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Written by: James Brown Miniatures Design: Evan Allen, Tim Adcock, Mike Anderson,

Graphic Design, Layout, & Additional Writing: Casey Davies Giorgio Bassani, Matt Bickley, Will Jayne.
Editors: Peter Simunovich, John-Paul Brisigotti Proofreaders: Russell Briant, Jeff Brooks, Khairul Effendy,
Faith Hamblyn, Gregg Siter, Rob Vilnave.
With help from the entire Battlefront Studio:
Blake Coster, Sean Goodison, Mike Haught, Aaron Mathie, Matt Artwork: Vincent Wai, Warren Mahy.
Parkes, Victor Pesch, Chris Townley, Wayne Turner, Phil Yates.

Photo: US Signal Corps

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means without
the prior written permission of the publisher, nor be otherwise circulated in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and
without a similar condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
Collecting Flames Of War . . . . . 2 Tank Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Battledress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Colours Of War Paint Range . . .4 Tyres & Painting Black . . . . . . . 29 Paratroopers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Rust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Tools and Preparation . . . . . . . . 6
Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 US Armour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Assembling Miniatures . . . . . . . . 8
Headlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Sherman Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Undercoating Miniatures . . . . . . 10
Common Vehicle Stowage . . . . . 31 Weathering Olive Drab . . . . . 69
Mounting for Painting . . . . . . . . 11
Decals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Organisation and Markings . . . . 70
The Colours Of War Weather Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Painting System . . . . . . . . . . . 12 US Infantry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Varnishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Camouflage Uniforms . . . . . . 75
Painting Techniques . . . . . . . . . . 14
Putting it into Practice . . . . . . . . 17 German . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Winter Uniforms . . . . . . . . . . 76
German Armour . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Airborne Troops . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Basing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Camouflage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Soviets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Basing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
German Tank Tracks . . . . . . . . 36 Soviet Armour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Basic Basing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Vehicle Colour Timeline . . . . . 38 Whitewash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Plastic Themed Bases . . . . . . . . . 20
German Markings . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Soviet Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Painting Cobblestones . . . . . . . . 22
German Infantry . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Air Recognition Markings . . . 81
Painting Bricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Waffenfarbe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Weathering Soviet Green . . . . 82
Themed Basing - Africa . . . . . . . 24
Splinter Camouflage . . . . . . . . 48 Soviet Tank Crew . . . . . . . . . . 82
Seasonal Basing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Waffen-SS Camouflage . . . . . . 50 Soviet Markings . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Common Features . . . . . . . . . . . 26
The Desert War . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Soviet Infantry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
British . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Soviet Uniforms . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Infantry Weapons . . . . . . . . . . . 27
British Armour . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Komissars & Piping . . . . . . . . 85
Webbing and Canvas . . . . . . . . . 27
Vehicle Colour Timeline . . . . . 56 Amoeba Pattern Camouflage . 86
Helmets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
British Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Winter Infantry . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Canteens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Brown Leather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 British Infantry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Welcome to Colours Of War, a comprehensive system for painting Flames Of War miniatures. Every wargamer views
painting differently. Some see it as a chore, to be rushed through as quickly as possible; others enjoy painting and
modelling just as much, or even more than playing games; still others admire great painting, but have grown frustrated
and given up on the possibility of ever getting good at it themselves. Whichever group you fit into, we have devised our
painting system to be useful to you.
Painting is a vital part of the wargaming hobby. Of course the combined knowledge and ideas of the Battlefront studio
the tactical challenge, social interaction and healthy into a concise and coherent collection of tips and guides.
competition are just as important. But those can all be Our studio members have a diverse range of painting skill
found just as easily in other hobbies, none of which also and expertise, but between us we represent over a century
allow you to exercise your creativity, skill and diligence as of collective experience designing, modelling and painting
you amass a collection of glorious miniatures. In fact, the miniatures.
visual appeal of well painted models and terrain is almost This book will teach you tried and tested processes which
certainly a large part of what attracted you to tabletop balance ease and efficiency with positive results, and will
wargaming in the first place. give you the know-how and confidence to paint any Flames
We can’t tell you the one ‘right’ way to paint - such a thing Of War army.
simply does not exist. What this book aims to do is distil

© Copyright Battlefront Miniatures Ltd., 2015. ISBN: 9780992255534

Collecting a Flames Of War army may seem daunting before you begin, but you will quickly discover how much fun it is. In
fact, many find that they cannot stop at just one army or force, and usually end up with two, three or more forces at various
stages of completion. Some people require patience and motivation to see an army through to the end. And many painters
find themselves easily distracted by new miniatures for completely different forces all the time. But that is half the fun!

Plan your force

There are two ways to go about collecting a Flames Of
War army: by looking through Intelligence Briefing
books such as Devil’s Charge, Bridge at Remagen or
Atlantik Wall and finding a list that you think is cool,
or by simply collecting the models that you like and
then finding an Intelligence Briefing they fit into.
The most important thing is to have a clear goal to
help inspire you and give you the motivation to finish
your project.
There are a lot of things to consider when thinking
about starting a Flames Of War army. Check out our
website,, for more informa-
tion on the types of forces you can choose from.

In Flames Of War, the basic
unit is a platoon. Each platoon
diagram indicates the required
squads and teams you must
have to make that unit.
Each platoon entry in a
Flames Of War book reflects
the historical make-up of the
platoon, and tells you how to
base the blister or box set that
represents that particular unit.

Flames Of War box sets are

designed around the diagrams in
Flames Of War books, and come
with all the options needed to
make a platoon.
Shown here is an example of a US
Armored Rifle Platoon diagram
and how it looks in miniature
form when made from the
corresponding box, UBX41.

Not Sure where to start? Try Open Fire!
Open Fire! contains everything you need to
start collecting and playing Flames Of War,
A German Grenadier Kompanie supported by
StuG assault guns and PaK40 anti-tank guns.
A British Tank Squadron of Sherman & Firefly
tanks supported by US Paratroopers.
A 36-page full colour rulebook, and a 40-page
full colour forces book with US, German,
British and Soviet Intelligence Briefings.
Dice, cardboard terrain, tokens, and a V1
flying bomb terrain feature.
Painting and playing games with Open Fire!
miniatures should help you decide where to go
next in the Flames Of War hobby, and give you
a good base to start from.



Black Sherman Drab
Tankovy Green

White Dark Leather Army Green

CWP301 CWP322 CWP342

Worn Rubber Boot Brown Splinter Green

CWP302 CWP323 CWP343

Panzer Grey Battlefield Brown Jager Green

CWP303 CWP324 CWP344

Bunker Grey Battledress Brown Tommy Green

CWP304 CWP325 CWP345

Greatcoat Grey Comrade Khaki Afrika Green

CWP305 CWP326 CWP346

Worn Canvas Military Khaki GI Green

CWP306 CWP327 CWP347

Whitewash Wool Brown Firefly Green

CWP307 CWP328 CWP348

Grease Brown Heer Green Grenadier Green

CWP320 CWP340 CWP349

Paint sets
Colours Of War paints are available in convenient sets containing colours specific to your army. When combined with the
Quartermaster’s Paint Set, which contains the common colours that are needed across all nations, you should have all the colours
needed to paint your Flames Of War force.

Quartermasters Paint Set German Armour Paint Set German Infantry Paint Set
Black Battlefield Brown Panther Yellow Boot Brown Grenadier Green Luftwaffe Blue
(CWP300) (CWP324) (CWP365) (CWP323) (CWP349) (CWP401)
Army Green Worn Canvas Panzer Grey Rommel Shade Heer Green Manstein Shade
(CWP342) (CWP306) (CWP303) (CWP494) (CWP340) (CWP492)
Military Khaki Wool Brown Oxide Red Splinter Green
(CWP327) (CWP328) (CWP382) (CWP343)
Dry Dust European Skin
(CWP364) (CWP385)
Dark Gunmetal Skin Shade
(CWP480) (CWP491)

Rust Orange Artillery Red Bradley Shade
CWP360 CWP380 CWP490

Cavalry Yellow Devil Red Skin Shade

CWP361 CWP381 CWP491

Sicily Yellow Oxide Red Manstein Shade

CWP362 CWP382 CWP492

Crusader Sand Motherland Earth Zhukov Shade

CWP363 CWP383 CWP493

Dry Dust Tan Leather Rommel Shade

CWP364 CWP384 CWP494

Panther Yellow European Skin Monty Shade

CWP365 CWP385 CWP495

Shades are formulated differently to

regular Colours Of War paints. They
Infantry Blue Dark Gunmetal are made from intense pigment in a
CWP400 CWP480 special low-viscosity medium.
They can be used in two ways: as
a wash they flow across the model,
pooling in the recesses and providing
Luftwaffe Blue Cold Steel a quick and easy method of adding
CWP401 CWP481
shading to your miniature.
They can also be used as a glaze, a
transparent layer that can alter the
underlying colour.
Shell Brass

British Paint Set Soviet Paint Set US Paint Set

Firefly Green Tommy Green Tankovy Green Greatcoat Grey Sherman Drab Dark Leather
(CWP348) (CWP345) (CWP341) (CWP305) (CWP321) (CWP322)
Battledress Brown Monty Shade Comrade Khaki Zhukov Shade GI Green Bradley Shade
(CWP325) (CWP495) (CWP326) (CWP493) (CWP347) (CWP490)
Crusader Sand Motherland Earth Sicily Yellow
(CWP363) (CWP383) (CWP362)

Proper preparation and assembly is essential to a well-finished miniature. An unsightly mould line or piece of flash left can
spoil the result, no matter how good the paint job is. Before you can begin producing miniature masterpieces, let’s look at
a selection of some of the basic tools you will require.

The most important painting tool is obviously
a selection of good brushes. Many beginning
painters assume that to paint well, they
should use the tiniest brush they can find.
In fact, the size of the brush you use is much
less important than the shape. For detail
work, the bristles of the brush should come
to a sharp point. The Drybrush is, as its
name suggests, designed especially for the
drybrushing technique (see page 16).

Hobby Knife
For trimming parts and cleaning casting
imperfections before assembly. Using a new,
sharp blade is actually safer, because you will
not need to apply as much force and you are
less likely to slip and cut yourself. In any case,
remember to always cut away from yourself.

For removing parts from sprues and trimming
larger pieces of unwanted material. The
flat bottom of the blades lets you get right
up close to the model. With plastic parts,
though, it is advisable to clip slightly away
from the model and trim the excess with the
hobby knife, to avoid leaving a scar or mark
on the surface.

Also very useful for cleaning parts and
making sure everything fits well. They are
more effective than a hobby knife at ensuring
a smooth, flat surface along straight edges,
especially with hard resin parts.

Pin Vice
For drilling out small holes in gun barrels
and muzzle brakes, etc. Also an ideal way to
strengthen fragile joints between parts, by
‘pinning’ with a piece of metal rod.

For handling and manipulating small parts.
These can be indispensable, especially when
gluing together models. Often you will find
that even if you can position a smallish part
quite comfortably with your fingers when dry
fitting, it gets much more difficult once glue
is involved.

Sculpting Tools
Great for shaping epoxy putty (Green Stuff
or Grey Stuff). Epoxy putty is great for filling
unwanted gaps. And, if you feel like a creative
challenge, perfect for adding custom details
and modifications to models.

An airbrush is a wonderfully useful tool that
can really help with a lot of painting tasks. It is
considered almost indispensable by larger-scale
However, investing in an airbrush and compressor
is a big decision. Many inexpensive models are
available, and while they may seem like a bargain,
you get what you pay for. Most cheap airbrushes
come with a variety of pitfalls and difficulties that
are likely to frustrate and discourage novice users.
A good-quality airbrush and compressor will cost
hundreds of dollars at least, and may in fact be the
biggest single hobby investment you make.
An airbrush can speed up undercoating,
basecoating, highlighting, and allow you to easily
paint soft-edge camouflage schemes. But they are Airbrushes and Colours Of War paints
certainly not a required piece of equipment.
If you already own an airbrush, or if you decide to add one to your hobby arsenal,
In fact, airbrushing is such a broad subject that it then you can use it to apply Colours Of War paints without difficulty. You can thin
lies outside the scope of this book, so we will not Colours Of War paints to a suitable consistency with a generic non-alcohol-based
be covering it in detail. acrylic airbrush thinner or just with water. An inexpensive option is glass cleaner (like
There are plenty of how-to guides available online Windex); as well as thinning the paint for an even coverage, it can also be used for
if you want to know more. cleaning. Airbrushing with Colours Of War paints makes it easy to ensure an exact
match, which may not always the case if you use a mix of paint ranges.

Assembling Plastic Miniatures

Flames Of War miniatures are quick and easy

to assemble. Vehicle box sets often include
parts to build multiple vehicle types, and
some plastic frames are common across
different box sets. Each box has a parts guide
showing what all the options are. This guide
and the pictures on the box should be all you
need to assemble your vehicle.
However, if there is something you’re unsure
of, every box set has an in-depth step-by-step
guide on our website. Simply scan the QR
code to go straight to the product spotlight.

Remove parts from the frame using a Trim the part using a hobby knife to carefully Mould Lines can be easily cleaned off by
pair of plastic cutters. Place the flat edge of the shave the feed point off the components. scraping with a sharp knife gently along the
cutters against the part you want to remove and surface.
snip. To avoid damaging parts, it pays to leave On larger pieces like gun barrels, using a file
a bit of extra sprue on the piece and clean it up will help to give a smoother finish.
later with a knife.

Tip - Clip the frame: For small components Dry fit! One of the most important things to Glue: Once you are happy with the fit, apply
like AA machine-guns, it pays to cut the frame do is test-fit the pieces before applying any glue. the appropriate glue sparingly to the parts and
into pieces first; sometimes clipping the part This will ensure that you spot any fitting issues press together. Polystyrene cement is the best
straight from the frame creates enough stress to that may ruin your finish, like in the example choice for joining hard plastic pieces, as it will
damage the part you are clipping out. above where some feeds haven’t been trimmed melt the plastic slightly and weld the parts
properly and are preventing a clean join. together.

Assembling Metal and Resin Models
While the Flames Of War plastic range is getting larger all the time, a You can use the same techniques to clean up the pieces as you would for
large proportion of the Battlefront Miniatures range is made up of kits plastic parts, however there are a few other tips and tricks to use.
combining resin, metal and plastic parts.

Mould line

Mould lines and flashing are unfortunate side effects of the casting Tanks turrets are glued to the hull with a bit of glue to stop them
process, but are easily cleaned off. The miniature above has been selected getting damaged in transit. Make sure you remove this first.
to show particularly bad mould lines. Should you ever find a model like The metal and resin components of your Flames Of War miniatures
this, get in touch with us at so we may have some residual powder or oils on them from the casting
can replace it with the quality model you should be getting in every pack. process that need to be cleaned off to allow the paint to adhere
Most of the time, a scrape with a hobby knife or a small amount of filing properly to the surface. You can clean it off easily with warm soapy
with a needle file is all that is needed to clean up a metal figure. water. Rinse the parts well and dry them before painting.

Any imperfections in the resin or metal parts should be carefully removed Test-fit! Test-fit! Test-fit! Due to the nature of metal and resin
with a hobby knife or file. This may result in a chunk of resin snapping off. and their interaction there will sometimes be some extra work
If you do snap off a mud guard, do not despair. Resin glues well, so often required to make adjustments to get the best fit possible - the odd
you can simply re-attach the piece with no one the wiser. bump or lump filed off, metal part straightened, etc. But it’s worth
that time and effort to make sure the final tank or AFV looks great
after the paint goes on. Be sure to test fit again after you make any

For the strongest bond, we recommend scouring lines on any large flat Apply superglue sparingly and press the parts together and hold for a
surfaces that need to be glued together. Before gluing any parts together few seconds. If you want a faster bond, apply superglue to one piece,
make sure that they are clean of any dust or resin shavings. and accelerant to the other before pressing the parts together.

The Flames Of War website has a lot of in-depth articles with more tips and tricks to help make assembling your models go smoothly.

Undercoating miniatures
Undercoating is a vital step in the painting process. Just as a house needs a strong foundation, a good paint job needs a smooth,
durable undercoat to make it easier to apply the colours, and to stop your hard work from chipping or rubbing off. The first layer
of paint needs to adhere to the material of the model and provide a smooth, even surface for the subsequent layers. It doesn’t
matter what type of paint you use, as long as it provides a tough, matt surface without filling in or hiding details on the model.

Every hobbyist has a favourite undercoating technique, but the most If you are brushing on a basecoat (see page 14) a good rule of thumb is
common is a sprayed-on black undercoat from an aerosol can. That way to paint dark colours like Tankovy Green over a black undercoat, and
if any spots are accidentally missed, they will be dark and inconspicuous. light colours like Crusader Sand over a white or grey undercoat.
Some painters prefer white or grey primer, because it gives colours a Colours Of War coloured primer cans are an ideal option. They
brighter finish, while colours sometimes appear more muted when save you time by priming models in an exact colour match for the
applied over black. appropriate paint colour.

Before spraying your miniature, make sure you read the instructions on Always undercoat the difficult places to see and reach first. We usually
the spray can. Most importantly, shake the can vigorously for about a start by turning vehicles upside down for the first coat of paint.
minute to mix the paint with the propellant. TIP: There is enough pressure in a spray can to blow light plastic
To spray your models, hold the can about 8”/20cm away from your miniatures around, so consider sticking them down to your spray
miniatures and spray across the models in short, controlled bursts. surface with double-sided tape.

You don’t need to cover your miniature in paint all in one go. If you No matter how much you try, you’ll never get spray paint into every
apply paint too thickly, it can pool in the recesses and clog up the detail. nook and cranny.
It is better to apply two or three light coats, each time spraying from a Once you’re happy with the spray undercoat, use a medium brush
different angle. and some black paint or appropriately coloured paint to touch up
anywhere that the spray undercoat missed.

Mounting for painting
There is an age-old debate among miniature painters–do you mount the miniatures on their bases before or after they are
painted? There is no right answer to this question. The method you use totally depends on what feels comfortable to you.

Mounting infantry miniatures individually on strips of card, popsicle Another popular method for mounting infantry (and guns and tank
sticks or even Flames Of War small bases allows you to handle them and turrets, for that matter) is gluing each one, or attaching it with Blu-
have easy access to painting them without any of the miniatures being Tack, to a handle such as piece of dowel, a large nail or a clothes peg.
obscured by any other. You can space them out enough to allow room to The handles can be slotted into pre-drilled holes in a piece of wood to
paint every detail on each miniature. This is how we have painted many hold them upright while they are drying between layers or coats.
of the miniatures in this book.

Heavier miniatures like tanks can also be mounted on any convenient Some painters prefer to mount their miniatures on their final bases
handle, such as old paint bottles or a larger section of dowel. Make sure before painting, as their style doesn’t require lots of detail work and
the handle is large and heavy enough that the tank won’t be too top- this saves a step later. Many painters that use this method add the filler
heavy. The handle lets you keep fingers away from the models during to the base (see page 19) before painting and then paint the miniatures
painting, and allows them to be set down for drying without damaging and base together.
the paint.

Expert Tip
Some tanks, like the resin and metal
Panzer IV above, have fenders and
mudguards attached to their tracks.
Glue these to the chassis of the tank
during the assembly stage.
A trick for other tanks, like the
plastic Panzer IV to the right, is to
leave the tracks off the tank and
paint them separately. This will make
it easier to paint them as you’ll have
better access to the tops of the tracks.
You can use the same trick for
Schürzen (armoured skirts) and
paint them on the sprue.
To get the strongest bond, scrape
the paint off surfaces you are gluing;
otherwise you will be gluing paint
to paint and your miniature is more
likely to break.

Whether you have never painted before or have years of experience, this book is a tool to help you get the most out of your
Flames Of War models. Our books have always had painting guides, but previously we could only choose the best colours
from pre-existing paint ranges, which inevitably required certain compromises. So we decided to overhaul our whole paint
system; our philosophy was to take the end result–well-painted miniatures–and work backwards, creating an integrated
system which is result-focused. For the first time, the paint and the guides have been developed together, creating a holistic
system designed to get your armies from the box to the table as effortlessly as possible.

Colours Of War paints are high-quality acrylic, tough and hard- Then each of the major nations has its own colour set, with the
wearing so you can game without worrying about your hard correct colours for their unique equipment.
work chipping or rubbing off. The paint has a very high pigment With just the Quartermaster’s Set and the appropriate nation-
content to make it easier to achieve an even coverage with rich, specific set, you will have all the colours you need to paint your
solid colour. The colours have been fine-tuned with wargaming army. Certain intermediate and advanced tasks
miniatures in mind - historically appropriate, yet will use a wider variety of colours, so over
vibrant enough to stand out on the gaming time you may wish to expand your paint
table. collection with additional sets, giving you
Different colours get used in different more options and versatility. But to paint a
quantities, and some colours inevitably standard army, those two sets should be all
run out faster than others. you need.
You will always need more of the The Germans have a lot of variety and
colour for tanks, for example, than colour in their equipment, so they have
you will need of the colour for boots. two sets - one for infantry and one for
So the Colours Of War paints come in tanks and other vehicles. If your army
two sizes: 12ml for regular colours, includes both, you will probably need both
and large 20ml bottles for the colours paint sets.
which get the heaviest use. It should go without saying that all of the
We took all of the colours that always suggestions in Colours Of War are open to
seem indispensable, no matter the interpretation. If you have your own ways
army, and combined them you prefer to paint certain items,
into a universal core set: the then by all means integrate those
Quartermaster’s Set. as you wish.

How to Read the Painting Guides

Colours Of War painting guides begin with a list of Splinter Green Chevron System
the paint colours you will need for that task. Fine Brush
Each painting step has a symbol indicating its
Each individual step includes several key pieces of relative level of difficulty, complexity or how time-
Actual Size
information, including a colour swatch, suggested consuming it is. Use these as a guide to whether a
brush size and a brief description of how to apply suggested technique is appropriate to your level of
the paint. painting confidence, or how much time you have.
To make it easier to see the details of the paint
job, infantry models are shown much larger than A good but basic gaming standard. These
actual size. The figure is also displayed at actual size steps will not assume you have any paints
at the end of each stage, to show you what your beyond the Quartermaster’s Set and your
miniatures will actually look like. national paint set.
Since vehicles are large enough to see what’s going Intermediate techniques for people who want
on, they will usually be shown at approximately a higher quality gaming standard.
100% , although some details have been shown Paint patches of Splinter Green An advanced finish that other gamers will envy.
larger. between the brown, again aiming for
jagged, angular shapes. For truly dedicated painters only.

All modellers know that miniatures are not just toys! And this means we want to paint them to look as realistic as possible.
At first glance, you might think this means we want our miniatures to look like men and tanks which have been shrunk to
a tiny size. But a better way to think about it is to imagine looking at the real subjects from several hundred metres away.
Obviously not as much detail will be visible, so the models are simplified accordingly. That’s a good thing, because most
people are not keen to paint eyes on 15mm scale figures (although it certainly can be done!)

The way that light falls on an object differs depending on its size. This means that we have to paint the appropriate shading,
Light travels in a straight line, so it may seem that size should not lightening the colours on raised surfaces that reflect the most
affect how an object casts a shadow, merely its shape. But light is light and darkening the colours in recesses and underhangs, to
scattered and dispersed by the atmosphere, and it is bounced and create the illusion of a large item viewed from a distance.
reflected in different ways by every surface it hits. So in practice, Scale distance also has an effect on colour. Because of the way
small objects just do not have the same level of contrast in their the atmosphere scatters and diffuses light, distant objects appear
shading. Imagine how dark it would be in the deep shadows at paler and hazier than near ones. Artists refer to this as ‘aerial
the back of a large cave, compared to a scale model of the cave perspective’.
1/100th the size.
This evocative photograph
of British commandos
landing on Sword Beach
on D-Day is an excellent
example of aerial
The further away the
figures are, the less
defined they become.
It would be crazy to try to
paint a 15mm figure with
the same clarity of detail
as a real man.
The trick is learning
how to simplify details
like camouflage patterns
in such a way that they
convey the impression of
the real thing.

Over the sorts of scale ‘distances’ involved with 1/100th scale In short, highlighting and shading is a vital part of miniature
miniatures, aerial perspective is a small and subtle effect, but a painting. You will see it described by a variety of fancy-sounding
genuine one. For this reason, it is reasonable and realistic for names like ‘chiaroscuro’ and ‘modulation’. If all of this sounds
paint colours to be lightened very slightly in tone, in comparison a little complex and intimidating, don’t worry - the tricks and
to the true historical colour. Plus, lighter models just tend to look techniques in this book will make it quicker and easier than you
better on the table. This isn’t something you need to put a lot may think to effectively shade your miniatures.
of thought into - it has been taken into consideration with the
colour choice of some Colours Of War paints.

Even if all the colours on

a miniature are painted
neatly, without any
shading it will always look
like exactly what it is: a
toy soldier. If anything,
neatness and accuracy
are less important than
effective shading. If a
model is well shaded and
highlighted, as long as it
This photograph of a Waffen-SS parka A miniature painted without shading The same miniature painted with gives the right impression
shows how the fall of light and shadow does have some natural shadows, but highlights and shadows has a much of detail, the eye will ‘fill
conveys its shape and contours. its small size is nevertheless apparent. greater sense of volume and realism. in’ the rest.

Before we launch into the specifics of painting Flames Of War models, we’ll begin by devoting a few pages to the theory and
technique of painting. The only way to develop the fundamentals of painting - brush control, accuracy, the ‘feel’ of how
paint flows on to a surface - is by practising it yourself.
Before you dip your brush in paint, moisten the bristles in your water jar, then shape them to a sharp point. This
will give you more accuracy and control. Some painters develop the habit of using their lips to shape the bristles.
If you’re one of these, that’s your business; we won’t try to stop you. However, the crease on the side of your hand
below your pinkie finger is also useful for reshaping your brush, and more hygienic.

The basecoat is the first layer of colour. On a vehicle, it will usually be A good basecoat is a smooth,
one colour, while on an infantry figure it will consist of an appropriate even coating of colour.
colour for the uniform, the flesh areas, and each different item of gear. Applying two or three
When brushing on a basecoat, be careful not to apply the paint too thin coats, rather than
thickly, or you may risk covering up the details of the model. Colours one thick coat, helps
Of War paints have a stiff consistency, but they do not require a lot of to avoid ugly brush
thinning. If you keep your brush moist, you can use them straight from strokes.
the bottle. Alternatively, you can thin them with a little clean water.
Alternatively, coloured spray primers are a fantastic option, because they
are a primer (see page 10) and basecoat in one easy step.
A very common method of painting is to basecoat with a shadow colour
– similar to the main colour but darker in tone. The main colour is
then painted over this in a solid layer, leaving some of the darker colour
showing in recessed areas which would not catch much light. Highlights
can also be added, with a lighter version of the main colour painted on to
raised detail.

Acrylic paint is very versatile. It can be transparent or opaque, depending With practice, by controlling the amount of paint on your brush, you
on how thickly it is applied. You can learn to use this property to your can build up colour in several transparent layers, creating a smooth
advantage. transition between two colours.
Building up colour in thin
layers can create the
same effect as a series
of transitional colour
mixes, but faster. It
does take practice,

A great way to learn to blend effectively using layering is to simply

practise on a flat surface, experimenting to see what different marks and
effects you can create.

Just a few examples of the totally different tones and effects achievable just with black paint, simply by diluting it to varying degrees with
water and by controlling how much paint is ‘loaded’ on the brush.

Washes are a quick and easy way of adding shadows and accentuating detail. They are essentially a thin application of
colour, liquid enough to let the pigment settle mainly in the recesses, darkening these areas and adding depth.
A wash can be done with regular paint diluted with water, but it will be
a little crude and messy. As the water evaporates, the diluted pigment Shading washes are a fantastic
tends to ‘creep’ out of place, leaving you with a messy tide line of col- tool. If you use them as a
our. Colours Of War shades combine intense pigment with a transpar- single part of a process,
ent, highly fluid medium. Their low viscosity causes the pigment to run rather than a magic
smoothly into the cracks and recesses and stay there as it dries, giving one-stop-shop, your
much better contrast than a simple paint wash. results will improve
Each Colours Of War national paint set contains one shade, designed to markedly.
give an appropriate tone of shading for that nation’s specific equipment.
They are all named after a famous general, to differentiate them from
the regular paint colours.
These shades are all suitably dark, muted colours. So if a paint guide
calls for a colour of shade you don’t have, you can try substituting
another shade - you will not get exactly the pictured colour result, but
it will nevertheless produce effective shading. As your paint collection
grows, you will be able to experiment with different coloured shades to
give a variety of different effects.
Skin Shade is a little different. It is a rich, warm sepia brown, designed
primarily, as the name suggests, to make it easy to paint faces. Its colour
is too intense to be useful as a general shading wash.

Shades are good, but they are not magic, and they won’t always behave While washes on infantry figures are quite forgiving, vehicles, which
exactly how you want them to. have plenty of large flat areas, sometimes need tidying up after a wash.
They won’t always stay where you want them, and some will pool in Often a careful drybrush of the basecoat colour is enough to tidy up the
areas where you didn’t want the colour to be darkened. The larger the stray shade. In other cases, you may choose to use your medium brush
area being washed, the more likely this is to be a problem. to strategically layer the basecoat colour over especially messy areas.

When a transparent wash is used not to add shading but to alter the colour
of the underlying paint, it is referred to as glazing. It is done with much Light is filtered through the
less of the wash on the brush, so that a thin layer is spread evenly over a transparent glaze and
controlled area, rather than pooling in the recesses. reflected off the opaque
One purpose of a glaze is to intensify the colour of an object. Acrylic paints colour underneath,
are fairly well suited to this because of their ability to be translucent. Art- producing a rich blend
ists’ inks can also be used to dramatically intensify the appearance of col- of the two colours.
ours. Because drab military colours predominate on World War II models,
the opportunities to paint intense colours tend to be fairly rare, however.
But when you do get a chance to paint a bright colour - e.g. Soviet flags,
air recognition panels, certain tank markings - one or two thin glazes of an
appropriate bright colour can really add to the model’s impact on the table.
Another purpose of glazes is to smooth out the effect of shading. If you find
that your highlights and shadows are too intense, a thin glaze of the main
colour is a great way to subtly blend them together.
A glaze of Skin Shade is very useful for adding richness to brown objects
like rifles and leather. And the other shades can also be used as glazes, to
subtly vary the colour of selected parts of models.

Drybrushing is a quick and simple technique for selectively adding paint only to prominent parts of a model. It is done
by wiping most of the paint off the brush, then dragging the brush back and forth over the surface of the model. Pigment
from the paint is deposited on edges and raised parts of textured areas, leaving recesses untouched.
As the name of the technique suggests, the brush should be very dry Drybrushing is an excellent
before you start. If you have recently washed the brush, dry it thoroughly way to add highlights.
with a rag or paper towel to remove any water from between the bristles Drybrushing alone will
before you dip it in the paint. You generally shouldn’t thin paint for sometimes give a chalky,
drybrushing. The thicker and ‘stickier’ the paint, the easier it is to transfer dusty finish, but it
colour on to the miniature in a controlled way. Colours Of War paint has combines well with
a fairly stiff consistency straight from the bottle, which will work well for layering, glazing or
drybrushing without thinning. washes.
Drybrushing is tough on brushes! The sticky paint and forceful motion
create harsh friction which will quickly bend and weaken the fine,
soft bristles of detail brushes. The Drybrush, with its tough bristles, is
purpose designed to withstand this friction, making it ideal for most
general drybrushing tasks.

For smaller areas, you can use an old, worn-out Medium Brush that no is wiped off the brush, and only a very fine, dusty coating of paint is
longer has a fine enough point to be useful for detail painting. But try transferred, to a ‘heavy’ drybrush, almost like normal painting, where
not to use brand new Medium or Fine brushes for drybrushing, unless most of the paint is left on the brush and is liberally slathered on to a
you want them to be dedicated drybrushing brushes, not really usable large proportion of the surface.
for anything else. With experience, you will learn to adjust the amount of paint and the
As with many techniques, it is easy to learn the basics of drybrushing, movement of the brush depending on the effect you want to produce.
but it takes a lot of practice to master the possibilities. A range of
variation is possible, from a ‘light’ drybrush, where almost all paint

Some examples of the range of effects possible with drybrushing. Stippling gives a similar but more controlled effect,
These all show black paint drybrushed on to a textured white surface. and works just as well on smooth surfaces.

A variation of drybrushing, stippling uses essentially the same principle motion. Stippling can create areas of colour with softly feathered edges
but with a more controlled, deliberate application. Again, some of the - good for camouflage patterns; or it can give a mottled, uneven coating
paint is wiped off the bristles of the brush - more or less depending on of colour, ideal for certain weathering effects.
the effect you are trying to achieve. The Drybrush will work well for stippling fairly large areas. If you trim
Instead of dragging the brush laterally over the model, stippling the bristles of an old Medium Brush to a shorter length, it will make a
involves dabbing the paint on to the surface using a downward jabbing perfect stippling brush for smaller areas.

Contrary to the theme of this book, we can’t Uniform & Gear Shading Wash
Pages 46-47 Pages 46, 49
actually tell you how to paint. We can describe
techniques and suggest the right colours, but
it’s up to you to put it all together in a way
that is right for you.
Mostly we will show how to paint items
individually. Your job is to combine the
different steps into a coherent workflow,
adapting them as you choose. If you need to
wash several parts of the model with the same
colour shade, for example, you can save time
by doing them all together.
Here’s an example of how you might combine Basecoat uniform Grenadier Green, helmet Wash the figure liberally with Manstein Shade
techniques from throughout this book to paint cover and Zeltbahn Military Khaki, gas mask to create shading and definition.
a German grenadier from start to finish. canister Heer Green and anklets Army Green.

Wood, Leather & Canteen Face & Hands Colouring Wash

Pages 27-28 Pages 26, 28 Pages 26-28

Basecoat the canteen, boots, rifle stock and Use Tan Leather to basecoat the face and Wash the face and hands, rifle stock, boots and
entrenching tool handle Battlefield Brown. hands, and to apply a highlight to the boots. entrenching tool handle with Skin Shade.

Finish the Face Uniform Highlight Splinter Camouflage

Page 26 Page 46 Page 49

Finish the face using the Advanced Faces guide. Highlight uniform with a mix of Grenadier Paint the helmet cover and Zeltbahn tent
Some painters like to paint skin first and work Green and Worn Canvas. quarter in the ‘Splinter’ camouflage pattern.
outwards to avoid getting paint on other items.

Gun Metal Panzerfaust Waffenfarbe

Page 27 Page 35 Page 47

Actual Size

Sparingly paint the barrel and other metal Paint the Panzerfaust Panther Yellow, then Paint the Waffenfarbe shoulder-board piping
parts of the rifle Dark Gunmetal. wash with Rommel Shade in a similar way to White, the arm-of-service colour for Infantry.
German armour.

One of the clichés you often hear about painting a great-looking army is ‘bases and faces’. Good faces naturally draw the
eye, and can lift the effect of the whole figure. But bases are the largest part of your infantry and gun teams, and can turn
them into miniature dioramas. With some thought, research and a little imagination, a well-planned basing scheme can
add extra realism and detail to your army.

Basing Materials
Gale Force Nine’s wide range of
Hobby Rounds includes all of the Autumn 3-color
Marsh Blend
basing materials you may need to GFS005 Clump Foliage Mix
base your miniatures. Check out
their website at
Summer Flock Blend Ash Waste Flock
GFS007 GFS016

Dirt Foundation Meadow Blend

Flock Blend Flock
GFS008 GFS017

Super Fine
Autumn Flock Blend
GFS009 Basing Grit

Spring Under- Fine Basing Grit

growth Flock Blend GFS019

Dark Conifer Medium Basing Grit

Flock Blend GFS021

Winter/Dead Summer 3-color

Green Static Grass Rocky Basing Grit
GFS001 Static Grass Clump Foliage Mix GFS023
GFS003 GFS013

Dark Green Static

Straw Static Grass Arid Static Grass Snow
GFS002 GFS004 Grass GFS027

As well as the commercial basing products, • Small pebbles or rocks for rocks and • Match sticks for sawn timber.
there are lots of things around your house and boulders. • Finely corrugated cardboard for
yard that also make perfect basing materials. • Clean kitty litter for rocks and stones. corrugated iron.
Some of these are: • Small twigs and sticks for fallen branches As you can see, the possibilities are
• Brush bristles for tall grasses and radio and tree stumps. limited only by your imagination
aerials. • Lichen off trees for and ingenuity!
• Dried tea leaves from the pot for dead small bushes.
leaves, or painted green for live ones. • Rolled-up tissue
• Various ingredients from the spice rack for paper soaked in
ground cover and decaying foliage. PVA white glue for

Gluing Miniatures to your base
Command Team Infantry Team

Use the plugs provided to fill up any spare holes,

or fill with ready-mixed filller (see Basic Basing below).

Bases with Holes: Infantry and guns are All of the miniatures in the plastic range, as Older Bases: Some older ranges of Flames Of
formed into teams of 2-5 men, and live or well as the newest releases, fit perfectly into War blisters contain bases without holes.
die as a team. Base command teams on small bases with holes. Some older ranges may Scoring the top surface of plastic bases before
bases, infantry teams on medium bases, and require some filing to make them fit. the miniatures or basing material is applied
gun teams on large bases. Each box or blister If there are extra holes, or you don’t want to helps adhere them more firmly to the base.
comes with the right number of bases to make fill every hole, simply use a plug or fill it with Bevelling the edges of miniatures’ cast-on
the unit. Simply select a base with the same ready mixed filler in the next step. bases make it easier to blend them in with the
number of holes as figures in the team you are
assembling and slot the miniatures in.

Basic Basing
Here is a simple method for basing your miniatures that gives a good result in a relatively short time. Painting bases doesn’t require a good brush.
Here we’ve used old, worn-out brushes that are no longer any good for painting miniatures.

Ready-Mixed Filler: Apply a thin coat of plaster Basecoat: Paint your base colour. Here we have Drybrush: Once you have a good basecoat,
filler to the base to give it a bit of texture. Feel used Boot Brown. The paint may soak into the drybrush the base with a lighter, contrasting
free to sprinkle some grit or sand onto the base for filler resulting in a patchy look, so you may need colour. Here we have used Dry Dust.
extra texture before the filler dries. to paint two coats.

Details: Paint any extra details you’ve added to Flock: Paint some watered-down PVA white glue Extras: If you want to take your basing to
your base. Here we’ve drybrushed the rock Bunker on to the base, leaving some gaps for the earth the next level, experiment with blending
Grey. Again, we are using an old worn-out brush. to show through, and sprinkle on your choice of different static grass colours and adding pre-
Static Grass. made grass tufts.

As war raged across the world, infantry fought in theatres from the deserts of Africa to the ruins of Stalingrad. These
scenic bases provide a quick and simple way to recreate these battlefields without having to sculpt the detail yourself.
Designed to be compatible with the entire Flames Of War figure range, each base has a number of holes to plug your
figures into. Each set has an assortment of themed inserts, giving you limitless basing variations with minimal effort.

Rubble Bases
The Flames Of War Rubble
Bases are designed to depict
a generic war-torn urban
environment. By varying the
colours, they can be used to
represent any battleground,
from Stalingrad in the East
to Caen in the West.

Rural Bases
The Rural base set is equally
suitable for countryside
locales anywhere in Europe,
with plenty of fences, trees,
dead logs and rocks.

Using Plastic Themed Bases

Round Holes: The basic principle of the bases Long Holes: Long holes are designed to Long Hole Converter: For units without
is that the round holes can be filled by either a accommodate oddly shaped figures like HMG HMG teams or prone figures, plugs are included
soldier or a round plug. teams, or they can be filled with a long plug. to convert long spaces to round holes.

Plug Extras: Some of the plugs come with holes Brick Walls: Wall sections fit into the long slots. Specific Pieces: A few of the plugs are intended
to place one of the numerous signposts or grave There are three different shapes of wall, allowing to fit in specific places. Of course, you can use any
markers included. for plenty of variation. plug you like.

Plan your Platoon

The most important thing to do first is to plan the layout of your platoon, and work out where everything fits before gluing
anything down. You may find it useful to take a photo for reference later on, depending on how you plan to paint your unit.
The example above shows a BR812 Guards Rifle Platoon basing plan on the rubble bases.

Filling Plastic Themed Bases

Fill the cavity roughly halfway with Super Glue. When you place a figure into the cavity, the excess For a uniform finish use a toothpick to carefully
glue will squeeze out around the edge tease the glue away from the hole’s edge and across
the figure’s base

Super Glue
Health And Safety Tip
Cyanoacrylate is an eye irritant, and a lot of
people don’t realise that this also applies to
the fumes, which are a vaporized form of the
glue itself. You have probably heard warnings
like this before and might not take them very
seriously. But this method uses large quantities
of glue, so the fumes may be stronger than you
are used to. The harsh sting of concentrated
fumes in your nose and throat is unpleasant,
but the real risk is to the sensitive skin around
your eyes. To avoid a potential allergic reaction
Sprinkle sand or basing grit into the glue to fill Before the glue sets you can use your toothpick to or dermatitis, try to work in a well ventilated
the gap and hide the edge of the figure’s moulded- push the basing grit around. area, perhaps near a fan or an open window.
on base

Painting Cobblestones
Colour Pallet Sherman Drab Bunker Grey
Large Dryrush Large Dryrush

Sherman Drab

Bunker Grey

Basecoat: Basecoat your base Sherman Drab. This will give Drybrush: Give the base a heavy drybrush with Bunker
the appearance of dirt and grime between cobblestones. Grey.

Small Drybrush
Basing your troops on
rubble bases is easier
than you think using the
Rubble Base set and these
quick painting steps.

Drybrush: Give the base a light drybrush with Whitewash. Other details: Once the cobblestones are finished, paint any
Detail: Carefully pick out a few random individual stones in other details to finish off the base.
Bunker Grey and Whitewash (and mixes of the two) to create
some realistic variation

Painting Bricks
Colour Pallet Oxide Red Oxide Red Whitewash
Large Brush Rust Orange Small brush
Medium Brush

Oxide Red

Rust Orange
(360) Basecoat: Basecoat brick areas with Detail: Real bricks often vary in colour. Mortar: Heavily dilute Whitewash
Oxide Red. Paint individual bricks in varying with about three parts water to one part
mixes of Oxide Red and Rust Orange to paint. Do a careful targeted wash with
achieve a mottled look. a small brush, allowing the paint to run
Whitewash along the cracks.

Painting Trees
Colour Pallet Boot Brown Comrade Khaki Sicily Yellow
Large Brush Small Drybrush Small brush

Boot Brown

Comrade Khaki
Basecoat: Begin with a deep brown Drybrush: Drybrush with a light, Detail: Emphasise broken ends or areas
colour like Boot Brown. neutral brown such as Comrade Khaki. of peeled bark with Sicily Yellow.

Sicily Yellow
Painting Fences
If you like, you can
paint fences using
Greatcoat Grey exactly the same
(305) method as trees.
But we recommend
Trees come in a wide adding a drybrush of
variety of colours a warm neutral grey,
and textures, so your Foliage: If you don’t want bare trees, such as Greatcoat
imagination is your you can use them as a skeleton to attach Grey, to simulate
friend, as are reference clump foliage such as Summer 3-Colour dry old wood, aged
photos of real trees. Clump Foliage Mix (GFS013), using and weathered by the
Here are some suggested PVA white glue. elements.
colours to start you off.

Ground Cover

The final step is to add some ground cover, such as flock or static grass. Sprinkle or gently press your selected ground cover on to the wet glue. You can use
Without some sort of greenery, your bases will look very bleak and a single colour, or mix and match to get the desired effect. Use a little common
barren. Paint watered-down PVA white glue wherever you want your sense about where you place your chosen ground cover; it might look a bit odd if
ground cover to stick. you have grass growing out of a rock, or in the middle of a fresh wheel rut.

Because basing is such an important part of the ‘look’ of your force, one way to really impress people is with an interesting or
original basing theme. A strong theme is the sort of thing that can see you taking home ‘best painted’ prizes at tournaments.
Once you choose a theme, the first thing you need to do is research. As an example, take a simple desert theme.
A little research quickly reveals it is not as straightforward as you might think. Below are some different interpretations.

The cliché of all desert terrain consisting of uninterrupted rolling sand dunes is not exactly true. It varies from area to area. The
Western Desert, which included Libya and Egypt, is a dry, craggy environment criss-crossed by steep depressions and wadis (dry
riverbeds). Whereas much of southern Tunisia is made up of traditional sandy hills, but with its own distinctive vegetation.

Sandy Desert Example Rocky Desert Example

For the warm, yellow sands of Tunisia, basecoat with a 50/50 mix Basecoat the rocks and the face of the wadi with Sherman Drab,
of Sicily Yellow and Tan Leather, followed by a heavy drybrush of and the sand with Battledress Brown. Drybrush the sand with
Crusader Sand. Sicily Yellow, and the rocks and wadi with Dry Dust.

Sparingly add some tall,

dry grass, some GF9 Spring
Undergrowth and GF9 Straw
static grass. The trick is to add
enough to enhance the base
without taking it over.

Some Possible Desert Colour Palettes

n ow
r ow ell
er rab sB rY
e ath a nD dre
nL erm att
le Pa
Ta Sh B
in ow ow in
Sk ell ell Sk
ean il y Y
il yY ean
rop Sic Sic rop
Eu Eu
s rey d
n va G S an
Ca at er ust
rn tco us ad
Wo Gr
ea Cr ry

Two or three successive layers of drybrushing are usually enough to capture the colour of most types of terrain. It’s just a matter of finding
the right combination of colours. It is a great idea to make several practice bases to make sure you are happy with the final result before you
begin basing your miniatures. This will ensure a consistent look across your whole army.

Once you have decided where your force is fighting, it is also important to think about when it’s fighting! Small changes
in colour and materials can allude not only to different locales, but also to different times of year. Below are some
suggested palettes for various seasons, to spark your imagination and creativity.

Boot Brown

Comrade Khaki

Green Static Grass


Summer 3-color
Clump Foliage Mix

Battlefield Brown

Sicily Yellow

Static Grass

Flock Blend

Bunker Grey




Thaw/Early Spring
Battledress Brown

Military Khaki


Arid Static Grass


Every army is different, with its own unique uniforms, Although there is no ‘correct’ way to paint anything, we
camouflage schemes and equipment. These will be covered have narrowed it down to a single suggestion for each item.
in the national painting guides later in the book. But some These are some simple tricks which work quickly and easily,
things are universal. Rather than repeating these common developed with the Colours Of War paint range in mind.
items in each national section, we’ve compiled them here An exception is faces; two methods are presented for you
in one place, where you can refer back to them when you to chose from, depending on how much time you want to
need them, whichever force you have chosen to paint. spend on your army.

Basic Faces
Colour Palette European Skin Skin shade European Skin
Medium Brush Medium Brush Fine Brush

European Skin

Actual Size

Skin Shade

Basecoat the face and hands with Wash liberally with Skin Shade to Highlight raised details such as fingers,
European Skin, in two thin coats. create shading and definition. cheeks and nose with European Skin.

Advanced Faces
Colour Palette Tan Leather Skin shade Tan Leather
Medium Brush Medium Brush Fine Brush

Tan Leather

Skin Shade

European Skin Basecoat the skin and hands with Wash liberally with Skin Shade to Tidy Up and re-establish the base
Tan Leather, in two thin coats. create shading and definition. colour, leaving shadows in the recesses.

50% Tan Leather 75% European Skin European Skin

Luftwaffe Blue 50% European Skin 25% Luftwaffe Blue Fine Brush
(401) Fine Brush Fine Brush

Actual Size
Faces are one of the
areas that really stand
out on your miniatures.
For large armies, a fast
basic approach is usually
necessary. But if you can
devote a little extra time
to painting faces, it can
really elevate the effect of
the whole paint job. Highlight raised areas with a mix of Glaze the lower half of the face to Highlight only the most prominent
Tan Leather and European Skin. create the appearance of five-o’clock details, like fingertips and the tip of
shadow. the nose, with European Skin.

Infantry Weapons
Rifles and other ‘small arms’ are Dark Gunmetal Cold Steel
Colour Palette Medium Brush Fine Brush
generally made from a combination
of wood and ‘blued’ steel, which is so
dark it can appear almost completely
Dark Gunmetal black. So you can leave metal parts
(480) black if you prefer. But a suitably dark
metallic colour tends to help weapons
stand out better on the table.
Cold Steel If you are unsure which parts of a
weapon to paint as metal (right)
and which to paint as wood (below)
an internet image search for that
particular weapon is a quick way to
Battlefield Brown Basecoat barrels and other metal Highlight only the most prominent
(324) find out.
parts sparingly with Dark Gunmetal. details with a touch of Cold Steel.

Battlefield Brown Skin Shade 50% Motherland Earth

Skin Shade Medium Brush Medium Brush 50% Rust Orange
(491) Fine Brush

Actual Size

Motherland Earth

Rust Orange

Basecoat stocks and other wooden Wash with Skin Shade to add Highlight upper edges. If you enjoy
areas with Battlefield Brown. shading and to mimic the rich tones of painting very fine lines, you can even
varnished wood. add a suggestion of wood grain.

Webbing and Canvas

Colour Palette* Sherman Drab Military Khaki Worn Canvas
Medium Brush Medium Brush Fine Brush

Actual Size

Sherman Drab

Military Khaki

Worn Canvas
(306) Basecoat in a dark shadow colour Block Paint the appropriate webbing Highlight edges and raised areas in a
*These colours are for to provide contrast against the basic colour, taking extra care to be neat lighter colour. This will provide extra
the United States example
uniform colour. with narrow areas like straps. contrast and definition.
For nation-specific
colours, refer to the
relevant painting guide.

Every army equips its

soldiers with some form
of webbing equipment -
belts, packs and pouches
designed to carry vital
personal gear.
Although a chore, extra
care must be taken
to make it stand out,
especially when the
British webbing was coloured with German gear was carried on a belt Soviet webbing was fairly minimal
webbing colour is similar
a cleaning paste called Blanco. Light and Y-shaped harness made of leather, and mostly made from plain canvas,
to the main uniform.
green was the standard colour. usually in black. which could vary in colour.

Colour Palette Wargaming with 15mm figures, you Sherman Drab 50% Sherman Drab
will spend a lot of time looking down Medium Brush 50% Military Khaki
Medium Brush
at them from a high angle. So one
part of the miniature that you will Actual Size
Sherman Drab* always notice is the helmet. Therefore,
like the ‘bases and faces’ rule, even if
you rush your way through most of
the paint job, it is worth getting the
Military Khaki* helmets right. Although they are often
(327) quite plain, functional items, take the
*These colours are for time to ensure that helmets are at least
the United States example neatly painted and highlighted.
For nation-specific Basecoat the helmet carefully, using Highlight with a lighter colour, by
colours, refer to the
relevant painting guide. two thin coats if necessary, to ensure a lightly drybrushing and/or carefully
neat, even coverage. painting any raised edges.

As you can see, when viewed from a typical ‘tabletop’ perspective, helmets and other headwear stand out prominently. No matter what the army,
they are one of the more important items to paint decently.

Canteens (British and German)

Colour Palette Battlefield Brown Wool Brown
Medium Brush Fine Brush

Battlefield Brown

Actual Size

Wool Brown

British and most German

canteens were covered in
light brown woollen felt. Basecoat with Battlefield Brown. Highlight most of the canteen with Paint any securing straps the same as
Wool Brown, leaving shaded edges. other webbing equipment.

Brown Leather
Colour Palette Battlefield Brown Tan Leather Skin Shade
Medium Brush Fine Brush Medium Brush
Actual Size

Battlefield Brown

Tan Leather

Basecoat with Battlefield Brown. Optionally apply a fine highlight on Glaze with Skin Shade to create the
Skin Shade You can substitute Dark Leather or raised areas with Tan Leather to give rich, warm lustre of natural leather.
Boot Brown for a darker finish. greater definition.

Tank Tracks
Colour Palette Battlefield Brown Black Dark Gunmetal
Large Brush Large Brush Small Drybrush

Battlefield Brown


Dark Gunmetal Basecoat the tracks with Battle- Wash with heavily watered-down Drybrush with Dark Gunmetal.
field Brown to represent dirt on and Black. You can substitute Manstein
between the track links. Shade if you have it.
The high-grade steel
of tank tracks is quite
impervious to corrosion,
and any rust that did
form would quickly
be worn off by the
movement of the tracks.
However, dirt and grime
would quickly build up
in the tread pattern and
on areas which weren’t
being rubbed clean by
contact with the ground
surface, road wheels or Some heavy tanks have solid metal road wheels. You may find It is often easier to paint tracks with rubber road wheels
other track links. it easier to paint these tracks along with the rest of the tank. separately, as you can just leave the tyres black, rather than
Consider adding a little chipping with Cold Steel. carefully picking them out individually.

Tyres & Painting Black

If you want to mix your own greys
Colour Palette
to highlight black, a useful tip is to
ignore what you learned at school
about black and white making grey.
Black Adding white tends to make black
(300) look chalky and washed out. Instead
try adding small amounts of a warm
neutral such as Wool Brown, or a
pinkish colour like European Skin.
Worn Rubber
(302) Grey tends to darken slightly as it
dries. This can make it difficult to
judge exactly how the finished model Genuinely black fabrics are For glossy surfaces, including black leather,
will look, so be patient and don’t quite rare, so highlighting any highlights should be bright but very
Dry Dust rush.
(364) uniforms with grey is quite small. Consider finishing with a coat of
acceptable. gloss varnish instead.
Black is an easy colour
to paint - it covers other Black Worn Rubber Dry Dust
Large Brush Medium Brush Fine Brush
colours easily, and if you
use a black undercoat it’s
merely a matter of leaving
black items black. But
black is a challenge to
highlight without making
the object instead look
dark grey.

Basecoat tyres with black. Note that Highlight tyres, road wheels, and the A Targeted Wash with Dry Dust in
the tracks on US half-tracks are a con- rubber tracks with Worn Rubber. the tread of tyres and tracks can simu-
tinuous solid rubber strip. late a build-up of dust everywhere that
does not contact the road surface.

Colour Palette Oxide Red Manstein Shade 50% Oxide Red
Medium Brush Medium Brush 50% Rust Orange
Medium Brush

Oxide Red

Manstein Shade

Rust Orange Basecoat the exhaust with Oxide Wash with Manstein Shade. You Stipple a mix of Oxide Red and Rust
Red. can substitute watered-down Black if Orange, creating a rough, mottled
necessary. covering of colour.
Rust Orange
Black Medium Brush

The high temperatures

of tank engines caused
the exhausts to quickly
oxidise and bake off the
paint. Perhaps there is a
tendency for modellers
to exaggerate this effect
a little, but as long as it
looks good, who cares? You may like to add touches of the
Stipple a little Rust Orange carefully tank colour to the exhaust to show
on to raised edges and upper surfaces. remaining traces of paint.

Colour Palette Battlefield Brown Skin Shade Military Khaki
Medium Brush Medium Brush Fine Brush

Battlefield Brown

Skin Shade

Military Khaki Basecoat wooden handles and tools Wash with a little Skin Shade to Highlight with fine lines of Military
with Battlefield Brown. create shading and intensify the brown Khaki to create the appearance of
tone. rugged, well-used tools.

Dark Gunmetal Dark Gunmetal Cold Steel Bradley Shade

(480) Medium Brush Fine Brush Medium Brush

Cold Steel

Bradley Shade

Tools were sometimes

painted with the vehicle
itself, so you can leave Basecoat metal tools and tool heads Highlight with a few small touches Glaze with Bradley Shade to give the
them ‘painted’ if you like. with Dark Gunmetal. of Cold Steel to increase definition. tools a used, greasy appearance.

Colour Palette Worn Rubber Bunker Grey Whitewash
Medium Brush Fine Brush Fine Brush



Worn Rubber Basecoat the light with Worn Softly Blend Bunker Grey on to the Blend a small amount of Whitewash
Rubber. lower half of the light, using a layering over the Bunker Grey, only in the
technique (see page 14). lower third of the light.

White Black White

Bunker Grey Fine Brush Medium Brush Fine Brush


There is no one right way

to paint headlights or
spotlights on vehicles. It
depends on how much
time and effort you want Paint a small dot of White near the A Much Easier Method is to simply Or Use White, leaving a thin Black
to spend. Here are a few top to simulate reflected light. paint the light Black. You may choose outline. Again, a coat of gloss varnish
suggestions. to add a coat of gloss varnish. will help the light look suitably glassy.

Common Vehicle Stowage

Many Flames Of War ve-
hicle kits include stowage
to give
you the
opportunity to customise
your vehicles.
Some complete blister
packs of extra stowage are
available on the Flames
Of War website.
If you want to try your
hand at sculpting, you Canvas tarps come in all shapes and The custom-sculpted Zeltbahn on the Another custom Zeltbahn, this time
colours. Choose an infantry uniform back of this Panther tank was painted painted in both Summer and Autumn
can use modelling putty
colour and follow the painting guide. in Splinter camouflage (see page 49). Oak leaf camouflage (see page 51).
to create your own
custom stowage like a
couple of the examples
shown here (see page
46 for more about
German Zeltbahn shelter

German ‘jerry cans’ containing water Paint tow cables like any other metal, Later in the war US tanks displayed
were painted with a white cross. Cans applying a wash of Bradley Shade to large panels of pink or white fabric as
without the cross are for fuel. represent the protective grease coating. air recognition markers.


Although a flat paint

surface may look smooth,
if you looked at it through Paint a coat of gloss varnish in places you intend to place a Soak the decal in water. It should only take about 30
a microscope you would decal. seconds to free itself from the decal sheet.
see that it appears as
rough as sandpaper. This
microscopic roughness
can trap a tiny layer of
air behind the clear film
of a decal, allowing light
to reflect behind it and
causing an effect called
‘silvering’. With silvering
the transparent film of
the decal becomes visible,
ruining the painted-on
look you are trying to
achieve. Prime the gloss surface with some decal softener and float the Remove any excess moisture with a dry brush. Once the
You can prevent silvering decal on to the surface of the tank and use the brush to tease decal is dry, apply more decal softener if the decal lies over
by painting an area of the decal into place. Decal softener makes the decal pliable, so a textured surface such as Zimmerit. This will let you use a
clear gloss varnish to be gentle or you may tear the decal. stiff brush to conform the decal to the deeper recesses.
provide a truly smooth
surface for the decal to
adhere to.

Lightly Drybrush the base tank colour over the decal to Wash the decal with some Manstein Shade or watered down
tone down the intensity of the colour and help it appear more Black paint if it is over a textured area. This is especially
like it has really been painted on to the surface of the vehicle. effective on engine decks or anywhere the marking would get
particularly dirty.

Weather Effects
As the name suggests,
weathering comprises the
effects of weather and
the environment on the
vehicles and equipment in
your miniature army. Any
soldier or military vehicle
will quite quickly take on
a dirty, worn appearance.
Vehicles accumulate dust,
mud, rust and oil stains.
At larger scales, military
modellers take weathering
Light Dust: A very light drybrush of Dry Dust over the Heavy Dust: A heavier drybrush of Dry Dust around the
almost for granted. But
whole vehicle gives it a dusty appearance. It is also a great lower portion of large tanks gives the impression of a very dry,
for many wargamers, it is
way to give a final highlight, emphasising edges and detail. dusty environment.
often easily forgotten.
Not everyone is a fan of
weathering–some prefer
their models to have a
pristine ‘factory fresh’
look–but weathering puts
the model in context, and
adds drama to the subject.
It can make otherwise
unremarkable models
appear just a little more
interesting and real.
Just like with basing,
make sure you have a clear Thick Mud: Mixing brown paint with pre-mixed plaster Snow: paint wheels, tracks or the lower surfaces of vehicles
idea in mind of where filler into a slushy paste is a good way to create convincing with a little watered-down PVA white glue, then sprinkle on
and when your army is thick mud. Once it is dry, drybrush it with a lighter shade. snow flock. Add gloss varnish to make it look wet.
supposed to be fighting,
and let that guide your
choice of weather effects.
Like many other areas of
painting, research will
help a great deal.

Mud Splashes: Paint directional streaks of Sicily Yellow or Mud Splatters: For very dirty vehicles you can use an old
Dry Dust above and behind wheels or tracks to show that the toothbrush to spatter paint on to the model by bending back
vehicle has been driving through deep, liquid mud. the bristles with your thumb and letting them flick back.

To finish your vehicle,
you should give it a coat
of matt (non-glossy)
varnish. Not only will this
help your careful paint
job survive the hazards of
gaming, it will also make
the model look better by
removing any unsightly
sheen where, for example,
you have added decals.

Before varnishing, this tank has an unappealing reflective After a coat of matt varnish, the tank has a flat, shine-free
sheen. Note how the gloss finish also makes dark colours finish, the decals appear part of the surface and the Sherman
appear slightly darker. Drab base colour has lost that exaggerated darkness.

GERMAN “Don’t fight a battle if you don’t gain anything by winning.”
-Fieldmarshall Erwin Rommel
Throughout the war the German forces were typically well-trained and well-motivated troops with excellent equipment.
They pioneered new strategies and led the way technically and tactically for most of the war. In Flames Of War German
armies tend to be small elite forces that are strong on the offensive.

German Armour Camouflage Decals Markings
Page 35 Page 36 & 37 Page 32 Page 42

Weather Effects
Page 33

Page 30

Infantry Weapons
Page 27

Painting Black Rust German Tracks Tank Tracks

Page 29 Page 30 Page 36 Page 29

German Armour
Colour Palette Panther Yellow Rommel Shade
Large Brush Large Brush

Panther Yellow

Rommel shade

Dry Dust Basecoat your tank with Panther Yellow. Two thin coats Wash the tank with Rommel Shade. Try to achieve an
are preferable to one thick coat. Alternatively you can use a even coat over the whole tank, letting the wash pool in the
Panther Yellow spray can for your undercoat. recesses without building up too much on flat surfaces.
The best way to paint Panther Yellow 50% Panther Yellow
RAL7028 Dunkelgelb Large Brush 50% Dry Dust
(Dark Yellow), ubiquitous
on German armour,
vehicles and artillery from
1943 onward, is hotly
debated by modellers

Tidy up the wash with Panther Yellow (see page 15) using a Drybrush the tank with a mix of Panther Yellow and
combination of drybrushing and layering, while leaving the Dry Dust, concentrating on edges, raised details and upper
recesses dark. surfaces, to add highlights.

Soft-edged Camouflage—German
50% Panther Yellow
Colour Palette 50% Army Green
Small Drybrush

Panther Yellow

Army Green

Boot Brown Plan the pattern of your camouflage scheme and mark the Stipple a mix of Army Green and Panther Yellow, aiming
centre of where the areas of colour will go, using thin lines of to achieve a soft, feathered edge (see ‘Drybrushing’ on page
Army Green and/or Boot Brown. 16 for more on the stippling technique).

Army Green 50% Panther Yellow

Rommel Shade Large Brush 50% Boot Brown
(494) Small Drybrush

German camouflage
paint was supplied as a
thick paste, which could
be mixed with water or
gasoline and applied to
vehicles, in the field or in
unit workshops. Usually
the camouflage patterns
were applied using a
spray gun. Naturally, an Dab pure Army Green into the centre of the stippled green Stipple a mix of Boot Brown and Panther Yellow on to the
airbrush is a useful way areas using gentle, feathery strokes. brown areas, repeating the technique from step 2 above.
of achieving this sprayed
look, as it is essentially a Boot Brown Rommel Shade
miniature version of the Large Brush Large Brush
same process.
But if you don’t have an
airbrush, that certainly
does not mean soft-
edged camouflage can’t
be part of your painting
repertoire. With a bit
of practice, the soft,
sprayed-on look can be
achieved very effectively
by hand.
Repeat step 3 above for the brown areas, using pure Boot Re-apply shading around any rivets or other details which
Brown. have been covered with camouflage using a targeted wash of
Rommel Shade - this step is entirely optional.

German tracks
Oxide Red
Colour Palette Large Brush

Oxide Red

German track links were

sometimes coated in a
red oxide primer at the
factory. This would wear
off quickly with use, but Once you’ve basecoated the tracks Oxide Red, follow
traces would remain on the rest of the steps for basic tracks (see page 29). You
Basecoat the tracks with Oxide Red. Don’t worry too much don’t have to paint your tracks as ‘primed’, but it
low-contact surfaces.
about getting a perfectly neat coverage, as most of the colour gives your German tanks a unique visual difference.
will be covered up anyway.

Hard-edged Camouflage—German
Colour Palette Army Green Army Green
Medium Brush Medium Brush

Army Green

Boot Brown

Panther Yellow Outline a camouflage pattern with Army Green. Feel free to Fill in the outlines with Army Green. Thin your paint just
use your imagination, but it is always a good idea to look at enough so that it covers efficiently without leaving brush
historical photos or other references for pattern ideas. strokes - practice makes perfect!
Hard-edged patterns are Boot Brown Panther Yellow
simpler to apply. You just Medium Brush Large Drybrush
outline the areas of colour
and then fill them in.
German camouflage
paint could be sprayed or
brushed on, but spraying
was far more common.
However, the soft edges of
many spray patterns might
be barely discernible at
miniature scale, so don’t
feel that you are being
Repeat the first two steps with Boot Brown. You could easily Lightly Drybrush the tank with Panther Yellow to tone the
‘ahistorical’ by using the
reverse the colour order, depending on the particular pattern camouflage down and tie it all together.
easier option.
you have chosen.

Hard-edged Camouflage—Other Nations

Too many different camouflage patterns were used by all nations throughout the war to cover them all in detail here. Plenty of references are
available to inspire and guide you. The same principle of applying an outline first, and then filling it in, will work for any hard-edged pattern.

American M4A1 76mm Sherman with cloud- British Matilda II in the distinctive ‘Caunter’ British Bedford QLT 3-Ton Lorry in
shaped black disruptive camouflage over the scheme (Dry Dust, Tommy Green and Grenadier the ‘Mickey Mouse’ camouflage scheme of
Sherman Drab base colour. Green) used in the desert in 1940-’41. overlapping Black circles on Firefly Green.

Soviet T-34/76 with large patches of British M3 Grant in Crusader Sand, with British Sherman V in Firefly Green with
Motherland Earth painted over the Tankovy camouflage patches of Sherman Drab, bordered Dark Leather disruptive camouflage.
Green base colour. with Black and White.

The brown on grey camouflage
scheme, introduced in 1935,

was applied to German tanks
fighting in the Low Countries,
Poland, and France. The
official colours RAL7016
September 1:
Anthrazitgrau (Worn Rubber)
Germany invades Poland.
and RAL8017 Dunkelbraun
September 3: (Boot Brown) were painted in
Britain, France, Australia a camouflage pattern of 2/3
and New Zealand declare war
grey and 1/3 brown with soft
on Germany.
Panzer 38(t) contours between the colours.
September 17: This was over an undercoat of
Signalbraun (Oxide Red)
September 29:
Oxide Red Worn Rubber Boot Brown
Germany and the USSR (382) (302) (323)

divide up Poland.
November 8:
Assassination attempt on
Hitler fails. When Germany invaded
Poland in 1939, its

armoured vehicles displayed
a large white cross (above)
as the national emblem, this
proved to be an excellent,
April 9: highly visible, aiming point
Germany invades Denmark for Polish anti-tank gunners.
and Norway. German crews quickly tried
Panzer III ausf J
May 10: to partially obscure it by
Germany invades France, UNDERCOAT BASE COLOUR
smearing on mud or oil.
Belgium, Luxembourg and
the Netherlands. In an effort to conserve paint,
Oxide Red Panzer Grey
June 10: (382) (303) the RAL8017 Dunkelbraun
Italy declares war on France (Boot Brown) was dropped
and Britain.
and vehicles were painted in
July 10: RAL7021 Dunkelgrau (Panzer
Battle of Britain begins. Grey) without camouflage. This
September 13: was based on the official order:
Italy invades Egypt. HM 1940, no. 864, dated July
31, 1940, after the battles for

France and the Low Countries.
Panzer II C


March 12:
The Deutsches Afrikakorps
arrives in North Africa, and Oxide Red Panzer Grey Dry Dust*
(382) (303) (364)
recaptures Cyrenaica. After their experiences in
June 22: Poland, it was then decided
Germany invades the to use the yellow paint that
Soviet Union in Operation was used for unit markings
Barbarossa. to paint out the centres of the
August 20: cross, this soon changed to a
Siege of Leningrad begins. simpler solid yellow cross
November 18:
British launch Operation The first vehicles to enter the
Crusader and recapture African campaign in 1941 were
Cyrenaica. still in their unsuitable Dunkelgrau
December 7: Panzer III L (Panzer Grey). Crews mixed
Japanese attack Pearl UNDERCOAT BASE COLOUR mud to a paste and applied it over
Harbour, US and UK declare the vehicle as a camouflage coat,
war. carefully avoiding any markings.
Oxide Red Comrade Khaki
(382) (326)

After the initial rush to
ship vehicles to Africa, all

vehicles were shipped to the
Afrikakorps in yellow-brown
(Comrade Khaki). Later tanks
in the African campaign can be
January 26:
painted with a Dry Dust base
First US troops arrive in
May 26:
Battle of Gazala.
July 1-30: Panzer IV F2
First battle of El Alamein.
September 13:
The German advance in Copying the Luftwaffe
Russia reaches Stalingrad. Oxide Red Dry Dust
(382) (364) marking, the cross was
October 23: changed to a white outer
Second Battle of El Alamein.
with the centre of the cross
November 8: showing through the vehicle
Operation Torch, a joint US
colour of Dunkelgrau (D).
and Great Britain force lands
in Africa.
The dark camouflage patterns
on vehicles contrasted with

the snowy landscape, making
them easy targets. Crews used a
StuG F
whitewash camouflage. This was
UNDERCOAT BASE COLOUR CAMOUFLAGE applied straight over the paint,
February 2: being careful not to obscure
German 6th Army surrenders unit markings.
at Stalingrad. Oxide Red Panzer Panther Whitewash
(382) Grey OR Yellow (307) Some vehicles painted in the
February 8: (303) (365)
early grey scheme, had dark
Soviets re-take Kursk.
yellow or dark green applied as
February 14:
a camouflage pattern in 1942.
Germans defeat US at
Kasserine Pass. Vehicles manufactured after this
date were in a factory-applied
March 2:
Germans withdraw from
coat of dark yellow (RAL7028
Tunisia, North Africa. Dunkelgelb, Panther Yellow).
May 13:
German and Italian troops in
North Africa surrender.
July 5:
Panzer IV G
Germany launches a major
July 9/10: In 1941, the Afrika Korps
Allies invade Sicily. started painting in the
Oxide Red Panzer Grey Panther Tankovy centres of the cross in black to
July 12: (382) (303) Yellow OR Green
Soviet Union launch a (365) (341) make them visible again.
counter-attack at Kharkov. This new version of the
September 8: Balkenkreuz, consisting of a
Italy surrenders to Allies. black cross with white edges
September 9: became the official national
Allies land at Salerno in Italy. symbol in February 1943.
September 11:
Germans occupy Rome. In February 1943 dark yellow
November 6: (RAL7028 Dunkelgelb, Panther
Soviet forces liberate Kiev. Yellow) became the official base
colour for vehicles. Vehicles in
the field were to be repainted in
Tiger I E
accordance with the new order
UNDERCOAT BASE COLOUR whenever they could.

Oxide Red Panther Yellow

(382) (365)

By 1943 the Germans began
applying a three-colour

camouflage scheme of brown,
green and Dunkelgelb to their
vehicles. There are many different
patterns, from hard-edged
January 4: to soft-edged. The variety of
Battle of Monte Cassino schemes makes it relatively easy
begins. to find one you like and apply it
January 22: to your army.
Allies land at Anzio. Hetzer The ambush three-tone pattern
January 27: (as seen on the Königstiger in
Siege of Leningrad lifted. the artwork on page 34) was
adopted from August 1944 out
February 3:
of necessity to hide from aircraft
German forces in the Korsun during the Normandy campaign.
Pocket surrender. This pattern was intended to help
May 12: vehicles hide under foliage. These
Soviet forces liberate Crimea. patterns generally had an even
June 5: coverage of each colour, with
Allies liberate Rome. intermingled spots.
June 6: The disc pattern camouflage
D-Day landings in France. (as shown on this Panther G,
June 22:
left) was a variant of the ambush
Panzer IV/70 (V) pattern that made an appearance
The Soviet Union launches
Operation Bagration. during the Ardennes offensive in
late 1944.
July 25-30:
Allies breakout of Normandy. All of these schemes use the same
primer, base and camouflage
September 17: colours, to different effect.
Operation Market Garden.
December 16-27:
Battle of the Bulge.

January 12: Panther G
Soviets launch an offensive
into East Prussia.
January 17:
Germans withdraw from
Ardennes. Oxide Red Panther Yellow Boot Brown Tankovy Army
(382) (365) (365) Green OR Green
February 13: (341) (342)

Budapest falls to the Soviet

Panther G
March 7-24:
Allied forces cross the Rhine.
Due to a shortage of paint,
April 18: the camouflage process was
Germans in Ruhr Pocket simplified in October 1944
surrender. by applying a camouflage
April 21: pattern using Olivgrün
Soviet forces reach Berlin. (Army Green) and/or
May 7: Dunkelgelb (Panther Yellow)
Germany unconditionally directly over the dark red
surrenders. primer (Oxide Red). Some
vehicles did not even receive
May 8:
any camouflage at all and
VE (Victory in Europe) Day
went into battle in only their
August 6: primer.
First atomic bomb dropped.
Soviets declare war on Japan.
August 14:
Japan unconditionally Oxide Red Panther Yellow Army Green
(382) (365) (342)

In December 1944, Olivgrün
(Tankovy Green) was introduced
as the final official base colour
on German vehicles. This was
camouflaged as needed with
Dunkelgelb (Panther Yellow) and
Rotbraun (Boot Brown).

Panzer IV J


Oxide Red Tankovy Green Panther Yellow Boot Brown

(382) (341) (365) (343)

In 1945 the colour of the standard

Dunkelgelb changed to a more beige
colour than its 1944 predecessor,
due to pigment shortages. To
represent this, you can substitute
Military Khaki for Panther Yellow.

Panzer III N


Oxide Red Military Khaki Boot Brown Army Green

(382) (327) (365) (342)

In late March 1945 an emergency

plan went into effect to mobilise
every last self-propelled gun and
tank from Germany’s tank training
schools into makeshift combat
Most vehicles from a Panzer
Ausbildungs Verbände (Replacement
Tank Force) would have been
repainted in plain Dunkelgelb
when they arrived at the training
Panzer IV G grounds, and were rushed to the
UNDERCOAT BASE COLOUR front line without any added
camouflage. So they could be
painted in either Panther Yellow or
Oxide Red Panther Military the later Military Khaki.
(382) Yellow OR Khaki
(365) (327)

German Markings
Panzer divisions consisted of a brigade, initially with two reg-
iments until 1941, when it was reduced to a single regiment.
Each regiment had two battalions (or up to four if there was
only a single regiment), and each battalion had three or four Panzer Division
companies, with four platoons in each company and three to
five tanks in each platoon.
Panzer Brigade

Panzer Regiment Panzer Regiment

Panzer Battalion (Abteilung) Panzer Battalion (Abteilung)

1st Company 2nd Company 3rd Company 4th Company

1st Platoon (Zug) 2nd Platoon (Zug) 3rd Platoon (Zug) 4th Platoon (Zug)

3-5 Panzers 3-5 Panzers 3-5 Panzers 3-5 Panzers

Numbering in Flames Of War

Here is how the German tank numbering system translates on Shown below are the first three platoons from a Panzerkompanie
to Flames Of War organisation diagrams. (tank company), the third company of the four that was typical
from 1942 to the end of the war, shown with the most common
numbering system.


300 301 OR 301 302

Company 2iC Command Company 2iC Command
Command tank tank Command tank tank
Company HQ

Panzerkompanie HQ

Leutnant Leutnant Leutnant

Leutnant Leutnant Leutnant

311 321 331

Command tank Command tank Command tank
HQ tank HQ tank HQ tank

Unteroffizier Unteroffizier Unteroffizier Unteroffizier Unteroffizier Unteroffizier

312 314 322 324 332 334

Tank Tank Tank Tank Tank Tank

313 315 323 325 333 335

Tank Tank Tank Tank Tank Tank
Panzer Section Panzer Section Panzer Section Panzer Section Panzer Section Panzer Section
Panzer Platoon Panzer Platoon Panzer Platoon

Late-war Heer Decals
Flames Of War decals combine the most common markings and number Tank Numbers
styles into convenient sets. Most platoon boxes contain a small decal
sheet with markings specific to those vehicles. For larger quantities and
To keep as much variety as possible the platoon and tank
variety of markings, use the decal packs. numbers have been printed together, while the company
number is separate.
It should be noted that divisional symbols are not an exact science.
There are all sorts of examples of personalised symbols or variations on
existing ones. Sometimes, like for the battle of Kursk, units’ symbols were
changed to obscure their identity as they manoeuvred into position.
The next few pages provides a basic explanation of what the symbols are
and where to put them on your vehicles.

1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10, Panzerdivision

The panzer divisions listed above use a

variant of the same symbol, in addition
to any other symbols listed below.
With some careful cutting, the symbol
for 4. Panzerdivision can be used to
make divisional symbols for a number of
other divisions.

1. Panzerdivision 2. Panzerdivision

3. Panzerdivision 4. Panzerdivision

You can rotate and flip the decal to use

for 7, 8, 9 & 10 Panzer divisions.

7. Panzerdivision 8. Panzerdivision

9. Panzerdivision 10. Panzerdivision

Panzergrenadier 3. Panzer Division 12. Panzer Division 20. Panzer Division Panzer Lehr Hermann Goring
Division Panzer Division
Grossdeutschland Poland 1939 Eastern Front 1941-45 North Africa 1941-43 Western Front 1943-45
Western Front 1944-45 Italy 1942-45
Eastern Front Western Campaign Eastern Front 1945 Eastern Front 1941-45
1942-1945 1940-41
Eastern Front 1941-45

19. Panzer Division 21. Panzer Division 26. Panzer Division

Eastern Front 1941-45 North Africa 1941-43 Italy 1942-45
2. Panzer Division 11. Panzer Division Western Front 1944-45
Poland 1939 Balkan Campaign 1941 Eastern Front 1945
Western Campaign 1940 Eastern Front 1941-44
Balkan Campaign 1941 Western Front 1944-45
Eastern Front 1941-43 To make the 13. Panzerdivision symbol,
Western Front 1944-45 13. Panzer Division
Eastern Front 1941-45 use the 11. Panzerdivision symbol and add
another thin yellow line to make a cross.

Afrikakorps Decals
The Deutsches Afrikakorps is one
of the most iconic units of the Afrikakorps Palm
war, so it’s no surprise that it’s also In addition to their divisional symbols, German vehicles in the
a very popular force in Flames Of North African campaign also bore a variation of the famous palm
War. tree of the Deutches Afrikakorps. These were often hand painted,
They have a unique set of markings so the decal sheet provides two different options.
that warrants their own set of

Tank Numbers 15. Panzerdivision numbers

Most tanks in the North African theatre used the same 3-digit Instead of the usual 3-number tank numbering system, tanks
numbering system as the rest of the German army, using red from 15. Panzerdivision in North Africa only had a single
numbers with a white outline. large number designating the company.

15. Panzerdivision
North Africa 1943

Generalmajor Erwin
Rommel rode around in Panzer Regiment 8
his personal SdKfz 250 Vehicles in
half-track, which was 15.Panzerdivision
called Grief, meaning often displayed the
Wolfsangle symbol
both Griffin and Attack.
in addition to their
divisional symbol.

Captured Crosses
Due to lack of supply,
the Deutches Afrikakorps
501/424. Schwere
pressed large numbers Panzer Abteilung
of captured vehicles into North Africa 1943
service. Eastern Front 1943-45

To avoid friendly fire they

painted oversized crosses
onto the turrets. 504. Schwere
Panzer Abteilung
North Africa 1943
Italy 1943-45

10. Panzer Division 21. Panzer Division 164. Leichte 90. Leichte
Eastern Front 1941-42 North Africa 1941-43 Afrikadivision Afrikadivision
Dieppe 1942 Western Front 1944-45 North Africa 1941-43 North Africa 1941-43
North Africa 1942-43 Eastern Front 1945

Waffen-SS Decals
Waffen-SS troops enjoyed a
special esprit de corps, owing to
their perceived status as an elite
formation. They therefore tended
to place more than the usual
amount of emphasis on unique and
recognisable divisional heraldry.

11. SS-Panzer- 16. SS-Panzer- 1. SS-Panzer 3. SS-Panzer 9. SS-Panzer

Grenadier Division Grenadier Division Division Division Division
Eastern Front 1944-45 Eastern Front 1944-45 Poland 1939 Western Front 1939-41 Western Front 1943-45
Balkans Campaign 1940 Eastern Front 1941-45 Eastern Front 1945
Eastern Front 1941-44
Western Front 1944-45
Eastern Front 1945

5. SS-Panzer 17. SS-Panzer- 2. SS-Panzer 5. SS-Panzer 10. SS-Panzer

Division Grenadier Division Division Division Division
Eastern Front 1941-45 Western Front 1944 Western Campaign 1940 Eastern Front 1941-45 France 1943-44
Eastern Front 1944-1945 Eastern Front 1942-44 Eastern Front 1944
Western Front 1944-45 Western Front 1944-45
Eastern Front 1945 Eastern Front 1945

Where markings go
As with all wartime markings, there is no one correct answer where to As a general rule tanks usually have unit numbers painted on the
put your markings as they could differ from unit to unit. sides, and sometimes, rear of their turrets. There is usually at least
When you are getting ready to apply your decals the best thing to do is one Balkenkreuz visible on each side of the tank, except the front,
look at some historical photos for inspiration. A Google image search or while divisional symbols can usually be found on the front and rear of
visiting our website are good places to start. vehicles. Below are some examples from Battlefront’s collection.

Flamm-Hetzer Panther G

Panther A

SdKfz 251/1D

German Infantry
Helmets Gas-mask Cannister
Heer Green Heer Green
(341) (341)

Painted Metal Weapons

Panther Yellow

Webbing & Pouches

See Painting Black
Page 29

Grenadier Green

Rifles, SMGs, & MGs

See Infantry Weapons
Page 27
Canteen Zeltbahn
rolled up
Battlefield Brown
worn as a
Flesh poncho
See Faces
Page 26
The Zeltbahn was a triangular section of waterproof
Boots camouflage fabric carried by every German soldier. They
See Brown Leather could be buttoned together to form several different sizes
Page 28 of tent. It could also be worn as a rain-proof poncho.

Grenadier Uniforms
Colour Palette Grenadier Green Heer Green Manstein Shade
Large Brush Medium Brush Large Brush

Grenadier Green

Heer Green

Manstein Shade Basecoat the uniform (including Basecoat the helmet and gas-mask Wash the figure with Manstein Shade
greatcoats) with Grenadier Green. canister (also the mess tin, on figures to create shading.
which have one) with Heer Green.

Grenadier Green 75% Heer Green 75% Grenadier Green

Worn Canvas Medium Brush 25% Grenadier Green 25% Worn Canvas
(306) Medium Brush Fine Brush
Actual Size

The standard German

uniform colour, Feldgrau
(‘field grey’), was actually
a muted, drab green.
Helmets and some other
metal items of personal
gear were painted in a
much darker green colour
which, confusingly, was Tidy Up the uniform with Grenadier Highlight the helmet and gas-mask Highlight the edges and raised folds of
also named Feldgrau. Green, leaving darker shading in the canister with a mix of Heer Green and the uniform with a mix of Grenadier
folds and recesses. Grenadier Green. Green and Worn Canvas.

Waffenfarbe (Epaulette Service Colours)
Shoulder boards are the simplest and most visually prominent German insignia. The German Waffenfarbe, or the arm-of-service colour, denotes
the soldier’s speciality. This is denoted by coloured piping around the shoulder boards. Glancing at two figures, one with the shoulder boards and
one without, the figure with them will seem to have an entire additional level of detail and accuracy. The modelling of the shoulder boards on the
miniatures will actually aid you with your painting. As they are both well defined and raised there is no need to guess how big or where to place them,
and the hard edge allows more freedom with the brush. Below is a list of the most common colours found in a Flames Of War force.

General Staff Generals, Artillery & Anti-aircraft

380 Artillery Red (75%), & 401 Luftwaffe Blue (25%) 380 Artillery Red

Infantry (Grenadiers) Reconnaissance

301 White 361 Cavalry Yellow

Panzergrenadiers & Motorcycle Units Pioneers

343 Splinter Green 300 Black

Motorised Reconnaissance Rocket & Chemical

360 Rust Orange 381 Devil Red

Jäger & Gebirgsjäger infantry Air Crew, Fallschirmjäger, etc.

344 Jager Green 361 Cavalry Yellow

SS-Generals and Staff Armoured & Panzerjäger

307 Whitewash 380 Artillery Red (50%), & 301 White (50%)

SS-Panzergrenadiers & Hermann Göring

301 White

Painting Waffenfarbe
Colour Palette White Heer Green
Medium Brush Fine Brush


Heer Green

You can really go all out with

Painting piping is a lot uniform markings - maybe not
easier if you use a two- for every team, but it can make
Paint the whole shoulder strap White. Paint the centre Heer Green, leaving a command teams stand out.
step process.
fine line of White showing at the edges.

SMG Pouches
Colour Palette Grenadier Green 50% Grenadier Green Military Khaki
Large Brush 50% Military Khaki Fine Brush
Medium Brush

Grenadier Green
Actual Size

Military Khaki

Unlike most webbing

items, pouches for SMG
Basecoat pouches with Grenadier Paint a mix of Grenadier Green and Highlight the edges with Military
ammunition were canvas.
Green. Military Khaki, leaving shaded recesses. Khaki to increase definition.

Splinter Pattern Camouflage
Splittermuster (German for splinter-pattern) was developed by Splittermuster (Splinter Pattern)
Germany in the late 1920s, and was issued to most Heer units.
The Zeltbahn tent quarter in Splinter pattern was the only official
Army camouflage until 1942,when they added the smocks and
helmet covers, in the same pattern. Only one side of each was
printed in Splittermuster, while the other side was left white for
snow camouflage.
In April 1942 a small number of Wintertarnanzug suits, consisting
of a padded jacket, trousers, separate hood and mittens were
produced. These were also printed only on one side and were left
white on the other side.
The splinter pattern consists of a disruptive pattern of hard- The Luftwaffe (like the artwork to the left) used a slightly
edged polygons, with sharp corners between coloured patches. A different version of Splinter to Heer troops (above). You
random pattern of dashes (giving splinter its name) was applied in can paint both of these the same way, just add a bit of Sicily
places to improve the camouflage effect. Yellow to the Military Khaki for the Luftwaffe version.
Military Khaki

Boot Brown

Splinter Green

Captured Italian Camouflage

Tropical Pants

The Herman Göring Division in Italy had access to a variety

of different uniforms. You may wish to paint some battle-
worn veterans from North Africa with their old tropical
uniforms using Afrika Green for their pants. Alternatively,
you can paint their pants in captured Italian camouflage,
using GI Green, Boot Brown and Panther Yellow.

Splinter Camouflage
Colour Palette Military Khaki Manstein Shade Military Khaki
Large Brush Large Brush Medium Brush

Military Khaki

Manstein Shade

Boot Brown Basecoat helmet covers, camouflage Wash with Manstein Shade to create Tidy Up with Military Khaki, leaving
smocks and Zeltbahns (here worn as a depth and shading. darker shading in the folds and
poncho) with Military Khaki. recesses.

Boot Brown Splinter Green

Splinter Green Fine Brush Fine Brush

Actual Size

Like any camouflage

pattern, Splinter is quite
a challenge to paint. But
if you want a German
infantry army, you will
almost inevitably have to
tackle it eventually. Don’t
worry! It is easier than it
looks, once you give it Paint an angular, zigzag pattern Paint patches of Splinter Green
a try. with Boot Brown, aiming to cover between the brown, again aiming to
approximately one-third of the surface. create jagged, angular shapes.

Luftwaffe Felddivision Jäger

Colour Palette Luftwaffe Blue Manstein Shade 75% Luftwaffe Blue
Medium Brush Medium Brush 25% Infantry Blue
Fine Brush

Luftwaffe Blue

Actual Size

Manstein Shade

Infantry Blue
(400) Basecoat the trousers and field cap Wash with Manstein Shade to create Optionally Highlight with a mix of
with Luftwaffe Blue. depth and shading. Luftwaffe Blue and Infantry Blue.

White camouflage Uniforms

Colour Palette Bunker Grey Whitewash White
Medium Brush Medium Brush Fine Brush

Bunker Grey
(304) Actual Size


(301) Basecoat the uniform and helmet Paint with Whitewash, leaving darker Highlight with White, using the
with Bunker Grey. shadows in the folds and recesses. layering technique (see page 15).

Waffen-SS Camouflage Patterns
Waffen-SS front-line combat formations were easily recognisable Eichenlaubmuster (Oak Leaf A)
from the Heer by their distinctive camouflage clothing. Oak Leaf A was in use from 1943 until the end of the war.
By 1944, several patterns were developed such as Plane Tree, Palm Both the spring and autumn sides can use the came base colour.
and Oak Leaf. Each of these was produced in several versions with Spring Autumn
different colours for different seasons, as well as unique printing
effects such as blurred edges. All this material was printed with
autumn colours on one side and spring or summer on the other,
making them reversible and capable of being worn almost all year
round. There was also a reversible padded winter uniform with
spring Oak Leaf on one side and white on the other.
There were a number of different camouflage schemes. Shown
here are some of the more common ones.

Tan Leather

Heer Green Boot Brown

It may seem daunting

to paint complex SS
camouflage patterns.
However, you can Jager Green Rust Orange
simplify the details and
still clearly emulate the
overall effect.

Erbsenmuster (Pea Dot Pattern)

The Pea Dot pattern was produced from 1944.

Battlefield Brown Heer Green

Worn canvas Jager Green

Oak Leaf A
Colour Palette Tan Leather Rommel Shade Tan Leather
Medium Brush Large Brush Medium Brush

Tan Leather

Rommel Shade

Boot Brown Basecoat the helmet cover and Wash with Rommel Shade to add Highlight with Tan Leather and tidy
smock (note the loose sleeves and shading to the fabric folds. up any messy areas of wash, but leave
gathered cuffs) with Tan Leather. shading in folds and recesses.

Boot Brown Rust Orange

Rust Orange Fine Brush Fine Brush

The Oak Leaf pattern was

found on helmet covers,
Zeltbahn tent quarters
Actual Size
and camouflage smocks.
Smocks were worn over
the regular uniform, so
paint the trousers and You can vary the colours across a
collars Grenadier Green platoon for variety if you like. You
(see page 46). could even paint a spring smock
Paint a dappled pattern of patches Paint smaller dots of Rust Orange and an autumn helmet cover on a
and spots in Boot Brown (for the within the Boot Brown areas. single figure - it’s up to you.
autumn pattern).

Pea Dot Pattern

Colour Palette Battlefield Brown Rommel Shade Battlefield Brown
Medium Brush Large Brush Fine Brush

Battlefield Brown

Rommel Shade

Heer Green Basecoat the tunic (recognisable by Wash liberally with Rommel Shade to Tidy Up with Battlefield Brown.
the straight sleeves and the pockets on add shading and definition. Optionally, highlight with a mix of
the front) Battlefield Brown. Battlefield Brown and Wool Brown.

Heer Green Worn Canvas Jager Green

Worn Canvas Fine Brush Fine Brush Fine Brush

Jager Green
Actual Size

Pea Dot was used on

tunics and a special
two-piece camouflage
suit (pictured) but never
on helmet covers or
Paint dots and small irregular patches Paint similar dots and patches with Add small dots of Jager Green. Paint
camouflage smocks.
of Heer Green. Worn Canvas. the helmet cover Oak Leaf A (see

German Infantry Colours
When the newly formed Deutsches Flesh
Afrikakorps was sent to the aid of Germany’s See Basic or Advanced Faces
Italian allies, they were ill-prepared for Page 26
Desert warfare. But they adapted quickly
and effectively, learning to make do with Rifles, SMGs, & MGs
See Infantry Weapons
whatever equipment they had. Page 27
The olive green colour of the Afrikakorps
uniform faded quickly in the harsh desert Webbing & Pouches
environment to a pale dusty colour. See Painting Black
Page 29

Afrika Green

Painted Metal
Dry Dust

See Brown Leather
Page 28

Afrikakorps Armour
Colour Palette 50% Sicily Yellow Bradley Shade
50% Dry Dust Large Brush
Large Brush

Sicily Yellow

Dry Dust

Bradley Shade Basecoat your tank with a mix of Sicily Yellow and Dry Wash the tank with Bradley Shade. Try to achieve an even
Dust. Two thin coats are better than one thick coat. You may coverage over the whole tank, letting the wash pool in the
find it easier if you use a white or light grey undercoat. recesses without building up too much on flat surfaces
50% Sicily Yellow
50% Dry Dust
Small Drybrush

Finish the tank by painting the tracks and all the

appropriate markings, tools and weather effects. Here a
Tidy up the wash with the base colour, using a combination drybrush of Grease Brown simulates wear and exposure
of drybrushing and layering (see page 15). to sandstorms.

British Infantry Colours
British troops in North Africa wore a
Helmets & Painted Metal uniform consisting of khaki drill shorts or
Crusader Sand slacks with long-sleeved Aertex shirts. The
(363) paler khaki shade of this light drill fabric
was better suited to desert regions than the
Uniform heavy brown serge of standard Battledress.
Dry Dust Webbing equipment was raw canvas,
(364) without Blanco (see Webbing Equipment,
page 27). Buckles were left unpolished.
See Basic or Advanced Faces
Page 26

Webbing & Pouches

Worn Canvas

Rifles, SMGs, & MGs

See Infantry Weapons
Page 27

Military Khaki


Eighth Army Desert Armour

Colour Palette Crusader Sand Rommel Shade
Large Brush Large Brush

Crusader Sand

Rommel shade

Pale colours like Crusader

Sand, the most common Basecoat your tank with Crusader Sand. Two thin coats are Wash the tank with Rommel Shade. Try to achieve an even
colour for British desert better than one thick coat. For such a light colour, you may coverage over the whole tank, letting the wash pool in the
tanks, can be challenging. find it easier if you use a white or light grey undercoat. recesses without building up too much on flat surfaces
to paint over a dark base Crusader Sand
without getting ugly Small Drybrush
brush strokes. Consider
using a white or pale
grey primer, to make it
easier to get a bright, even

Finish the tank by painting the tracks and all the

appropriate markings and tools. Weather effects are
Tidy up the wash with Crusader Sand using a combination a great way to add individuality and interest to each
of drybrushing and layering (see page 15). tank, concentrating especially on details like rivets.

“If you have an important point to make, don’t try to be subtle or clever.
Use a pile driver. Hit the point once. Then come back and hit it again.
Then hit it a third time - a tremendous whack.
-Winston Churchill
Throughout the War the island nation of Britain stood defiantly against the Germans. The well-trained and experienced
regiments of the British Army were supported by a selection of powerful tanks and artillery. The British in Flames Of War
are stubborn defenders who will often hold out against an enemy long after another force may have broken.

British Armour Infantry Weapons Markings
Page 55 Page 27 Page 58

Page 32

Tank Tracks
Page 29

Sherman Tracks Tools Painting Black Weather Effects

Page 68 Page 30 Page 29 Page 33

British Armour
Colour Palette Firefly Green Monty Shade
Large Brush Large Brush

Firefly Green

Monty shade

Tommy Green Basecoat your tank with Firefly Green. Two thin coats Wash the tank with Monty Shade. Try to achieve an even
are preferable to one thick coat. Alternatively you can use a coverage over the whole tank, letting the wash pool in the
Firefly Green spray can for your undercoat. recesses without building up too much on flat surfaces.
All British tanks, vehicles Firefly Green 50% Firefly Green
and artillery in Northwest Large Brush 50% Tommy Green
Small Drybrush
Europe from D-Day on
were painted in S.C.C
15 Olive Drab (Firefly
It is important to spend
enough time to get the
basic armour colour
looking good, as a strong
foundation will make
later weathering stages
more effective.
Tidy up the wash with Firefly Green using a combination Drybrush the upper surfaces of the vehicle with a mix
of drybrushing and layering (see page 15), while leaving the of Firefly Green and Tommy Green to add highlights,
recesses dark. particularly on edges and raised details.

BEF Infantry Tanks

All vehicles and guns
belonging to the Infantry
Tank Companies, Divisional
September 4-10: Cavalry Squadrons, or Rifle
The British Expeditionary Companies, and those from
Force (BEF) arrives in France. Divisional Support units had
wavy diagonal and horizontal
bands in Dark Green G4 (Heer

1940 Matilda II
Green) painted over the basic
colour of Khaki Green G3
(Sherman Drab).
May 10:
Germany invades France and Sherman Drab Heer Green
the Low Countries. (321) (340)

May 26 - June 4:
Evacuation of the BEF BEF Armour
through Dunkirk. Light and cruiser tanks from
June 10: the Armoured Regiments of the
Italy declares war on France 1st Armoured Division had their
and Britain. Khaki Green G3 covered by
December 9 - February 9: Light Green G5 (Afrika Green)
British launch Operation over most of the vehicle, leaving
Compass and destroys Italian wavy diagonal and horizontal
forces in Egypt. bands of Khaki Green G3
A13 Cruiser Mk III (Sherman Drab) as the

disruptive camouflage colour.

March 12: Afrika Green Sherman Drab

(346) (321)
Germans arrive in North
Africa, and recapture Caunter Camouflage
Cyrencia. Tobruk besieged. A lot of 7th Armoured Division’s
April 6: tanks were painted in a three-
British troops sent to colour camouflage scheme
reinforce Greek army. known as Caunter. This angular
May 15 and June 15: scheme was made up of three
British launch Operations colours in a complex pattern of
Brevity and Battleaxe to straight disruptive lines.
relieve Tobruk but Axis
counterattacks halt progress.
May 20: A13 Cruiser Mk IV
British and Commonwealth
forces withdraw from Crete
following German invasion.
June 8: Dry Dust Tommy Green Grenadier Green
(364) (345) (349)
Allies launch Operation
Exporter and invade Syria.
November 18:
British launch Operation Desert Colours
Crusader and recapture Desert camouflage sparked
Cyrencia. quite a debate as far as what
colours and patterns were best.

However, after much discussion
and testing, a simple yellow
sand colour, Light Stone No. 61
(Crusader Sand) was used for
January - June
The battles of Gazala push the the duration of 1941 and into
Eighth Army to El Alamein. Crusader I 1942.
July - October: BASE COLOUR

First and Second Battles of

El Alamein
Crusader Sand

US Equipment
November 2:
Operation Supercharge at El In late 1941 the first of the
Alamein, results in the defeat US lend-lease tanks arrived
of Axis forces in Egypt. in North Africa. These were
November 8: immediately painted in the
Operation Torch, a joint US- many various camouflage
British force lands in Africa. patterns found in the Eighth
Army in North Africa.

1943 Sherman III

March 19:
British Eighth Army assaults
the Mareth Line in Tunisia. Crusader Sand Worn Rubber Boot Brown Heer Green
(363) (302) (323) (340)
May 13: Service Colour
German and Italian troops in
The British exported tanks,
North Africa surrender.
vehicles and other equipment
July 9/10:
to the Soviet Union as a part of
Allies invade Sicily.
the Lend-lease program. Tanks,
September 8:
such as this Valentine, were
Italy surrenders to the Allies.
shipped in the standard S.C.C.
September 9:
2 Service Colour (Comrade
Allies land at Salerno in Italy.
Khaki) and were seldom

Valentine VIII (Lend-lease)

January 4 - May 18: Comrade Khaki

Battle of Monte Cassino
January 22 - June 5:
Sicily and Italy
Allies land at Anzio. When the British Army moved
June 5: out of North Africa and into
Allies liberate Rome. Italy, a new scheme was applied
June 6: to their vehicles. This one had
D-Day landings in France. a base of Light Mud (Military
June 6 - August 6: Khaki) with cloud-shaped
British and Commonwealth patches of black to better match
forces win the bloody Battle the hilly terrain of the Italian
of Caen. countryside.
Autocar 75mm SP
July 25-30:
Allies breakout of Normandy. BASE COLOUR CAMOUFLAGE

August 12-21:
Allied forces close the Falaise
Military Khaki Black
Pocket and destroy the (327) (300)

German Seventh Army.

September 17: Northwest Europe
Operation Market Garden.
During the build-up to the
September - October:
invasion of France, the British
Canadian and British forces
clear the Scheldt region.
switched their basic scheme
from Service Colour to S.C.C.
15 Olive Drab. This colour was

intended as a match for the US
Olive Drab, but it quite quickly
faded to a greener shade. All
March 23: vehicles were thus painted and
British cross the Rhine with Sherman V prepared for the invasion.
Operation Plunder. BASE COLOUR

May 7:
Germany unconditionally
surrenders. Firefly Green

Typical Armoured Division Markings
Below is a diagram explaining how the marking system for typical British armoured divisions worked. The Late-war Decal sheet has
markings for the divisions shown below. This is a basic guide to British markings; check out the website for more in-depth articles.


Guards Armoured Division 7th Armoured Division 11th Armoured Division 4th Canadian Armoured Division

Guards Armoured Division

Armoured Division Brigades Other Arms of Service

Armoured Brigade Infantry Brigade

60 Anti-tank Regiment
Royal Artillery
Anti-aircraft Regiment
Brigade HQ Brigade HQ

61 62 63 41 46
Field Squadrons, Field Regiments
Armoured Regiments Rifle Battalions Royal Engineers Royal Artillery

Motor Battalion Machine-gun Battalion Armoured Car Regiment Armoured Recce Regiment

5 Guards Armoured Brigade - Guards Armoured Division

Brigade HQ

2nd Armoured Battalion 1st Armoured Battalion 2nd Armoured Battalion

Grenadier Guards Coldstream Guards Irish Guards
(Senior Regiment) (2nd Regiment) (Junior Regiment)

Regimental HQ Regimental HQ Regimental HQ

A Squadron B Squadron C Squadron A Squadron B Squadron C Squadron A Squadron B Squadron C Squadron

1st Motor Battalion

Each Squadron is usually 20 tanks Grenadier Guards

79TH ARMOURED DIVISION The 79th Armoured Division
contains all of the funnies or
specialist tanks such as the
bunker-busting AVsRE, the
Buffalo amphibious landing craft,
Buffalo AVRE Kangaroo and the Ram Kangaroo armoured
Armoured Transports (Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers) Armoured Transports personnel carrier.

31ST Army Tank Brigade Armoured Recce Regiment Armoured Car Regiment

Regimental HQ Regimental HQ Regimental HQ

A Squadron B Squadron C Squadron A Squadron B Squadron C Squadron A Squadron B Squadron C Squadron

The markings above are for the 9th Battalion An Armoured Recce Regiment performed Armoured Car Regiments were organised like
Royal Tank Regiment, equipped with a similar role to the armoured cars, but was a tank regiment, but equipped with armoured
Churchill tanks. To field Churchill Crocodiles equipped with Cromwell tanks in Europe and cars like Daimlers, Humbers and Staghounds.
from 141st Royal Armoured Corps (The Buffs) a mix of Shermans and Stuarts in Italy.
use the same markings but use blue squadron
markings instead of yellow.

British Armour in Italy

Armoured Division Insignia in Italy

1st Armoured 6th Armoured 5th Canadian 6th South African

Division Division Armoured Division Armoured Division

Independant Armoured Brigades in Italy

9th Armoured Brigade 23rd Armoured Brigade 4th New Zealand 21st Tank Brigade
Armoured Brigade

British armoured divisions followed the same organisation as their counterparts in the rest of Europe. The independent armoured brigades did the
same, with the exception that some of them used different battalion numbers.

Other tank markings

Bridge Weights: Bridge classification numbers identified

whether a vehicle was able to cross a bridge or not. Most
vehicles only have one bridge weight on the front of the Serial Numbers: Each vehicle has a Allied Stars: Most British vehicles
vehicle. Use the 5 on small vehicles like armoured cars, white serial number. The ‘T’ series of have a small star on each side and often
trucks or half-tracks. Use the 15 on Stuart tanks. Use the numbers belongs to tanks, the ‘Z’ series the rear. Most vehicles also have a large
27 on medium tanks like Cromwells and Shermans and belongs to half-tacks and the ‘F’ series star as an air recognition symbol on the
the 40 on heavy tanks like Churchills and Crocodiles. belongs to armoured cars and carriers. cab or the top of the turret.

Typical Infantry Division Markings
Below is a diagram explaining how the marking system for typical British infantry divisions worked. The Late-war Decal sheet has
markings for the divisions shown below. This is a basic guide to British markings; check out the website for more in-depth articles.


50th 51st 78th 1st 1st Canadian 4th Indian 2nd

Infantry Infantry Infantry South African Infantry Infantry New Zealand
Division Division Division Infantry Division Division Division Infantry Division

Infantry Division

Infantry Division HQ

1st Brigade 2nd Brigade 2nd Brigade

91 80 50 84 75 92 60 62 89
Infantry Battalions Infantry Battalions Infantry Battalions

Other Arms of Service

88 71 53 81 78 70 57
Field Regiments, Royal Artillery Reconnaissance Regiment Field Companies, Royal Engineers

55 51 96
Light Anti-aircraft Regiment Machine-gun Battalion Anti-tank Regiment

While they don’t cover every possible variation, the Flames Of War range of Mid/Late decals certainly provide a lot of variety and allow you
to apply markings to a little bit of everything.

Where to apply Markings
The previous pages describe the marking system of the British army, but how does this translate to vehicles? Like
everything in World War II, there is no one size fits all solution to where to place your markings, as individual units
often strayed from the norm, but if you follow the basic guide below to place your markings you should be right.

Note: Be aware that the Divisional markings should be on the same side of the tank (on the right side when looking at the front of the tank), and
the Regiment number should be on the left side.

Regimental markings can be placed Firefly crews would often paint camouflage on the The red-white-red flash was used in Tunisia and Italy
on either the mudguards as shown end of their barrels to make their tanks look more like to help troops identify friendly tanks in combat. A
by the Comet above, or on the hull regular Shermans so they wouldn’t be picked out by white-red-white flash, copied from the WWI tanks,
if the tank has no mudguards. German gunners. was used earlier during Operation Crusader.

Early and Mid War Decals

Fundamentally, the British used the same structure as described on the previous pages through the war, although some of the regiment and
battalion numbers are different. There are decal sheets (shown below) for these periods as well; check out the website for more articles on markings
for these earlier periods. While these decal sheets are specifically for other periods, many of the markings are useful for Late War as well.

British Infantry
Firefly Green

Hessian Strips
Wool Brown

Tommy Green

See Basic or Advanced Faces
Page 26

Rifles, SMGs, & MGs Entrenching Tool

See Infantry Weapons See Tools
Page 27 Page 30

Uniform Water Bottle

Battledress Brown See Canteens
(325) Page 28


British Officers
Colour Palette Shell Brass Dark Leather
Fine Brush Fine Brush

Shell Brass

Actual Size

Dark Leather

Paint the officer’s uniform the same as Paint the cap badge Shell Brass. Paint the leather strap Dark Leather.
British Battledress (see opposite page).

British Battledress
Colour Palette Battlefield Brown Firefly Green Monty Shade
Large Brush Medium Brush Large Brush

Battlefield Brown

Firefly Green

Monty Shade Basecoat the uniform Battlefield Basecoat all webbing equipment Wash the figure liberally with Monty
Brown, using two thin coats if with Firefly Green. Shade to add shading and give the
necessary to achieve an even coverage. uniform the correct greenish tone.

Battledress Brown Tommy Green 50% Battledress Brown

Battledress Brown Medium Brush Small Brush 50% Military Khaki
(325) Small Brush

Tommy Green
(345) Actual Size

Military Khaki

Paint the uniform with Battledress Paint the webbing equipment Tommy Highlight raised areas of the uniform
Brown, leaving dark shadows in the Green. (See Webbing and Canvas, for a brighter, higher-contrast look.
recessed areas. page 27)

Colour Palette Firefly Green Wool Brown Monty Shade
Large Brush Medium Brush Large Brush

Firefly Green

Wool Brown

Monty Shade Basecoat the helmet with Firefly Paint the hessian camouflage strips Wash the helmet liberally with Monty
Green. Wool Brown. Shade to add shading.

Worn Canvas
Worn Canvas Large Brush

Actual Size

Highlight some of the hessian strips Uncovered helmets are easier to paint. Just basecoat with Firefly Green and
with Worn Canvas. wash with Monty Shade. Tidy up the shade with Firefly Green again.

British Paratroopers
The British airborne soldier, like his comrades from the rifle companies, wore the Battledress.
This consisted of a short jacket and trousers in a green-brown dark khaki.
Over the standard Battledress they wore their unique Denison camouflage smock, designed
in 1942 by a Major Denison. The original ‘Airborne Smock Denison Camouflage’ had green
and brown camouflage colours hand-painted with a large brush.
The subsequent screen-printed pattern which was in use by Operation Market Garden
emulated this look, including prominent brush strokes, so if your application of the green
and brown swatches is somewhat streaky or patchy, all the better. The dyes used were not
particularly colourfast, and faded quite quickly with wear.
Surviving examples have a very muted, washed-out appearance quite different to their
original factory-fresh look. You may want to paint some or all of your paratroops’
smocks with faded colours, making it clear that they have seen some use.
Although equipped with their own special design of steel helmet, covered with
netting to which strips of coloured camouflage fabric could be tied, some British
paratroops still wore their famous red beret into battle.

New Denison Faded Denison

Panther Yellow Sicily Yellow

Boot Brown Motherland Earth

Army Green Firefly Green

Airborne Berets
Colour Palette Oxide Red Devil Red 50% Devil Red
Large Brush Medium Brush 50% Artillery Red
Medium Brush

Oxide Red

Actual Size

Devil Red

Artillery Red
(380) Basecoat the beret with Oxide Red. Highlight with Devil Red, leaving the Highlight the edge of the beret with a
shadows Oxide Red. mix of Devil Red and Artillery Red.

Airborne Camouflage
Colour Palette Battledress Brown Sicily Yellow Firefly Green
Large Brush Medium Brush Fine Brush

Battledress Brown

Sicily Yellow

Firefly Green Basecoat the smock Battledress Highlight the Battledress Brown Paint irregular patches of Firefly
Brown, leaving the deepest recesses with Sicily Yellow. Green, covering roughly a quarter of
Black. the smock.

Motherland Earth Sicily Yellow

Motherland Earth Fine Brush Small Drybrush

Since the last step

of painting airborne
camouflage smocks is a
Actual Size
drybrush, it pays to paint
the smocks before the rest
of the model, to avoid
messing up other colours.
Here we’ve painted the
smock as faded Denison.
Paint Motherland Earth in irregular Drybrush lightly with Sicily Yellow
patches so that roughly half the smock to break up the hard camouflage lines
is covered in camouflage. while leaving the recesses darker.

Airborne Helmets
Colour Palette Army Green Firefly Green Motherland Earth
Large Brush Small Drybrush Medium Brush

Army Green

Firefly Green

Motherland Earth Basecoat the helmet Army Green. Drybrush the helmet with Firefly Paint all of the Hessian strips
Green. Motherland Earth.

Sicily Yellow Sicily Yellow

Sicily Yellow Medium Brush Medium Brush

Like the Denison smocks,

you can paint the Hessian
strips either new or faded.
Actual Size

Randomly repaint half of the Hessian Drybrush the helmet lightly with
strips Sicily Yellow. Sicily Yellow to soften the camouflage

“All right, they’re on our left, they’re on our right,
they’re in front of us, they’re behind us...
they can’t get away this time.”
- Lieutenant General Lewis B.’Chesty’ Puller
By the time the American forces landed in Italy they were a well-trained army of volunteers, supremely confident in their
abilities and supported by a manufacturing powerhouse. With an impressive variety of support options in Flames Of War,
the American army is very flexible.

US Armour Infantry Weapons Markings
Page 68 Page 27 Pages 71-73

Page 32

Tank Tracks
Page 29

Sherman Tracks Tools Weather Effects Painting Black

Page 68 Page 30 Page 33 & 69 Page 29

US Armour
Colour Palette Sherman Drab Bradley Shade
Large Brush Large Brush

Sherman Drab

Bradley shade

Military Khaki Basecoat with Sherman Drab. Two or three thin coats Wash the vehicle with Bradley Shade. Try to achieve an
are preferable to one thick coat. Alternatively you can use a even coverage over the whole vehicle, letting the wash pool
Sherman Drab spray can for your undercoat. in the recesses without building up on flat surfaces.
With very few exceptions, Sherman Drab 50% Sherman Drab
all US vehicles were Large Brush 50% Military Khaki
Small Drybrush
painted the same olive
drab colour. You can
apply the colours and
methods shown here to
any US vehicle, as well as
most artillery pieces.

Tidy up the wash with Sherman Drab (see page 15) using a Drybrush the vehicle with a mix of Sherman Drab and
combination of drybrushing and layering, while leaving the Military Khaki, concentrating on edges, raised details and
recesses dark. upper surfaces, to add highlights.

Sherman Tracks
Colour Palette Boot Brown Dark Gunmetal
Large Brush Small Drybrush

Boot Brown

Battlefield Brown

Dark Gunmetal Basecoat the tracks with Boot Brown. Alternatively, use Drybrush the edges of the tracks and the metal chevrons
Battlefield Brown like in the basic Tank Tracks guide on page (on tracks, including these, which have them) with Dark
29. Carefully avoid the black rubber blocks. Gunmetal. You can clean up any mistakes up with Black.

Bradley Shade Dark Gunmetal

Bradley Shade Large Brush Small Drybrush

American Sherman
tracks–their own and
those supplied to the
British (as shown in the
example) and Soviets–are
predominantly solid black
rubber held together by
steel bolts and pins.
As such, you should
approach them differently Wash the whole track, including the rubber blocks with Paint the armour colour, leaving the rubber road wheels
to all-metal tracks. Bradley Shade. black. Give the edge of the track, the chevrons, and the drive
sprocket a light drybrush of Dark Gunmetal.

Weathering Olive Drab
Colour Palette Grease Brown Bradley Shade
Large Drybrush Large Brush

Grease Brown

Bradley shade

Dry Dust Drybrush Grease Brown onto your vehicle using the edge For Deep Recesses such as the line around hatches, an
of your drybrush, starting at the top of the hull. This helps extra targetted wash of Bradley Shade will intensify the
represent paint wearing down to the metal. shading. You can also use Manstein Shade, if you have it.
The olive drab of US Dry Dust Bradley Shade
vehicles benefits from Large Brush Large Brush
adding some weather
It makes vehicles stand
out on the battlefield, as
well as giving each one
some individual character.
These weathering tips
work well on US vehicles,
but can be just as effective
on other nations’ vehicles
as well. Drybrush Dry Dust on to your vehicle, this time starting at Paint Bradley Shade from the fuel cap for fuel stains. After
the bottom of the hull, to represent rain-streaked dust. applying a matt varnish (see page 33) you can paint over the
top of the stain with gloss varnish to make it look fresh.

M-10 GMC

US Armored Division Organisation
One of the interesting things about US armored divisions XX The military symbols that the US army used
was their flexibility. None of the assets in the division were in World War II were the symbols that were
permanently allocated to any one Combat Command; eventually adopted by all NATO countries.
rather, they were assigned to a Combat Command ad hoc, Armored
depending on their mission. This diagram assumes an
equal split between the three Combat Commands.





Tank Armored Armored Cavalry Armored Tank Anti-

Battalion Infantry Artillery Recon Engineer Destroyer Aircraft
Battalion Battalion Troop Company Company Company


Medium Medium Medium Light Armored Armored Armored

Tank Tank Tank Tank Infantry Infantry Infantry
Company Company Company Company Company Company Company
(M4 Sherman) (M4 Sherman) (M4 Sherman) (M5 Stuart)

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •••

Tank Tank Tank Armored Armored Armored Anti-tank

Platoon Platoon Platoon Infantry Infantry Infantry Platoon
(5 Tanks) (5 Tanks) (5 Tanks) Platoon Platoon Platoon

The US Unit Code system

During the course of the war American system that was easy to use and interpret
factories produced over 88,000 tanks, by every soldier.
41,000 half-tracks and over 2,500,000 The unit code or bumper marking
soft-skinned transports vehicles. It went provided a simple, easy-to-read system
from a regular army of 250,000 men that identified every vehicle and where it
to a mobilised army of 89 divisions fitted in the army.
containing over 2 million men.
The code had four parts: the formation,
With so many vehicles in the field they the unit, the company, and the
needed a robust vehicle identification individual vehicle number.

Formation Unit Company Tank Number

The first part is the formation The second part shows the unit The third group is used for the The final group designates the
code. This is usually a number code, usually a regiment or company within the battalion vehicle number within the
followed by a character denoting battalion, with a number and that the vehicle belongs to. This is company
the type of formation. Examples: letter system like the first group. usually a single letter.
3A = Third Army Examples: Headquarters vehicles will usually
4∆ = 4th Armored Div 13∆ = 13th Armored Regiment have ‘HQ’ as their code.
82A/B = 82nd Airborne 179I = 179th Infantry Regiment
C = Cavalry 824TD = 824th TD Battalion

The US941 American Decals sheet was specifically designed to represent the tanks fighting in Lorraine and on to Germany towards the end of WWII.
It’s a good place to start explaining US vehicle markings and give you some insight and inspiration for decorating your American tanks accurately.

US Stars
The first sheet in the blister gives you all the different types of Allied stars
commonly found on US vehicles.
There was no standard way of applying these stars, so feel free to have
a mix in your army. The examples below are just a sample of the more
common practices in terms of where the stars go, but if you’re looking
to represent tanks in a specific historical battle, period photos are your
US tanks would typically have six stars: turret sides, hull sides, hull front,
and engine deck. These varied in style. Some would have basic stars,
while others had stars with rings around them. A large star with a ring
was often on the engine deck for air recognition. M10 3in GMC
Some crew would paint over the stars (and other markings) later so they
didn’t provide easy targets for the Germans, so leaving some off is an easy Tank Destroyers: Tank Destroyers usually have the stars in broken
way to add variety to your force. circles. Some M18’s had a large star on the front armour.

M7 Priest HMC
M4A3 (late) Sherman
Armored Artillery: A similar treatment to the tank destroyer was
given to armoured artillery, but they commonly had a large star in a
circle on the side armour where there was room.

M4A1 Sherman M8 armoured car

Utility/Transport Vehicles: There sometimes wasn’t room for the

regulation-size stars, so smaller stars were often used.

Bridge weights and unit bumper codes
Vehicles were often marked with their weight in tons on the front of the Also on the front of the vehicle were markings that detailed its number
vehicle. This was shown in black numbers on a yellow circle. The purpose in the company, and what division and battalion it came from, as
was to easily know the weight of a vehicle for crossing bridges. We’ve explained on the previous page. On this sheet we’ve used 4th Armored
provided a range of numbers to cover most vehicles in your force. Division, 37th Tank Battalion, and C Company vehicles numbered 10
As a guide Sherman tanks usually have bridge weights around 30, Stuarts to 29, However the decals are small enough on the vehicles that it won’t
and other light tanks hover around the mid to high teens. Trucks and be visibly different if you are modelling a different unit.
utility vehicles use the lowest numbers, while M4A3E2 Jumbos and M26
Pershings are the heaviest tanks in the US army.
A little research will help you find the appropriate weight for each type
of vehicle.

M4A3 (76mm) Sherman M18 Hellcat GMC M20 utility car

Nicknames and Serial Numbers

M4A3 (late) Sherman M3 half-track

Serial numbers and nicknames adorned most US vehicles. Names on The serial numbers starting with 3 are for tanks. Those starting with 4
the sheet are simple and are fine to use on any American vehicle, though are for other tracked vehicles, such as half-tracks. These were usually
with some digging you might be able to find which type of tank they located at the rear sides of the vehicle.
historically appeared on. They commonly appeared near the centre of the
sides of the vehicles.

Vehicle Specs US Flags

M3 half-track

M4A1 (76mm) Sherman When the Allies landed in North Africa during Operation Torch in
1942, American crews displayed large US flags on the front and sides
Often vehicles had a small list of technical information near the back of of their vehicles. It was hoped that the French defenders (thought to be
the hull. This listed the weight and dimensions of the vehicle, ground pro-American) would spot the flags and decide not to offer resistance.
clearance, etc. This proved to be wishful thinking, as the French did resist most
landings. Still, adding the flags to your vehicles is a way to add some
colour and patriotism to your force!

Other Symbols

Lt. Gen George S Patton Jr: In

Blood, Guts, & Glory, a player can
M4 Sherman M18 Hellcat GMC
field Patton as a warrior in his M20
command car.
Armoured Division symbols: Some tankers Tank Destroyers: Some M18 crews in Italy painted
The colour decal sheet also has his
proudly displayed the red, yellow, and blue triangle a large version of their ‘Seek, Strike, Destroy’ patch
M20’s serial numbers and rank
symbol of the US armoured divisions on the sides on the side of their tanks.
of their vehicle.

Historical examples
Unlike some other nations in the war, there is a lot of documentation and photos online to use as reference. Our decal sheet was based on a lot of
these photos. Below are examples of some historically marked vehicles.


M4A3E8 Easy Eight ‘FLATFOOT FLOOGIE’ M4A3 (76mm) Sherman ‘PURPLE HEART KIDS’


US Infantry
Helmets & Painted Metal
Sherman Drab

Rifles, SMGs, & MGs

See Infantry Weapons
Page 27

See Basic or Advanced Faces
Page 26

Military Khaki

Worn Canvas

Wool Brown

See Brown Leather
Page 28

US Uniforms
Colour Palette Military Khaki Battlefield Brown Bradley Shade
Large Brush Medium Brush Large Brush

Military Khaki

Battlefield Brown

Bradley Shade Basecoat the jacket with Military Basecoat the trousers with Battlefield Wash the figure liberally with Bradley
Khaki, using two thin coats if neces- Brown. Shade to add shading in the recesses
sary to provide an even coverage. and folds of the cloth.

Military Khaki Wool Brown Worn Canvas

Wool Brown Medium Brush Medium Brush Fine Brush

Worn Canvas
Actual Size

The ‘olive drab no. 3’

colour of the M-1941
jacket is often mistakenly
described as ‘khaki’
because it faded quite Tidy Up the jacket with Military Highlight the trousers with fairly Highlight raised details and edges of
quickly with use to a Khaki, leaving darker shadows in the broad strokes of Wool Brown, using the the jacket with Worn Canvas.
dusty khaki colour. recesses. layering technique (see page 14).

Camouflage Uniforms
During the Normandy invasion in June 1944, a camouflage suit was issued to elements
of the 2nd and 30th Infantry Divisions, the 17th Engineer Battalion, as well as the 2nd
Armored Division’s 41st Armored Infantry Regiment.
The uniform was quickly discontinued in early July after GIs were mistaken for
camouflaged Germans and fired upon by their own troops, sometimes with tragic
results. However, there is photographic evidence of the uniform being worn well
into the later stages of summer.
Worn Canvas Despite only having a short service
life, painting an infantry unit in this
distinctive camouflage will add some
interesting flavour to your force.
Like all infantry camo schemes you
can get away with simplifying when
Afrika Green painting it at 1:100 scale.

Motherland Earth

US Infantry Camouflage
Colour Palette Military Khaki Bradley Shade Worn Canvas
Large Brush Large Brush Medium Brush

Military Khaki

Bradley Shade

Worn Canvas Basecoat the uniform with Military Wash with Bradley Shade to add Highlight with Worn Canvas, using
Khaki, using two thin coats if neces- shading in the recesses and folds of the the layering technique (see page 14).
sary to provide an even coverage. cloth.

Afrika Green Motherland Earth

Afrika Green Fine Brush Fine Brush

Motherland Earth
Actual Size

Paint small spots of Afrika Green. You Paint small spots of Motherland
can substitute a mix of Army Green Earth. You can substitute Battlefield
and Sicily Yellow if necessary. Brown if necessary.

Winter Uniforms
The extra warmth of US winter
service clothing mostly came from
adding additional inner liners,
which did not alter the outward
appearance much.
The obvious exception is the wool
overcoats and the black overshoes.
Wool Brown
Winter gear was issued to airborne
troops fighting in the winter of
1944-’45, so feel free to mix winter
figures with airborne figures See Winter Whitewash
Page 80
to create a winter airborne army.

See Seasonal Basing
Page 25


Colour Palette Battlefield Brown Sherman Drab Bradley Shade
Large Brush Medium Brush Large Brush

Battlefield Brown

Sherman Drab

Bradley Shade Basecoat the overcoat with Battle- Basecoat the webbing equipment Wash the figure liberally with Bradley
field Brown, using two thin coats if with Sherman Drab. Shade to add shading in the recesses
necessary to provide an even coverage. and folds of the cloth.
50% Battlefield Brown Wool Brown Worn Canvas
Wool Brown 50% Wool Brown Fine Brush Fine Brush
(328) Medium Brush

Worn Canvas
Actual Size

Larger uniform items

like overcoats have lots
of folds and wrinkles, so
they are an opportunity
to practise your shading Paint a mix of Battlefield Brown and Highlight with broad strokes of Wool Finish the webbing equipment with
and highlighting. Wool Brown, leaving darker shadows Brown, using the layering technique Military Khaki and Worn Canvas (see
in the recesses. (see page 14). Webbing Equipment, page 27)

Airborne troops
The first combat uniform issued to US airborne troopers, the M1942, was purpose
designed for airborne troops by Major William Yarborough (who was also the designer
of the US Airborne parachute wings). The design included features such as pockets
cut on the diagonal to allow easy access while wearing webbing equipment and large,
expanding, bellows style leg pockets that became a trademark of the wartime US
airborne trooper. The M1942 uniform was used only by paratroopers and wasn’t issued
to glider troops.
The Paratroopers taking part in combat jumps in North Africa, Sicily, Italy and
Normandy wore this uniform and even one battalion that jumped during “Market
Garden” in Holland was still wearing this uniform. This uniform was made
from light cotton that was a pale greenish-tan colour. Due to the vagaries of
the manufacturing process the shade could vary greatly.
Being made from lightweight cotton, the knees and elbows tended to wear out quickly
so many an airborne trooper bribed his unit parachute rigger to sew patches over the
elbows and knees. The material commonly used for this was cotton duck from old
parachute packs and was olive drab in colour (Army Green).
After the US airborne forces were withdrawn from Normandy they were refitted and
brought back up to strength ready for the next mission. This included the widespread
issue of the brand new M1943 olive drab uniform to the veterans of the 82nd and 101st
divisions. This wasn’t just a paratroop uniform but the beginning of the US Army’s push
to standardize the combat uniform. All airborne units received the M1943 uniform,
even the glider troops, but the paratroopers were quick to modify theirs by adding
bigger leg pockets.
The new airborne divisions arriving fresh from the States already wore this new uniform
and it was the uniform seen dropping from the sky, or climbing out of a glider, during
Market Garden in Holland and Varsity over the Rhine and into Germany proper.

Normandy Airborne Uniforms

Colour Palette Sherman Drab 50% Sherman Drab Military Khaki
Large Brush 50% Military Khaki
Medium Brush Fine Brush

Sherman Drab

Actual Size

Military Khaki

Basecoat the uniform Sherman Paint a mix of Sherman Drab and Highlight edges and raised folds of
Drab. Military Khaki, leaving darker shadows. fabric with Military Khaki.

Post-Normandy Airborne Uniforms

Colour Palette GI Green Bradley Shade 50% GI Green
Large Brush Medium Brush 50% Military Khaki
Fine Brush

GI Green

Actual Size

Bradley Shade

Military Khaki
(327) Basecoat the uniform GI Green. Wash liberally with Bradley Shade to Highlight with a mix of GI Green
add depth. and Military Khaki.

“The Red Army and Navy and the whole Soviet people must fight for every inch of Soviet soil,
fight to the last drop of blood for our towns and villages... Onward, to victory!”
-Iosef Stalin
With the fascist invader on their doorstep, the Soviet people were conscripted in their millions and thrown forward, often
without the best equipment and certainly without a great deal of training. But the Soviet Union and her Red Army were
quick to adapt. Mass production and increased combat experience produced a unique fighting force to rival that of the
Germans. In Flames Of War the Soviet army is plentiful, fielding larger forces than any other nation.

Soviet Armour Air Recognition Tools Markings
Page 80 Page 81 Page 30 Page 83

Page 32

Infantry Weapons
Page 27

Soviet Tracks Painting Black

Page 81 Page 29

Tank Tracks Rust Weather Effects

Page 29 Page 30 Pages 33 & 82

Soviet Armour
Colour Palette Tankovy Green Zhukov Shade
Large Brush Large Brush

Tankovy Green

Zhukov shade

Army Green Basecoat your tank with Tankovy Green. Two thin coats Wash the tank with Zhukov Shade. Try to achieve an even
are preferable to one thick coat. Alternatively you can use a coverage over the whole tank, letting the wash pool in the
Tankovy Green spray can for your undercoat. recesses without building up too much on flat surfaces.
The majority of Soviet Tankovy Green Army Green
tanks, vehicles and Large Brush Small Drybrush
artillery were painted a
uniform green colour.
It can be somewhat
monotonous, but it
provides a great canvas
on which you can really
enjoy yourself with
weathering effects, giving
each tank a unique
character, different from
its comrades (see page
Tidy up the basecoat with Tankovy Green (see page 15) using Drybrush the upper surfaces of the vehicle with Army
a combination of drybrushing and layering, while leaving the Green. Don’t be afraid if this looks a bit bright as the colour
recesses dark. will get toned down with weathering.

Winter Whitewash
Colour Palette 50% Tankovy Green Whitewash
50% Whitewash Medium Brush
Large Brush

Tankovy Green


White Basecoat the tank with a mix of Tankovy Green and Layer one or two streaky coats of Whitewash to resemble
Whitewash, to simulate the transparent effect of whitewash whitewash camouflage that has been partly washed off by
that has started to wear off due to rain or heavy use. exposure to rain and snow. You don’t need to be neat.
A common form of
winter camouflage was Tankovy Green White
whitewash, which could Medium Brush Fine Brush
be washed off easily
in spring. There are
different ways to paint it,
depending on how fresh
you want the whitewash
to look. To show freshly
applied whitewash,
simply basecoat
with Whitewash
then drybrush
with White. Or you may
Stipple chips and patches where the whitewash has Optionally add touches of White to intensify the whitewash
choose to show an older
completely worn off in high-use areas, using Tankovy Green. effect in some places, particularly on raised details and edges
coat of whitewash that has
Again, there is no need to worry about being neat. which could use an extra highlight.
started to wash off.

Soviet Tracks
Colour Palette Motherland Earth Black Cold Steel
Large Brush Large Brush Small Drybrush

Motherland Earth


Cold Steel Basecoat the track-links with Wash the track links with Black Drybrush the tracks with Cold Steel.
Motherland Earth, carefully avoiding heavily thinned with water. You could Make this drybrush quite heavy, as it
the rubber on the road wheels. substitute Manstein Shade. will be toned down in the next step.

Bradley Shade Cold Steel

Bradley Shade Large Brush Small Drybrush

Soviet tanks are usually a

single colour, and a little
extra dirt and grime is a
great way to give them
added character.
Spending more time on
Soviet tracks to add more
dirt, grime and depth of
colour than the basic Tank
Wash the tracks with Bradley Shade Lightly Drybrush the edge of Attach the tracks to the tank and
Tracks guide (see page 29)
to create represent grime and grease. the tracks with Cold steel again, to tidy up the tyres with Black. Paint the
is a good place to start.
You can substitute Zhukov Shade. accentuate the track edges. wheels the same way as the armour.

Air Recognition Markings

Colour Palette Whitewash
Medium Brush



Grease Brown Pencil in lines for your markings. Using low-tack masking ‘Under-paint’ (i.e. basecoat) the area for the air recognition
tape as a guide will help you get a straight line. Align the tape marking with Whitewash. This will make painting the
to the top and bottom edges of the decal. White in the next step easier.
In the late stages of the White Grease Brown
war, when the Red Army Medium Brush Small Drybrush
enjoyed air superiority,
Soviet tankers painted
large stripes around or on
top of their turrets as air
recognition markings to
avoid friendly fire.
These are not too difficult
to paint, but add a lot
of visual interest to your
Layer a coat of White over the top of the Whitewash. Feel Wash a very thinned-down glaze of Grease Brown over the
free to add a few messy paint drips to give each tank some air recognition marking and the decal. This will tone down
individuality. the White and help blend it into the tank.

Weathering Soviet Green
Colour Palette Splinter Green Grease Brown
Medium Brush Fine Brush

Splinter Green

Grease Brown

Comrade Khaki Paint chips and scratches with a fine brush, concentrating on Fill in the centre of the chips with Grease Brown, leaving the
edges and areas of heavy use. edges of the Splinter Green Showing.
Grease Brown Comrade Khaki
Fine Brush Fine Brush
Rust Orange

Motherland Earth

With their large numbers

of tanks, all in the same
uninterrupted green,
Soviet armies can easily
Paint vertical streaks with very thinned down Grease Brown, Build up the streaks with thinned down Comrade Khaki,
become repetitive and
starting at corrosion points like paint chips and weld lines. Rust Orange or Motherland Earth.
monotonous - both to
look at and to paint. Grease Brown Comrade Khaki
Fine Brush Fine Brush
Decals and air recognition
markings will help a lot.
Another way to make
them really stand out
is to go to town with
Here are a few tips for
adding depth to Soviet
armour. Be careful to
build the weathering
up carefully, to avoid
overdoing it and making Target Wash recesses with Grease Brown or Dark Leather Target Wash weld lines with Comrade Khaki. Be careful
your tanks look cartoony. to exaggerate built-up dirt that has collected in the corners. not to go too overboard with this; ‘less is more’.

Soviet Tank Crew

You have a lot of options when it comes to painting Soviet tank crew. Their overalls can be dark blue (below), the same
Colour Palette
khaki colour as Soviet infantry uniforms (see page 85), or black (see Painting Black on page 29). The helmet can be
canvas (below), leather (see Brown Leather on page 28), or black.
Comrade Khaki Manstein Shade 50% Comrade Khaki
Comrade Khaki Large Brush Large Brush 50% Worn Canvas
Medium Brush

Luftwaffe Blue

Manstein Shade
Luftwaffe Blue Luftwaffe Blue
Large Brush Medium Brush

Basecoat the uniform Luftwaffe Blue Wash the helmet and overalls with Highlight the helmet with a mix of
Worn Canvas
(306) and the helmet Comrade Khaki. Manstein Shade. You can substitute Comrade Khaki and Worn Canvas.
Black heavily thinned with water. Tidy up the overalls with Luftwaffe Blue.

While there were standard tank marking and numbering systems in all the other major armies, there was no such system
in the Red Army. During World War II regimental commanders were responsible for the style and meaning of the
numbering system in use by their regiments. This was done during WWII so as to utterly fool enemy intelligence–if you
don’t know what the numbers mean, the enemy sure as hell don’t! Basically, with a few rules, anything goes!

The Soviet Union raised

a tank regiment from One of the markings
Polish Volunteers, who that really makes Soviet
painted Polish Eagles on vehicles stand out are
the turrets of their tanks. slogans.
There is no right or
wrong place to put
slogans on a vehicle; any
large flat surface is fair
game for a slogan!

Tank numbers can range

from one- to four-digit
numbers, or include Some tank units were
letters and symbols. awarded the Guards
honour. Often these units
They appear on the decal
would paint the Guard
sheet in two different
insignia on their tanks.
styles. The four-digit
numbers can be cut down
into two- or three-digit As a general rule,
numbers as well. Red stars were more
commonly used on Lend-
lease vehicles than on
The most common Soviet-built equipment,
RKKA tactical markings which tended to have
were a rhomboid or white stars on them (if
triangle with numbers they had stars at all).
Red stars can also be used
Some of the decal sheets on captured German
included in Flames Of equipment.
War Soviet tank boxes
have more varieties of However, like everything
tactical markings. in the Soviet army,
anything is possible.

T-34/85 obr 1943 IS-2 obr 44

Lend-lease ‘Emcha’,
M4A2 76mm Sherman Captured Panther A

Soviet Infantry
Tankovy Green

Shoulder-board Piping
Devil Red

Webbing Equipment
Military Khaki

Rifles & SMGs

See Infantry Weapons
Page 27

Canvas Satchels See Brown Leather
Page 28
Worn Canvas
Uniforms See Basic or Advanced Faces
Page 26
Comrade Khaki
A lot of a Soviet soldier’s webbing
equipment is made from canvas. Since
all of this gear is made at different times
in different factories, the colour can vary
Boots greatly from piece to piece.
Black This means you can vary the colours on
your miniatures as well. This can be a
matter of simply varying the amount of
Worn Canvas you apply as a highlight.
You can also alter the shade by using
a different basecoat colour, eg. Wool
Brown (below) versus Military Khaki
(opposite page).

Canvas Webbing Equipment

Colour Palette Wool Brown Zhukov Shade Worn Canvas
Medium Brush Medium Brush Medium Brush

Wool Brown
Actual Size

Zhukov Shade

Worn Canvas
(306) Basecoat the satchel with Wool Wash with Zhukov Shade. Highlight with Worn Canvas.

Soviet Uniforms
Colour Palette Comrade Khaki Military Khaki Zhukov Shade
Large Brush Medium Brush Large Brush

Comrade Khaki

Military Khaki

Zhukov Shade Basecoat the uniform Comrade Basecoat all webbing equipment Wash the figure liberally with
Khaki, using two thin coats if with Military Khaki. Zhukov Shade to add depth to the
necessary to achieve an even coverage. uniform.

Comrade Khaki Worn Canvas 75% Comrade Khaki

Worn Canvas Medium Brush Medium Brush 25% Worn Canvas
(306) Fine Brush

The exact colour of

Soviet uniforms could
vary quite substantially,
depending on the factory Actual Size

in which they were made,

so highlighting some
miniatures more than
others can add subtle
variety to your army,
and still be historically Tidy Up the uniform with Comrade Paint the canvas areas Worn Canvas. Highlight raised areas of the uniform
accurate. Khaki, leaving dark shadows in the for a brighter, higher-contrast look.
recessed areas.

Kommissars & Piping

Colour Palette Luftwaffe Blue Devil Red Zhukov Shade
Large Brush Fine Brush Large Brush

Luftwaffe Blue

Devil Red

Zhukov Shade Basecoat the pants and peaked cap Paint a Devil Red band around the Wash the pants and cap with Zhukov
Luftwaffe Blue. For non kommissar base of the peaked cap. Shade, to add shading and hide any
officers caps paint them Comrade Khaki. untidiness around the red band.

50% Luftwaffe Blue Artillery Red

Infantry Blue 50% Infantry Blue Fine Brush
(400) Medium Brush

Artillery Red
Actual Size Actual Size

Kommissars are unique to

the Red Army, and give
Red Army troops from 1944
you a welcome chance
onwards had large shoulder-
to add a dash of bright
boards. Paint them like German
colour to an otherwise Highlight the pants and the top Paint very thin lines around the edge
Waffenfarbe on page 47, using
fairly drab force. of the peaked cap with a mix of of the cap and down the legs of the
Devil Red and Boot Brown.
Luftwaffe and Infantry Blue. pants.

Assault Sappers and Scouts

The ‘Amoeba’ pattern camouflage

was the first mass-produced Soviet
camouflage uniform. It was printed with
large reddish-brown amoeba shapes on a light green or khaki background. Coloration of the
pattern varied depending on the factory that produced it, with variants of the green summer
version featuring darker brown, dark green or black amoeba shapes.
Most Soviet armies will not include more than a single platoon of scouts in Amoeba
camouflage, so they are a manageable opportunity to try painting camouflage at this scale.

Amoeba Pattern Camouflage

Colour Palette Afrika Green Monty Shade Afrika Green
Large Brush Large Brush Medium Brush

Afrika Green

Battledress Brown*

Monty Shade Basecoat the uniform Afrika Green. Wash the figure liberally with Monty Tidy Up the uniform with Afrika
Shade to add shading and give the Green, leaving dark shadows in the
uniform a deeper green tone. recessed areas.

50% Afrika Green Grease Brown

Bradley Shade* 50% Tommy Green Small Brush
(490) Small Brush

Tommy Green

Actual Size Actual Size

Military Khaki*

Highlight raised areas of the uniform Paint splodges of Grease Brown For the khaki camouflage, follow
Grease Brown the same steps as the green
(320) with a mix of Afrika Green and randomly over the uniform, covering
Tommy Green. roughly ¼ of the uniform. substituting the colours marked *.

Winter Infantry Soviet Flags
Helmet Stars Colour Palette Oxide Red
Fine Brush
Artillery Red

Budenovka Helmets Oxide Red

Greatcoat Grey

Collar Tabs Devil Red Basecoat the flag Oxide Red.

Devil Red
(380) Devil Red
Fine Brush
Greatcoats Artillery Red
Greatcoat Grey

Flags are one of the focal
Alternate Greatcoat colour points of a Soviet force.
Comrade Khaki Here is a basic guide for
(326) Highlight with Devil Red, either by
the colours to use for
heavy drybrushing or layering.
your flag. For a more
Alternate Greatcoat colour Artillery Red
even colour transition
Wool Brown you could add steps in
Fine Brush
between with 50/50
mixes of the colours
Like the basic uniform, the colours of Soviet either side, or use a
greatcoats varied considerably. Aside from layering technique (see
differences between factories, a large number page 14).
of wool coats were supplied by the Western
Allies under the Lend-lease programme. Highlight the flag again with
Artillery Red.

Colour Palette Greatcoat Grey Zhukov Shade Greatcoat Grey
Large Brush Large Brush Medium Brush

Greatcoat Grey

Zhukov Shade

Worn Canvas Basecoat the uniform Greatcoat Wash the figure liberally with Tidy Up the uniform with Greatcoat
Grey, using two thin coats if necessary Zhukov Shade. Grey, leaving dark shadows in the
to achieve an even coverage. recessed areas.

50% Greatcoat Grey Motherland Earth Devil Red

Motherland Earth 50% Worn Canvas Small Drybrush Fine Brush
(383) Fine Brush

Devil Red Actual Size


Larger uniform items

like greatcoats are a great
opportunity to practise
shading and highlighting
over a nice large area.
Highlight raised areas of the uniform Drybrush the bottom of the greatcoat Paint rank insignia on the corners of
with a mix of Greatcoat Grey and with Motherland Earth to represent the collar tabs Devil Red.
Worn Canvas for higher-contrast. mud and dirt.

Thank you for taking the time to read Colours Of War. Even if you
thought you had nothing left to learn about painting miniatures,
Always be on the lookout for new ideas and techniques. Painting
and modelling is a vast subject, and there are a wealth of topics
we hope you have found something of interest. If you genuinely we have not yet covered: painting with an airbrush, ‘pin
feel that the way you paint right now is ‘good enough’, washing’ with oil-based paints, using pigments
then that’s fantastic! By all means keep doing and weathering powders, and much
what you’re doing. But since you more.
picked up this book, it seems If you’re just starting out, then
unlikely you are entirely you are lucky for a couple of
satisfied. The fact is that reasons: you haven’t settled into
everybody’s painting can improve. a rut yet, so you are open to new
Stay interested in painting. That sounds ideas; and you will inevitably get
obvious, but it’s something a lot of grizzled better just by practising. Look at
veteran gamers have partly forgotten. If you go other people’s painted models a lot, and look
to tournaments, try to find time to admire other people’s at your own even more, especially while you are painting
painted armies. You may pick up some useful tips or inspiration. them. Think about your painting process and try to make each
But also, after all the hours that go into assembling and painting miniature look a little better than the one before it. Try not to get
an army, it’s gratifying and encouraging when that work does not frustrated, because your painting will improve.
go unnoticed. And most importantly, remember to enjoy yourself. So what are
Try not to be too satisfied with how you are painting right now. you still doing here? Go paint something!

Colour Main use Other Uses
FWP300 Black Black uniforms Basic brush-on undercoat
FWP301 White White vehicle markings Winter tank camouflage, Infantry Waffenfarbe
FWP302 Worn Rubber Rubber tyres & road wheels Highlight for Black, early German vehicles
FWP303 Panzer Grey Early-Mid German vehicles Highlight for Worn Rubber
FWP304 Bunker Grey Concrete & rubble Highlight for Panzer Grey
FWP305 Greatcoat Grey Soviet greatcoats Budenovka helmets, alternate Soviet uniform colour
FWP306 Worn Canvas Un-dyed canvas items Highlight for Military Khaki, US camouflage uniforms
FWP307 Whitewash Winter tank camouflage Shadow colour for White, winter camouflage uniforms
FWP320 Grease Brown Dirt & grime Soot, paint chips, SS camouflage
FWP321 Sherman Drab US vehicles Shadow colour for Military Khaki
FWP322 Dark Leather US russet leather Alternative US russet leather colour
FWP323 Boot Brown German camouflage Alternative leather colour
FWP324 Battlefield Brown Dirt & mud Wood, leather, basing
FWP325 Battledress Brown British infantry uniforms Shadow colour for Comrade Khaki, mud, basing
FWP326 Comrade Khaki Soviet infantry uniforms Highlight for Battledress Brown
FWP327 Military Khaki US jackets Canvas, Splinter camouflage, German bread-bags
FWP328 Wool Brown US trousers & overcoats Canteens, weather effects, basing
FWP340 Heer Green German helmets & gear Shadow colour for Grenadier Green
FWP341 Tankovy Green Soviet vehicles Alternate German camouflage colour
FWP342 Army Green German camouflage Highlight for Tankovy Green, generic military green,
FWP343 Splinter Green Splinter camouflage Shadow colour for Jager Green
FWP344 Jager Green Green vehicle markings Panzergrenadier Waffenfarbe
FWP345 Tommy Green British webbing equipment Highlight for Firefly Green, Caunter camouflage
FWP346 Afrika Green Afrikakorps uniforms US camouflage uniforms, Soviet ‘amoeba’ camouflage
FWP347 GI Green US airborne uniforms US Herringbone Twill uniform
FWP348 Firefly Green British vehicles Shadow colour for Tommy Green
FWP349 Grenadier Green German infantry uniforms Highlight for Heer Green, Caunter camouflage
FWP360 Rust Orange Bright rust Shadow colour for Cavalry Yellow, SS camouflage
FWP361 Cavalry Yellow Yellow vehicle markings Artillery Waffenfarbe
FWP362 Sicily Yellow US tank camouflage Basing, Italian desert vehicles and uniforms
FWP363 Crusader Sand British desert vehicles Weather effects, basing
FWP364 Dry Dust Weather effects British desert uniforms, Caunter camouflage, basing
FWP365 Panther Yellow Mid-Late German vehicles British Denison camouflage
FWP400 Infantry Blue Blue vehicle markings Highlight for Luftwaffe Blue, Komissar cap and trousers
FWP401 Luftwaffe Blue Luftwaffe uniforms Fallschirmjäger uniforms, Soviet tank crew
FWP380 Artillery Red Red vehicle markings Highlight for Devil Red, artillery Waffenfarbe
FWP381 Devil Red British para berets Shadow colour for Artillery Red, Soviet piping
FWP382 Oxide Red German vehicle primer Shadow colour for Devil Red, dark rust
FWP383 Motherland Earth Soviet tank camouflage US camouflage uniforms
FWP384 Tan Leather Rough, worn leather Shadow colour for skin, Waffen-SS camouflage
FWP385 European Skin Light flesh Lightening mix for highlighting ‘warm’ colours
FWP480 Dark Gunmetal Tank tracks Gun parts, other dark metal items
FWP481 Cold Steel Metal tools Highlight colour for Dark Gunmetal
FWP482 Shell Brass Artillery shells Brass badges and gear items

Welcome to Colours Of War, a detailed and comprehensive system for painting Flames Of War miniatures.
Painting historical miniatures is a fun, creative and rewarding pastime. For historical wargamers everywhere,
a beautifully painted miniature army is a joy to behold. And that is exponentially more true if you have
the satisfaction of knowing that you painted it yourself. Whatever your level of experience or ability, the
Battlefront studio has devised the Colours of War painting system to be useful to you.

This book will help you get the most out of your Flames Of War INSIDE YOU WILL FIND:
models, whether you have been painting wargaming miniatures • Tips and tricks for preparation and assembly.
for years or have just picked up a paintbrush for the first time.
• Advice about the theory and practice of painting.
Colours Of War is a holistic, integrated painting system, where
• Historical information about the equipment,
the paint range and the painting guides have been developed
colours and markings used by each of the four
simultaneously, designed to give great results with the smallest
main combatant nations: German, British, US,
possible investment of time and effort.
and Soviets.
No how-to guide can ever hope to transform you into a world-
• How to base your miniatures for maximum impact.
class painter overnight without practice and devotion, but this
book, combined with its accompanying range of high-quality • Step-by-step guides covering everything you need
acrylic paints, is a good place to start. to get your armies painted and on to the table
quickly and effectively.
A diverse assortment of resources can be found to tell you how to
paint. So much information is out there that it can be confusing • Tips and tricks developed by the Battlefront studio
and difficult to know where to look. But Colours Of over years of experience.
War brings all the crucial information and • Inspirational colour photos.
techniques together into one simple,
easy-to-follow volume.

ISBN 9780992255534
Product Code FWP001
Flames Of War website and discussion forum:
Designed in New Zealand
Printed in China ©Copyright Battlefront Miniatures Limited, 2015. All rights reserved.