, a series of actively in international issues and organizations which
strikes especially the February 200S uprisings which deal with issues like the environment, rights,
brought untold hardship on Cameroonians and civil education, elections, etc. Also the country has also
demonstrations. In all these activities, the youths are ratified agreements and conventions with international
seen to have been actively involved. They were bodies like UNESCO, UNICEF, etc. With all these
considered to have been manipulated by adults or the standards of activities and events must conform to
politicians. Thus the destructions and lootings the international standards and regulations .The values
witnessed with such events are attributed to youths. In of all these is built in Citizenship Education.
this context therefore, the inception of Citizenship
Education is seen as a means of preparing youths The subject Citizenship Education could be
towards positive goals and attitudes towards the nation considered to have had its roots from the smooth,
Cameroon. To build a sense of direction and purpose, peaceful and voluntary transfer of power from
to make them see violence and destruction as bad, to President AmadouAhidjoto President Paul Biya on 6
embark on nation building and be patriotic. With this, November 1982 Fanso (1989) states that "Biya
it is hoped that they would cautiously refuse to be declared that he would inject the policies of his
partakers in any event or activity against the state .In predecessor with rigor, integrity and moralization."
this context; the subject would develop a high spirit of His New Deal administration would reject the
patriotism in the learners, teachers and consequently irregularities, lateness, laxity, wastefulness, and
society as a whole which ensures a peaceful irresponsibilities in the conduct of public affairs and
coexistence. would condemn misappropriation of public or private
funds, corruption, fraud or illegal acquisition ofwealth
Culturally, the context of Citizenship in this study and moral depravity. The presidents" pledges and
would be seen as one that makes youths to identify declarations as seen called for a Cameroon nation that
themselves with their various villages, tribes and is void of vices. A society whereby transparency and
nations. Thus youths will see value and virtue in all duty consciousness was going to be the watchword.

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
These lofty ideas meant that both the governors and well as education considered as one of the priorities of
the governed were to put their hands on deck for this to the state, should and have been given the
be achieved. In this context Civics was reviewed and consideration. In this context therefore, the teaching
changed to Citizenship so that through Education all and learning of Citizenship Education targets youths
Cameroonians will see the vision of the head of state (citizens) who form a greater part of the population of
and promote it for a better Cameroon. It should be the country. It is also hoped that their understanding
noted that these declarations by H.E Paul Biya of this subject would have a multiplier effect in the
constitute some of the topics that are being studied in society. Thus when youths are educated to develop
Citizenship today. Thus the policy if rigour and fear and love or patriotic feelings for their country, all
moralization was established to form a new order in the ills and vices plaguing the country would be
the political philosophy of Cameroon with its considered eradicated. It is in this context that
objective to introduce good governance in the Citizenship Education is created to moralize
administrative set up of Cameroon. Citizenship Cameroonian citizens and ensure good governance.
Education is therefore seen as one means by which
these can be achieved especially since the youths are Current urban development has led to so many
described as the leaders of tomorrow. challenges in the cities. Migration and mobility reduce
the cohesion within many urban societies; cities have
According to Apum (2010), one of the greatest threats become complex entities in which ethnic, social and
to Cameroon's progress today is the moral crisis that cultural segregated communities have developed.
has impeded every sphere of the society. From the Also, cities develop the breeding ground for new,
political to the civic and from the religious to the mostly cultural expression of civic participation in
cultural spheres corruption has deeply implanted itself order to create new forms of public spheres or civic
This is observed when members of the Executive involvement. The city mirrors social challenges and
especially ministers have been accused time and again becomes a lab of cultural and social developments in
for embezzlement of state funds, public contracts are which questions of economy and work of social
awarded not based on competence, members of the belonging and recognition, of cultural self-perception
Judiciary are said to be commercializing justice, the and external perception, of political participation and
media i.e. some journalists are praise singers and run justice are renegotiated NECE (2010). All these are
behind individuals or institutions to get money so as issues that were evident in Civics and now Citizenship
to forfeit information, entrance examinations are not Education has been tailored to meet up with these
totally considered to be based on academic challenges.
achievements but on bribery, school administrators
take bribe in exchange for admissions, teachers who The policy context within which Citizenship
aught to uphold morality in the society, are drowned in Education is approached in schools in England in
this pool of corruption. They sell marks for sex. The 2007 resulted from changes on the curriculum
military i.e. police, Gendarmes, etc are not corruption delivery, whole school approaches and their links to
free. The private sectors as well as religious the wider communities. To contextualize this,
institutions also have aspects of moral decadence or programmes like; the every child matters which
waywardness. This moral crisis is best solved by sought to ensure that children are healthy, stay safe,
Citizenship Education. enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and
achieve economic well-being etc. were introduced.
Even though the government put in several policies to Others include; the personalized learning 2004, the 5
tight corruption and other ills like creation of an Anti- years strategy plan and national strategies programme
corruption unit, these vices seem to be on a steady 2006 and working together 2004, all formed the
increase. In1998 and 1999, Transparency policy context within which Citizenship Education
International, an international Non Governmental was approached in England 2007.
Organization ranked Cameroon as the world's most
corrupt country. Over 10 years after that, there is still From the forgoing, it is observed that in this context,
the much talk on corruption. Thus this fight should Citizenship Education is considered a timely
not only be that of the executive, Judiciary and intervention in this era of globalization and moral
legislative arms of government. The citizens, who are decadence. This would also encourage the need for a
given a special place in the Cameroon constitution as study like this one to be carried out. Consequently,

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
teachers and learners have to surmount the difficulties Tsafact(2003). Holds that as teachers undergo more
in the teaching and learning of the subject, so as to training, it develops their skills and confers the status
ensure that the goals of education and aims of the of professionalism on them. This exercise culminates
subject should be realized or achieved. into a logical high level of responsibility and output as
they exercise out their profession.
Patricia and Thomas (1998) states that the quality of
student learning is directly - although not exclusively In most countries as indicated by INCA report 1999
- related to the quality of classroom teaching. there is no specific initial and in-service training of
Therefore, the first and most promising way to teachers for citizenship education rather man}' of them
improve learning is to improve teaching. So for are trained butin closely related subject areas. This is
quality feedback to be achieved, quality teachers are also the case of Cameroon. All these affect the quality
needed which of course is a problem which of citizenship education teachers as well as the quality
citizenship education is currently facing. of the instruction. Thus an inadequacy in the
preparation of teachers exists not only in the lack of
Teachers of Citizenship Education are either content knowledge but also in their inability to use a
specialists or generalists depending on the country and range of teaching and learning approaches.
level of education. "Specialist teachers" in the context
of Citizenship Education, are specialists either in a Felisa, and Judith. (1999) think it is important to pay
number of subjects closely related and including attention to the needs of teachers if a successful
Citizenship Education or in a closely related subject. citizenship education is to be achieved in the future.
They are not specialists in Citizenship Education They recommend valuable professional development
parse but may teach it alongside their responsibilities tools and well designed training experiences and even
as a teacher of social sciences. This, however, raises pre service training will be pre conditions for success.
the issue of the extent to which these teachers prioritize Teachers' learning can be in corporate through
their Citizenship Education teaching over their other educational programs, materials, follow-up support,
teaching duties. Also, these specialists' Citizenship opportunities for advancement and recognition. All these
Education teachers have a background in social would assure quality teaching.
science subjects through qualifications and
experience, and this may determine where their To motivate and prepare teachers to offer citizenship
interest or loyalties lie. education program that reflect the qualities needed,
pre service and in service training programs should be
Armstrong & Savage (1994), describe professional organized whereby teachers should be seen as
development as a "career long obligation". This is so beneficiaries and advocates for such programs rather
because, when a teacher undertakes a training course, than transmission vehicles (OAS 1998, p. 41)
he acquires an insight into the psychological needs of organization of the American study of Education
the students. Further, they opine that with a sound reform. For quality teaching, these training should be
professional training, backed by certificates, there will systematically integrated with follow-up support and
be a corresponding high quality in the use of opportunities for sharing.
educational resources in the class.
Magda D., Marie C. and Annika E. (2005) declare that
Bame, (2007) sees professionalism as a commitment education has an important role in preparing future
by teachers which ends in quality teaching and citizens at all levels of the education system. And so,
learning. The teacher looks at the learners and higher institutions are therefore charged with
education as a priority. As such, they enthusiastically providing quality teachers who will adapt and develop
accept the challenges of teaching without complain new approaches that will enable them to engage
about the learners, the classroom processes and reflectively and critically with the profound changes
practices. He further states that quality should within society.
characterize teachers' interaction with students,
administrators and colleagues, parents and the public. The OECD (1997) suggests that teachers are the final
With all these, learners and colleagues would be and most important link in the delivery of education as
motivated to put forth similar efforts. well as the interface through which the objectives of
schools and education systems are mediated. Darling-

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Hammond (2000, 1999) also acknowledges this area facilitator approach. However, quality teaching in
of concern and further identifies the critical practice would be achieved if a continuum between
importance of teaching quality in education provision "instructor" and "facilitator" approach is applied by
to meet the challenges presented in today's society. teachers. Thus teachers should move back and forth
along this continuum as the situation demands.
Teachers are seen as the key resource for citizenship
education where they are involved in the coordination, METHODOLOGY
planning and delivery of citizenship education in Research Design:
schools. It considers the professional background and The research design selected for this paper consists of
the level of input of the staff involved as well as the two components -the method and purpose
training needs and the degree and quality of components. By method, the study is a survey of
continuous professional development available to selected schools in the South West Region. By
teachers. purpose, this research is aimed at evaluating the
current state of affairs in the teaching of Citizenship in
One of the main challenges to citizenship education is the South West Region. This paper is therefore an
that of training. A majority of its teachers have not Evaluation Survey of the teaching of Citizenship.
been trained either internally (school) or externally;
some however received informal training. The research uses the survey research design whereby
data is collected using a questionnaire or interview
To guarantee quality in the instruction of citizenship guide. In this study, questionnaires are used in the
education the fifth annual report 2006 identify other collection of data as well as an interview guide. The
training providers which include: use of this design necessitates a study of a
➢ Citizenship organization representative sample, which will allow the researcher
➢ Commercial organizations to make inferences or generalizations to the
➢ Examination boards population under study.
➢ Universities
➢ Charities The Population of the Study
➢ The learning skills development Agency This study was carried out in Public Secondary
(L.S.D.A). Grammar Schools in five Divisions of the South West
Region, namely: Fako, Kupe-Muanenguba, Manyu,
When teachers receive training, they perceive it to be Meme and Ndian Divisions.
very useful especially if it forms part of their
professional qualification. The target population of this study, therefore, is made
up of all the Social Science teachers in Government
Geoff, (2004) in bringing out the quality of a teacher Secondary Grammar Schools in the South West
in the teaching learning process, puts them into two Region.
categories that is instructors and facilitators. The
instructor is described as one who plans and directs all According to official records from the Regional
students' activities so as to transmit a body of Delegation of Secondary Education for the South
knowledge and skills. The teachers are also in charge West for the 2010/2011 beginning of year report,
of assessing and evaluating the students work. This there are 3460 teachers in the Region, 2535 of whom
approach leads to learner dependency on teacher and are in Government Grammar Schools. Out of this
they are unable to solve problems unaided. On the number, 768 are Social Science teachers. The target
other hand, a facilitators' approach is one in which the population for this study, therefore, consists of the
teacher helps learners to gain control, plan, carryout 768 Social
and evaluate their learning. The teacher acts as a
guide. This makes learner to be much more committed Science teachers from both rural and urban Public
and interested in their work since it is designed by Secondary Grammar Schools. The accessible
them. population consists of the Social Science teachers who
teach Citizenship Education.
From the foregoing, Geoff and many effective
teachers think a good teacher is the one who uses the

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Distribution of the Target Population of the Study
No. of Public No. of Social
S\N Division No. of Schools %
School teachers Science teachers
1 Eako 25 1245 387 31.1%
2 Kupe - M 20 210 44 21.0%
3 Lebialem 19 201 57 28.4%
4 Manyu 30 221 85 38.5%
5 Meme 37 509 155 30.5%
6 Ndian 23 149 40 26.9%
Total 06 154 2535 768 30.3%

Source: Service of School Maps, Guidance and Counseling and Co-Curricular Activities, South West Regional
Delegation of Secondary Education, 2010/2011 Beginning-of-Year Report.

3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique selected using the multistage random sampling
According to Fraenkel and Norman (2000), a sample technique from five Divisions of the Region. Schools
is a portion of the population that is studied with the were sampled randomly by tagging their names into
intention of generalizing the results of the studies containers according to the Divisions. A tag was
from it onto the entire population. It is also a specified drawn from each of the containers and the process
number of items, objects or persons, drawn from the repeated until the proportionately required number of
target population through the sampling process. The schools from each Division was obtained. The result
sample for this study is made up of 150 teachers is shown on Table 3.2 below.

Table 3.2: Distribution of the Sample of Schools and Social Science teachers per Division
No Divisions No. of schools No. of schools selected Proportion Selected
1 Fako 25 06 16.2%
2 Kupe- Muanenguba 20 04 13.0%
3 Manyu 30 05 19.5%
4 Meme 37 06 24.0%
5 Ndian 23 04 14.9%
Total 154 25 16.2%

The next stage consisted of the selection of teachers all the Social Science teachers who effectively teach
from the sampled schools. This was done simply by Citizenship in the sampled schools from form 1-7
using all the Social Science teachers because o f their distributed as shown on table below.
small population. Hence the sample used is made up of

Table: Distribution of Sample Size by School


Divisions Name of schools Accessible population Sample of teachers
Fako G.B.H.S Limbe 27 10
G.H.S Limbe 23 08
G.S.S Bwiyuku 09 07
G.S.S Bolifamba 08 06
G.S.S Motombolombo 07 06
G.B.H.S Muea 18 13
Kupe G.B.H.S Tombel 10 05
Muanenguba G.H.S Ebonji 06 03
G.H.S Nguti 07 03
G.S.S Manyemen 03 02

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Manyu G.H.SBachuoNtai 06 06
G.S.S Mbinjong 02 02
G.B.H.S Mamfe 10 09
G.H.S Mamfe 08 08
G.H.S Tinto 06 06
Meme C.C.A.S Kumba 26 08
G.S.S Malende 03 03
G.B.H.S Kumba 17 07
G.S.S Nkamlikum 09 06
G.S.S Kumba- Mbeng 09 05
G.B.H.S Mbonge 12 10
Ndian G.H.S EkondoTiti 07 05
G.B.H.S. Mundemba 10 06
G.S.S Bulu Camp 03 03
G.S.S BafakaBalue 03 03
Total 25 249 150
Proportion of sample to Population 60.2%

Instrument for Data Collection Administration of Research Instrument


Data was collected using a questionnaire constructed The distribution and collection of the questionnaire
for teachers of Citizenship, constructed in conformity was done by friends, teachers and the researcher in
with the objectives of this study. The questionnaire person. The sampled schools were visited and the
was accompanied by a cover letter stating the paper administration consulted. In the cases where the
topic, explaining the purpose of the study and how the questionnaire was administered by the researcher,
result would be used. It also appealed to the members of the school administration and teachers of
respondents to complete the questionnaire, stating Citizenship welcomed and showed him round the
clearly that the confidentiality of their opinions would school and helped out in the administration of the
be strictly respected. questionnaires to concerned teachers. In other
situations the administration collected the
The questionnaire which consists of 24 items was questionnaires and administered them later in
divided into five sections as follows: situations where the teachers were not present. The
1. Section A contains 7 items that dealt with personal researcher, however, collected them later for analysis.
or demographic information. It addressed such
issues like respondents' names (optional), Method of Data Analysis
professional and academic qualifications, The data obtained from the research instrument has
longevity in service, name of school, the classes been analyzed both descriptively and inferentially.
taught and the respondents' gender. This has been done by first doing an item-by-item and
2. Section B is made up of 7 items addresses issues then section analyses.
related to the quality of Citizenship teachers.
Descriptively, simple and relative frequencies
The questionnaire is basically close ended with five (percentages) per response option have been
likert - type response options of Strongly Agree (SA), calculated and used to describe the trends in
Agree (A), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD) and respondents' responses, classified according to and
Undecided (U). The respondents were expected to tick compared according to their first or main teaching
the response option that best describes their opinions subjects (History, Geography, Economics and
of the issues raised by each item. Also, some of the Philosophy/Religion). Relative frequencies or
items were open-ended, requiring the respondents to percentages have been calculated using the formula
freely express their own opinions. Relative frequency (percentage) of a response option
=
Interviews were also conducted, basically to get Respottse Frequency
statistical information and to collaborate (triangulate) ----------------------------------------x100%
the respondents' responses. Totalfrequency

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Inferentially, the chi squared statistic has been used to FINDINGS
test for whether or not the summary of Citizenship The data has been analyzed both descriptively and
teachers' opinions (at the end of every section of the inferentially. Descriptively, the responses to the
questionnaire) depend on their first or main teaching questionnaire have been analyzed item by item and
subjects (History, Geography, Economics and section by section using simple frequencies and
Philosophy/Religion). This uses two parameters - the percentages in search for trends on the perception of
chi squared statistic and the degree of freedom, where: Citizenship Education Teachers.

Chi squared(j2) = £ (°~E)s where O = observed Inferentially, the chi-squared statistic has been used to
frequency, test whether or not Citizenship Education teachers'
E = expected frequency and ^ = 'Sum of perception of the subject depends on their major or
Degree of freedom (df) = (c-1 ) + (r - 1 ) or (c + r - 2). first teaching subject and the school where they teach.
c = number of columns and r number of rows in the
contingency table

Demographic Information
Item \ \ Gender
Gender Male Female Total
f 48 30 78
History
% 61.5% 38.5% 100%
f 24 18 42
Geography
% 57.1% 42.9% 100%
f 15 09 24
Economics
% 62.5% 37.5% 100%
f 04 02 06
Philosophy / Religion
% 66.7% 33.3% 100%
f 91 59 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 60.7% 39.3% 100%

By gender, about three out of every five Citizenship Education teachers are mates white the other two are
females. Although this distribution of teachers by sex does not vary much with the main teaching subjects
(History, Geography, Economics and Philosophy/Religion), the highest proportion of male Citizenship
Education teachers are Philosophy/Religion teachers (66.7%) while the highest proportion of female teachers
originally teach Geography (42.9%).
Item 2: Location
Location Urban Rural Total
f 36 42 78
History
% 46.2% 53.5% 100%
f 24 18 42
Geography
% 57.1% 42.9% 100%
f 12 12 24
Economics
% 50.0% 50.0% 100%
f 04 02 06
Philosophy / Religion
% 66.7% 33.3% 100%
f 76 74 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 50.7% 49.3% 100%

Citizenship Education teachers are almost equally distributed between the urban (50.7%) and the rural (49.3%)
schools. While the urban schools have more Philosophy teachers (66.7%), the Economics teachers are equally
shared (50-50) between the urban and rural schools. Also, there are slightly mere urban Geography teachers
(57.1%) and more rural History teachers (53.5%).

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Item 3: Main Subject
Subject History Geography Economics Phil/Religion Total
f 78 42 24 06 150
% 52.0% 28.0% 16.0% 4.0% 100%

More than half (52%) of Citizenship Education teachers are History teachers while the least number of them are
Philosophy /Religion teachers (4%). The remaining 44% of the teachers are either Geography teachers (28%) or
Economics teachers (16%). It is evident that a majority of (although not absolute) Citizenship Education
teachers are History teachers.

Item 4: Longevity
Longevity 0-4 5 - 9 10-14 15-19 20+ Total
f 36 24 18 0 0 78
History
% 46.1% 30.8% 23.1% 0% 0% 100%
f 24 06 0 12 0 42
Geography
% 57.1% 14.3% 0% 28.6% 0% 100%
f 06 12 06 0 0 24
Economics
% 25.0% 50.0% 25.0% 0% 0% 100%
f 03 02 01 0 0 06
Philosophy / Religion
% 50.0% 33.3% 16.7% 0% 0% 100%
f 69 44 25 12 0 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 46.0% 29.3% 16.7% 8.0% 0% 100%
Cumulative % 46.0% 75.3% 92.0% 100% % -

While almost half of the teachers (46%) have taught for four years and below, three quarters have taught for up
to 9 years and a sixth (16.7%) have taught for 10 to 14 years.

Item 5: Classes taught


Class Fl F2 F3 F4 F5 L6 . U6 Total
f 30 42 38 40 15 10 08 183
History
% 16.4% 23.0% 20.8% 21.9% 8.2% 5.5% 4.4% 100%
f 18 18 18 18 06 12 04 94
Geography
% 19.1% 19.1%. 19.1% 19.1% 6.4% 12.8% 4.3% 100%
f 12 06 12 15 05 04 02 56
Economics
% 21.4% 10.7% 21.4% 26.9% 8.9% 7.1% 3.6% 100%
f 01 0 03 02 03 02 02 13
Philosophy / Religion
% 7.7% 0% 23.1% 15.4% 23.1% 15.4% 15.4% 100%
f 61 66 71 75 29 28 16 346
All Subjects (Total)
% 17.6% 19.1% 20.5% 21.7% 8.4% 8.1% 4.6% 100%
57.5% 30.0% 12.5%

About three fifths (57.5%) of all the teachers sampled teach in the junior secondary school (Forms i , 2 and 3),
while three tenths (30%) teach in the senior secondary and one eighth (12.5%) teach in high school (Lower and
Upper Sixths).

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Item 6: Highest Academic Qualification
Qualification Bachelors Masters Doctorate Others Total
f 72 0 0 06 78
History
% 92.3% 0% 0% 7.7% 100%
f 24 0 0 18 42
Geography
% 57.1% 0% 0% 42.9% 100%
f 15 0 0 09 24
Economics
% 62.5% 0% 0% 37.5% 100%
f 03 01 0 02 06
Philosophy /Religion
% 50.0% 16.7% 0% 33.3% 100%
f 114 01 0 35 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 76.0% 0.7% 0% 23.3% 100%
More than three quarters (76%) of all Citizenship Education teachers hold Bachelors degrees; the highest of this
category being History teachers (92.3%) and the least being Philosophy / Religion teachers (50%). Also, about a
fifth (23.3%) of the sampled teachers hold certificates other than Bachelors and none hold the doctorate degree.
Very few (0.7%) hold Masters Degrees; a comparative majority of whom are Philosophy/Religion teachers
(16.7%).
Item 7: Highest Professional Qualification
Qualification T G I DIPESI DIPES II Others Total
f 02 48 24 04 78
History
% 1.3% 61.5% 30.8% 5.1% 100%
f 0 18 24 0 42
Geography
% 0% 42.9% 57.1% 0% 100%
f 0 18 0 06 24
Economics
% % 75.0% 0% 25.0% 100%
f 01 01 01 03 06
Philosophy / Religion
% 16.7% 16.7% 16.7% 50.0% 100%
f 03 85 49 13 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 2.0% 56.7% 32.7% 8.7% 100%
Professionally, more than half of the teachers of Citizenship Education (56.7%) hold the DIPES I Teachers'
Certificate and about a third others (32.7%) hold the DIPES II Teachers' Certificate. This distribution varies
from a low 16.7% for Philosophy /Religion to 75% for Economics for DIPES I and 16.7% for Philosophy
/Religion to 57.1% for Geography for DIPES II. Also, about a tenth (10.7%) of the teachers holds other
certificates, including Teachers' Grade I Certificate - a majority of who are the Philosophy/Religion Teachers
(50%).
Analyses and Findings of Research Question: Is there a relationship between challenges encountered by
teachers as a result of their quality in teaching Citizenship.
1:1 have been trained in my main subject discipline
Subject SA A D SD u Total
f 35 42 01 0 0 78
History
% 44.9% 53.9% 1.2% 0% 0% 100%
f 15 21 06 0 0 42
Geography
% 35.7% 50.0% 14.3% 0% 0% 100%
f 18 0 06 0 0 24
Economics
% 75.0% 0% 25.0% 0% 0% 100%
f 02 03 01 0 0 06
Philosophy /Religion
% 33.3% 50.0% 16.7% 0% 0% 100%
f 70 66 14 0 0 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 46.7% 44.0% 9.3% 0% 0% 100%
90. 7% 9.. 3%

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1:1 have been trained in my main subject discipline
Subject SA A D SD u Total
f 35 42 01 0 0 78
History
% 44.9% 53.9% 1.2% 0% 0% 100%
f 15 21 06 0 0 42
Geography
% 35.7% 50.0% 14.3% 0% 0% 100%
f 18 0 06 0 0 24
Economics
% 75.0% 0% 25.0% 0% 0% 100%
f 02 03 01 0 0 06
Philosophy / Religion
% 33.3% 50.0% 16.7% 0% 0% 100%
f 70 66 14 0 0 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 46.7% 44.0% 9.3% 0% 0% 100%
90. 7% 9.. 3%
A majority (90.7%) of the teachers of Citizenship Education have received training in their main or teaching
subjects; most of whom are History teachers (98.8%) and the least being Economics (7 5.0%)
Item 2: I have been trained to teach Citizenship
Subject SA A D SD U Total
History f 13 31 20 14 0 78
% 16.7% 39.7% 25.6% 18.0% 0% 100%
Geography f 0 0 24 18 0 42
% 0% 0% 57.1% 42.9% 0% 100%
Economics f 03 03 06 12 0 24
% 12.5% 12.5% 25.0% 50.0% 0% 100%
Philosophy/ Religion f 0 0 03 02 01 06
% 0% 0% 50.0% 33.3% 16.7% 100%
All Subjects (Total) f 16 34 53 46 01 150
% 10.7% 22.7% 35.3% 30.7% 0.7% 100%
33.3% 66.0%
While about two thirds (66%) of all the teachers have not received training in the teaching of Citizenship
Education, the situation is more acute with Geography (none of whom has been trained to teach Citizenship
Education) and Philosophy /Religion teachers (83.3% of whom have not been trained). About half of the History
teachers (56.4%) and a quarter (25.0%) of the Economics teachers have been trained to teach Citizenship
Education.
Item 3: Training in Citizenship Education was obtained in
Subject TTC Sem Wks SRCE Total
f 18 18 36 30 102
History
% 17.6% 17.6% 35.3% 29.4% 100%
f 0 12 12 24 48
Geography
% 0% 25.0% 25.0% 50.0% 100%
f 03 03 09 12 27
Economics
% 11.1% 11.1% 33.3% 44.4% 100%
f 0 02 01 03 06
Philosophy / Religion
% 0% 33.3% 16.7% 50.0% 100%
f 21 35 58 69 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 11.5% 19.1% 31.7% 37.7% 100%

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This item actually deals with the quality of the teachers who teach Citizenship. Though most teachers have been
trained in their main subject disciplines, in Citizenship, only 11.5% got trained in Teacher Training Colleges which
is the lowest when compared with the 19.1% and 31.7% who were trained through Seminars and Workshops
respectively. A relatively highest proportion of the teachers (37.7%) trained themselves through Self Reading of
Citizenship Education materials. Although this group is the most popular, it is still below average expectation.
However, half (50%) of Geography and Philosophy/Religion teachers trainedthemselves on Citizenship
Education. From the foregoing, it is evident most of the teachers of Citizenship from all the subject areas have
not been formally trained to teach the subject.

Item 4: Social Science teachers should teach Citizenship


Subject SA A D SD U Total
f 30 42 06 0 0 78
History
% 29.4% 53.9% 7.7% 0% 0% 100%
f 12 18 06 06 0 42
Geography
% 28.6% 42.9% 14.3% 14.3% 0% 100%
f 09 12 0 03 0 24
Economics
% 37.5% 50.0% 0% 12.5% 0% 100%
f 02 0 0 04 0 06
Philosophy / Religion
% 33.3% 0% 0% 66.7% 0% 100%
f 53 72 12 13 0 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 35.3% 48.0% 8.0% 8.7% 0% 100%
83.3% 16.7%

More than four fifths (83.3%) of the teachers agreed that Citizenship should be thought by Social Science
teachers while about a fifth (16.7%) disagreed. Although 87.5%, 83.3%, and 71.5% of Economics, History and
Geography teachers respectively agreed with the issue raised, the situation is more acute with Philosophy/
Religion teachers where only a third (33.3%) agreed, two thirds (66.7%) disagreed. Their disagreement is
however low when compared with the agreement levels of the other three subjects respectively as well as the
general 83.3% point.

Item 5: Citizenship should be taught


Subject (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Total
f 0 45 33 0 78
History
% 0% 57.8% 42.3% 0% 100%
f 0 30 12 0 42
Geography
% 0% 71.4% 28.6% 0% 100%
f 0 09 15 0 24
Economics
% 0% 37.5% 62.5% 0% 100%
f 01 03 02 0 06
Philosophy / Religion
% 16.7% 50.0% 33.3% 0% 100%
f 01 87 62 0 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 0.7% 58.0% 41.3% 0% 100%

More than half 58.0% of teachers hold the opinion that Citizenship should be thought once a week. This comes
from the strongest position of the Geography teachers with 71.4 to a weak 37.5% from Economics teachers.
41.3% accept that the subject should be thought more than once a week even though this is less than average.
Only teachers of Philosophy/Religion thought that it should be taught occasionally. However all the teachers
100% kicked against the issue that Citizenship should never be thought.

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Item 6: Social science teachers should be trained to teach Citizenship Education
Subject SA A D SD u Total
f 24 36 18 0 0 78
History
% 30.8% 46.2% 23.1% 0% 0% 100%
f 18 24 0 0 0 42
Geography
% 42.9% 57.1% 0% 0% 0% 100%
f 12 12 0 0 0 24
Economics
% 50.0% 50.0% 0% 0% 0% 100%
f 04 02 0 0 0 06
Philosophy / Religion
% 66.7% 33.3% 0% 0% 0% 100%
f 58 74 18 0 0 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 38.7% 49.3% 12.0% 0% 0% 100%
88.0% 12.0%
The need for Social Science teachers to be trained to teach Citizenship is overwhelmingly accepted with an
88.0%. This portrays a 100% acceptance from all the teachers of Geography, Economics and Philosophy/Religion.
Just a negligible 12.0% disagreed; all of whom are History teachers. This proportion is insignificant; especially
when compared with the 77% who agreed with the issue raised.

Item 7: Citizenship education topic areas outside specialization are taught with difficulties
Subject SA A D SD U Total
f 24 24 24 06 0 78
History
% 30.8% 30.8% 30.8% 7.7% 0% 100%
f 0 0 18 24 0 42
Geography
% 0% 0% 42.9% 57.1% 0% 100%
f 06 09 06 03 0 24
Economics
% 25.0% 37.5% 25.0% 12.5% 0% 100%
f 02 02 0 02 0 06
Philosophy / Religion
% 33.3% 33.3% 0% 33.3% 0% 100%
f 32 35 48 35 0 150
All Subjects (Total)
% 21.3% 23.3% 32.0% 23.3% 0% 100%
44.7% 55.3%
While the teachers' opinion on the difficulties of teaching topic areas outside their specialization is almost
shared between disagreement (55.3%) and agreement (44.7%), the ruling is generally in favour of disagreement.
This means that the teachers generally do not find difficulties teaching topic areas outside their specializations
or main teaching subjects. In this direction, the Geography teachers are the most comfortable as none of them
find any difficulties, while the History (38.5%), Economics (37.5%) and Philosophy/Religion teachers (33.1%)
are the most uncomfortable in teaching topic areas outside their specializations.

Summary: Quality of Citizenship Education Teacher


Subject SA A D SD U Total
f 126 175 69 20 0 390
History
% 32.3% 44.9% 17.7% 5.1% 0% 100%
f 45 63 54 48 0 210
Geography
% 21.4% 30.0% 25.7% 22.9% 0% 100%
f 48 36 18 18 0 120
Economics
% 40.0% 30.0% 15.0% 15.0% 0% 100%
f 10 07 04 08 01 30
Philosophy / Religion
% 33.3% 23.3% 13.3% 26.7% 3.3% 100%
f 229 281 145 94 01 750
All Subjects (Total)
% 30.5% 37.5% 19.3% 12.5% 0.1% 100%
68.0% 31.9%

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In reaction to the quality of Citizenship Education teachers, more than two thirds (68%) of all the teachers
agreed with the issues raised while about a third of them (31.9%) disagreed. The variation in agreement ranges
from that of the most positive History teachers (77.2%) through those of the Economics (70%) and
Philosophy/Religion teachers (56.6%) to that of the least positive Geography teachers (51.4%). The chi squared
statistic has been established below to determine the extent to which this variation significantly depends on the
Citizenship Education teachers' main or first teaching subject.

The Chi Squared Statistic


Contingency table summarizing the respondents' opinions on this aspect
Subject SA A D SD U Total
History 126 175 69 20 0 . 390
Geography 45 63 54 48 0 210
Economics 48 36 18 18 0 120
Philosophy / Religion 10 07 04 08 01 30
Total 229 281 145 94 01 750

Calculation of the chi-squared statistic


o E O - E (O-E) 2 (O - E)2-5- E
126 119 7 49 0.412
175 146 29 841 5.760
69 75.4 -6.4 40.96 0.543
20 49 -29 841 17.163
0 0.5 -0.5 0.25 0.500
45 64 -19 361 5.641
63 78.7 -15.7 246.49 3.132
54 40.6 13.4 179.56 4.423
48 26.3 21.7 470.89 17.905
0 0.3 -0.3 0.09 0.300
48 36.6 11.6 129.96 3.551
36 45 -9 81 1.800
18 23.2 -5.2 27.04 1.166
18 15 3 9 0.600
0 0.2 -0.2 0.04 0.200
10 9.2 0.8 0.64 0.070
7 11.2 -4.2 17.64 1.575
4 5.8 -1.8 3.24 0.559
8 3.8 4.2 17.64 4.642
1 0.1 0.9 0.81 8.100
% cal 78.042
d f = ( 4 - l ) ( 5 - 1 ) = 3 x 4 = 12
zUdf= 12, si = 0.05) = 21.026 and 78.042

£[<,: The quality of Citizenship Education Teachers does not significantly depend on their first teaching
subject.
H^' Thequality of Citizenship Education Teachers significantly depends on their first teaching subject.
Contingency Coefficient (cc) =
rz:=i78.042 _ _ V^SJ _
V « + ^2 V 750 + 78.042 V 828.042
0 "3070
Hence cc = 0.31 (on a cc max of 0.7071), which is ^^xioo% = 43.4%.
v 7 0.7071

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Decision 6. Carmen, P., Juauma, D., Paloma, D,.& Ignacio, A.
Since zLW = 12, si = 0.05) = 2\m6<x2ca[= 78.042, the (2005). The Collaborative Development of
null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected (and the alternative Didactic Materials. Madrid, Spain.
hypothesis (Ha) is accepted). Hence, at the 95% level 7. Castling, A (1996). Competence - based Teaching
of confidence, the quality of Citizenship Education Training London. Macmillan Press LTD.
teachers depends on their initial teaching subject.
8. Chris Culshaw, Jenny, Paul and Neil (2002).
Conclusion Citizenship Today. London. Harper Collins
Generally, about two thirds (68%) of all the teachers Publishers Limited.
agreed with the issues raised. This position varies 9. Darlmg-Hammond,L.(2000).Teacher quality and
significantly between the teachers of History, student achievement. A review of state policy.
Geography, Economics and Philosophy/Religion; with Education policy analysis archives 8 ( 1 ) pp 1-45.
History teachers being most positive and Geography
teachers being the least positive. 10. Darling- Hammond, L. (1999). Educating
Teachers for the next century; Rethinking practice
The major findings of this project show that: and policy in griffin.
➢ Although Citizenship teachers have basically been 11. David Keer.(1999). Citizenship Education; An
trained to teach their main subject areas (History, International Comparism.
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