Optimal design of high-rise buildings with respect to fundamental
eigenfrequency

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Optimal design of high-rise buildings with respect to fundamental
eigenfrequency

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eigenfrequency

DOI: 10.1007/s40091-017-0172-y

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Int J Adv Struct Eng

DOI 10.1007/s40091-017-0172-y

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

eigenfrequency

Arsalan Alavi1 • Reza Rahgozar1 • Peyman Torkzadeh1 • Mohamad Ali Hajabasi2

The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication

Abstract In modern tall and slender structures, dynamic Keywords Eigenfrequency Stiffness distribution Free

responses are usually the dominant design requirements, vibration Structural optimization Tall buildings

instead of strength criteria. Resonance is often a threaten-

ing phenomenon for such structures. To avoid this problem,

the fundamental eigenfrequency, an eigenfrequency of Introduction

higher order, should be maximized. An optimization

problem with this objective is constructed in this paper and The optimization subject is of great importance in tall building

is applied to a high-rise building. Using variational method, design that usually requires high material usage. In general,

the objective function is maximized, contributing to a the design process of a tall building involves conceptual

particular profile for the first mode shape. Based on this design and approximate analysis, preliminary design, and

preselected profile, a parametric formulation for flexural finally detailed design (Jayachandran 2009). Some engineers

stiffness is calculated. Due to some near-zero values for skip the preliminary design step, in which a proper stiffness

stiffness, the obtained formulation will be modified by distribution is calculated. They usually go straight to the final

adding a lower bound constraint. To handle this constraint step after the conceptual design and finalize the structural

some new parameters are introduced; thereby allowing for configuration using some sort of optimization algorithm.

construction of a model relating the unknown parameters. However, preliminary design makes it possible to study the

Based on this mathematical model, a design algorithmic problem parametrically. In the review paper done by Aldwaki

procedure is presented. For the sake of convenience, a and Adeli (2014), a vast range of methods proposed by many

single-input design graph is presented as well. The main researchers dealing with tall structures optimization are pre-

merit of the proposed method, compared to previous sented. Almost all of them are code-based and numerical,

researches, is its hand calculation aspect, suitable for while a hand calculation method, as in the preliminary design

parametric studies and sensitivity analysis. As the pre- step, is a more suitable tool for sensitivity analyses and

sented formulations are dimensionless, they are applicable parametric studies (Connor and Pouangare 1991).

in any dimensional system. Accuracy and practicality of Although some analytical papers can be found in this field

the proposed method is illustrated at the end by applying it (Kwan 1994; Kaviani et al. 2008; Rahgozar et al. 2010;

to a real-life structure. Malekinejad and Rahgozar 2012), most of them are suit-

able for abstract analysis but not for design. Moon (2010)

introduced a stiffness-based method for optimal design of

& Reza Rahgozar braced tube systems. For simplicity, shear and flexural

rahgozar@uk.ac.ir resisting systems are assumed to be decoupled with no

1 interaction. The optimal member sizes are determined based

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,

Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran on a preselected deformation and observing induced forces.

2 By rather similar approaches, rectangular diagrid tube

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of

Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, structures were also studied for optimal stiffness by Moon

Iran et al. (2007) and Moon (2012). The problem of polygonal-

123

Int J Adv Struct Eng

section diagrid systems was investigated by Liu and Ma with positive z direction pointing downward, and the

(2017). In the research done by Montuori et al. (2014), clamped end is located at z = ‘.

strength criteria, in addition to stiffness requirements, is For the problem of transverse free vibration, if shear

examined in preliminary design of diagrid systems. deformation, rotary inertia and damping are neglected, the

Due to more slenderness in new tall structures, controlling governing differential equation of motion is of the fol-

the dynamic response is regarded as a serious problem lowing form (Chopra 2012)

recently. Indeed, motion, rigidity and stability dominate the

o2 u o2 o2 u

design requirement instead of strength criteria in such m 2 þ 2 DðzÞ 2 ¼ 0 ð1Þ

ot oz oz

problems. According to Chan et al. (2009), despite of enough

lateral resistance against damage to the main structural where u = u (z, t) is in plane transverse displacement in the

system of a building, minor damage to nonstructural com- direction orthogonal to the z axis. Trying a solution of the

ponents or the problem of discomfort to the occupants should form uðz; tÞ ¼ /ðzÞqðtÞ makes Eq. (1) decoupled into two

be observed. An efficient approach to enhance the dynamic equations; one for time variable t as

responses of a structure is to optimize its natural frequency.

q€ðtÞ þ KqðtÞ ¼ 0 ð2Þ

Dynamic behavior of a structure is mainly governed by the

fundamental (smallest) natural frequency (Meske et al. 2006; and one for spatial variable z as

Connor and Laflamme 2014), and maximizing its value, as is 00

done in this research, makes as stiff as possible structure. In ½DðzÞ/00 ðzÞ Km/ðzÞ ¼ 0 ð3Þ

this paper, an optimization formulation with the objective of where eigenvalue K ¼ x2 is defined for convenience (x is

fundamental eigenfrequency is constructed, and it is applied natural frequency) and will be referred as eigenfrequency.

to a cantilever structure, suitable for modeling major motion In Eqs. (2) and (3), overdots denote time derivative, and

in a tall building (Connor and Laflamme 2014). It will be primes denote z derivative, respectively. In related litera-

shown that the optimality condition is equivalent to enforce tures, eigenvector /ðzÞ is referred to as mode shape

the mode shape to have a special format, and stiffness will be function.

calculated based on it. The obtained stiffness is not appli- At the clamped end, displacement and slope are both

cable because of too small values in regions near structure’s zero; at the free end, bending moment and shear are zero

top; observing a lower bound constraint on stiffness, this too. Therefore, geometric boundary condition (GBC) is as

problem is resolved. Although such constraints have been follows:

explored by many researchers so far, most of them are 8 0

>

< EBC : /ð‘Þ ¼ / ð‘Þ ¼ 0

numerical (Chan et al. 2010; Stromberg et al. 2011; Lee et al.

2012). To deal with this challenging constraint by an ana- GBC 00 d 00

>

: NBC : ½ DðzÞ/ ðzÞ z¼0 ¼ ½DðzÞ/ ðzÞ ¼0

lytical approach, the problem is analyzed by introducing a dz z¼0

parameter defined as the critical height. In the optimal state, ð4Þ

the points above the critical height have the same thickness

but different curvature of the first mode profile. Opposite in which EBC and NBC stands for essential and natural

situation exists for thickness and curvature at points lower boundary condition, respectively. In the following sections,

than the critical height. It will be shown that this strategy we deal with governing geometric Eqs. (3) and (4).

makes the problem easy to solve parametrically.

Optimization of fundamental eigenfrequency

maximize fundamental (smallest) eigenvalue Kf ¼ x2min

Structural modeling (Bendsøe and Sigmund 2003; Zheng et al. 2012; Yaghoobi

and Hassani 2017) because it mainly dominates the

The accepted model for the structure is a one dimensional dynamic response of the structure. Therefore, the opti-

and continuum cantilever beam, suitable for modeling mization problem for the accepted model is stated as the

major motions (Connor and Laflamme 2014), with length ‘ following min–max formulation:

8

and uniformly distributed mass m(z) = m. The bending > max Kf ¼ minKi ; i ¼ 1; . . .; 1

>

< DðzÞ

rigidity D(z) is considered as the only lateral stiffness, as it

Z ‘ ð5Þ

is approximately true for beam-like structures such as tall >

>

: s:t: : DðzÞdz ¼ U

buildings (Connor and Laflamme 2014). The coordinate 0

system origin is located at top of the structure (free end)

123

Int J Adv Struct Eng

zÞ ¼

Dð z3 þ 6

z 4 z2 ð11Þ

variable, and Kf is the smallest eigenfrequency as the 24

objective function. Upper bound U on sum of stiffness is The design constraint presented in optimization problem

assumed because there is a design constraint on the amount (5) must be satisfied. Since the dimensionless variable z

of construction material in any design problem. Otherwise, exists in Eq. (11), the mentioned constraint is needed to be

the optimization problem has no optimal point, because restated in variable z, as is done in the following:

more used material yields more stiffness. According to Z 1

Rayleigh’s principal, following relation can be used for DðzÞ d

z¼D ð12Þ

eigenfrequency Kf and the corresponding eigenvector /f 0

Z ‘ constraint because it reflects the limitation of volume of

Kf ¼ D/002

f dz ð6Þ constructional material in practice. Modifying Eq. (11) by

0

R‘ multiplying and dividing by D and defining a new

provided that /f is normalized to 0 m/2f dz ¼ 1. dimensionless parameter h = b‘ in which b4 ¼ Km=D,

Lagrangian method is used here to solve optimization reduces Eq. (11) to

problem (5), so

Z ‘ h4 D

4

zÞ ¼

Dð z3 þ 6

z 4 z2 ð13Þ

L ¼ Kf k DðzÞ dz U ð7Þ 24

0

Substituting (13) into constraint (12) dictates that

where k C 0 is the Lagrangian multiplier. Variation of L h ¼ 20. Replacing the obtained value of h4 into Eq. (13),

4

with respect to D as the design variable yields the stiffness function can be obtained as

Z ‘

002 DðzÞ ¼ D dð

zÞ ð14Þ

dL ¼ ð/ kÞdD dz ð8Þ

0

where

Optimality condition of dL ¼ 0 contributes to the fol-

5 10

lowing condition for the eigenvector (mode shape) zÞ ¼ z4 z3 þ 5

dð z2 ð15Þ

pﬃﬃﬃ 6 3

/00 ¼ k ¼ v ð9Þ zÞ is named as the stiffness pattern. The value of dð

dð zÞ

00

In words, the absolute value of curvature (/ ) must be varies from 0 (for z ¼ 0) to 2.5 (for z ¼ 1) by a fourth

constant along the structure at the optimal state. Stiffness degree polynomial. The diagram of dð zÞ is presented in

will be determined by forcing this objective in the next Fig. 1.

section.

performance stiffness)

As mentioned before, it is ideal for the mode shape profile As shown in Fig. 1, the amount of d (and D as the result)

to have a uniform curvature characteristic. Considering the approaches zero for the points near top of the structure,

00

positive form of / in Eq. (9), integrating it twice, which is not right in application. Hence, a lower bound

enforcing EBC [Eq. (4)] on it, and introducing the Dmin must be observed. That is, D must satisfies

dimensionless parameter z ¼ z=‘, results to the following: 0 Dmin D. Therefore, the new optimization problem

8 would be

< /ð zÞ ¼ v‘2 uð

zÞ 8

1 ð10Þ >

> max Kf ¼ minKi ; i ¼ 1; . . .; 1

: uð zÞ ¼ ðz 1Þ2 >

> DðzÞ

>

< 8Z ‘

2

>

< ð16Þ

The bending stiffness required to produce a specific > DðzÞdz ¼ U

>

> s:t: : 0

>

> >

profile for the mode shape [Eq. (10)] must be evaluated. To : :

00 0 Dmin D

this end, Eq. (3) is considered; / and positive form of /

from Eqs. (10) and (9), respectively, are substituted into In the following sections, some new parameters are

Eq. (3) and then integrating it twice observing NBC defined which simplify treating the new optimization

[Eq. (4)] results to the following relation for stiffness: problem (16).

123

Int J Adv Struct Eng

diagram, without a lower bound

constraint

8

Constant stiffness and constant curvature zones zÞ ¼ v‘2 uCC ð

< /CC ð zÞ

1 ð19Þ

Based on presented diagram in Fig. 1, the lower bound : uCC ð

zÞ ¼ ð z 1Þ2

2

constraint is violated for some points, almost high ele-

vations. It seems helpful to divide the design region into

two zones by introducing a specified point as critical CS zone

height (CH), denoted by zC in dimensionless format. For

the points higher than CH ( z 2 ½0 zC ), uniform stiffness The governing equilibrium Eq. (3) must be solved to deter-

Dmin with varying curvature of first mode shape is mine the mode shape function in CS zone. Substituting the

assumed. This region will be called constant stiffness constant stiffness value Dmin for D (z) ends in the following

(CS) zone. Inversely, for the points lower than CH governing equation in this zone; in addition GBC is presented:

8

z 2 ½

( zC 1), curvature is constant and the stiffness varies > /IV 4

>

> CS ðzÞ bc /CS ðzÞ ¼ 0

along the height, so it is referred to as constant curvature >

> 8

>

> >

> 00 d

(CC) zone. Formally, these specifications are as follows; >

< > NBC : Dmin /CS ð0Þ ¼

> Dmin /00CS ðzÞ z¼0 ¼ 0

>

< dz

for CS zone 8

>

> GBC < /CS ðzc Þ ¼ /CC ðzc Þ

( >

> >

>

> >

>

/00CS ¼ /00CS ð

zÞ >

> >

> EBC :

CSð0 z zc Þ ð17Þ : : : /0 ðz Þ ¼ /0 ðz Þ

DCS ¼ Dmin CS c CC c

ð20Þ

and for CC zone

( where

/00CC ¼ v

zc z 1Þ

CCð ð18Þ b4c ¼ Km=Dmin ð21Þ

DCC ¼ DCC ð

zÞ

is defined for simplicity. NBC comes from the fact that

bending moment and shear are both zero at the free end,

Mode shape function and EBC conditions are due to continuity of mode shape

function and its derivative in CH point.

The final goal is to determine a parametric formulation for The general solution for Eq. (20) is (Chopra 2012)

the stiffness. However, the equation of mode shape / is

needed for calculating stiffness in prior. Therefore, / is /CS ðzÞ ¼ C1 sin bc z þ C2 cos bc z þ C3 sinh bc z

evaluated in different zones at first. þ C4 cosh bc z ð22Þ

CC zone /CS ðzÞ ¼ C1 ðsin bc z þ sinh bc zÞ þ C2 ðcos bc z þ cosh bc zÞ

ð23Þ

The curvature of all points in this region has same value of

v. Considering EBC from Eq. (4) for this region, by a Finally, imposing EBC, Eq. (23) reduces to the fol-

similar way used for (10), results lowing equation for the mode shape in CS zone:

123

Int J Adv Struct Eng

8

> zÞ ¼ v‘2 uCS ð

< /CS ð zÞ the structure, such as maximum displacement. However,

u0 ðzc Þ the stiffness pattern, dðzÞ, is unchanged.

> uCS ð

: zÞ ¼ c uCC ðzc Þ½a1 f1 ð zÞ þ CC

zÞ a2 f2 ð ½a1 f2 ð

zÞ a3 f1 ð

zÞ

hc There are two unknowns zc and hc in the presented

ð24Þ formulation of dð zÞ (h depends on zc and hc) to be deter-

mined. On the other hand, there are two constraints which

where must be satisfied; one comes from the continuity of the

hc ¼ b c ‘ ð25Þ stiffness, and other is limited volume constraint [Eq. (12)].

These two constraints are observed in the following to

in which bc is presented in (21), and u0CC ð zc Þ ¼ evaluate zc and hc.

zz¼zc : Other included parameters are defined as

½duCC =d Constraint of continuity of stiffness requires that

DCS ðz ¼ zc Þ ¼ DCC ð

z ¼ zc Þ, which using Eqs. (27) and

c ¼ 1=½2ð1 þ cos hc zc cosh hc zc Þ a1 ¼ cos hc zc þ cosh hc zc

(28) results in the following equation:

f1 ð

zÞ ¼ cos hc z þ cosh hc z a2 ¼ sin hc zc þ sinh hc zc

h4c hð

z ¼ zc Þ 1 ¼ 0 ð31Þ

f2 ð

zÞ ¼ sin hc z þ sinh hc z a3 ¼ sin hc zc þ sinh hc zc

ð26Þ Equation (31) represents a constraint on zc and hc. This

equation is solved numerically, and the results are pre-

sented in Fig. 2 which presents values of hc for different

Optimal distribution of constrained stiffness values of zc 2 ½0 1. Based on Fig. 2, for zc ¼ 1 (uniform

stiffness) hc = 1.8751; this result is true according to

Mode shape functions in both CS and CC zones are known Chopra (2012).

from Eqs. (24) and (19), respectively. In addition, the As stated earlier, limited volume constraint must be

stiffness value in CS zone is known as Dmin . The stiffness satisfied. For this end, Eq. (12) is considered; the integra-

function in CC zone can be determined by use of these tion domain [0 1] is divided into two regions of ½0 zc and

knows. To that end, the governing Eq. (3) is integrated ½

zc 1, and related formulation of stiffness from Eqs. (27)

twice from 0 to an arbitrary variable z 2 ½zc 1 (located in and (28) are used for each region. The result of integration

CC zone) observing NBC presented in Eq. (4). Integrating ends in the following relation

region must be divided into two zones of ½0 zc and ½ zc z, Z 1

and Eqs. (24) and (19) are used, respectively, for / in each 4

Dmin zc þ hc z 1¼0

hd ð32Þ

zone. In addition, dimensionless parameter z ¼ z=‘ is zc

defined for making relations dimensionless, and v is sub- Satisfying Eq. (31), make hc as a function of zc , so there

stituted for /00 . This calculations result in the following are two unknowns zc and D min in Eq. (32). Solving

relation for stiffness: Eq. (32) numerically, one can find the relation between zc

Dð dð

zÞ ¼ D zÞ ð27Þ and Dmin . Figure 3 presents this relation. Note that Dmin is

always lower than D, otherwise the limited volume con-

where stiffness pattern dð zÞ is written as min 2 ½0 1.

straint [Eq. (12)] is violated. Therefore, D

dCS ð min

zÞ ¼ D 0 z zc At present, all inputs are available to calculate D from

zÞ ¼

dð min h4c hð ð28Þ

dCC ð

zÞ ¼ D zÞ zc z 1 Eqs. (27) and (28). In the following, this calculation is

min , with the summarized by an algorithmic procedure.

In which the dimensionless parameter D

following relation, is introduced for simplicity:

Design algorithmic procedure

min Dmin

D ¼ ð29Þ

D The design process is summarized here based on before

and it is named relative minimum stiffness (RMS). hð zÞ determined information. Going through the following

formulation is as follows, 5-step algorithm, the optimal design will be achieved.

8 Z z Step 1 [RMS (D min )]: By use of the design information D

>

> [Eq. (12)] and Dmin (a practical constraint), RMS is eval-

>

< hð

z Þ ¼ g 1

z þ g2 ð

zÞd

z

Z zc

0

Z z ð30Þ uated from Eq. (29).

>

>

>

: 1g ¼ u CS ð

z Þd

z and g 2 ð

z Þ ¼ u CC ð

zÞd

z Step 2 [CH (

zc )]: CH can be determined easily by presented

0 zc

diagram in Fig. 3, using the evaluated RMS from Step 1.

In Eq. (27), D shows the amount of used material.

Step 3 [hc]: For the known CH from Step 2, hc can be

Adjusting this parameter, one can control the response of determined by use of the presented diagram in Fig. 2.

123

Int J Adv Struct Eng

CH (zc )

min )

Fig. 3 Diagram of RMS (D

zc )

versus CH (

Step 4 [u]: In this step, u for each zone is calculated. For Eq. (28)] has been evaluated numerically, and its diagram

CC zone, this function (uCC) is presented in Eq. (19). is presented for different values of D min ¼ 0:1; 0:2; . . .; 0:9,

Equation (24) presents uCS, related to CS zone, which Fig. 4. Constructing new data points within the range of the

needs uCC ðz ¼ zc Þ, u0CC ð

z ¼ zc Þ, hc, zc and presented discrete set of known data points, one can do interpolation.

parameters in (26) as inputs. Therefore, using these Therefore, knowing RMS (D min ) as the only input, one can

parameters uCS can be determined easily. choose the related diagram from Fig. 4. Then, scaling the

obtained diagram by D [Eq. (27)] yields the value of

Step 5 [optimal stiffness (D)]: By presented formulations in

Eqs. (27) and (28), the stiffness function is evaluable. optimal stiffness.

Indeed, using Eq. (28) needs to evaluate h, which in return

g1 and g2 must be calculated from Eq. (30).

Illustrative example

Design graph

This section illustrates the proposed method in application to

Using the 5-step algorithm includes some equations deal- preliminary design of lateral-resisting systems in tall build-

ing with may need computer or calculator. As the goal of ings. Among different systems used in high-rise structures,

this paper is to present a hand calculation method for braced tube is selected here. In this system, the lateral loads

design, the formulation of stiffness pattern [dð zÞ in are assumed to be carried by exterior frame only; the

123

Int J Adv Struct Eng

min )

different values of RMS (D

bending strength is generated by closely spaced perimeter To assess the efficiency of the proposed method, the

columns connected by spandrel beams, and shear forces are real-life building known as 780 Third Avenue (Kowalczyk

resisted by diagonal elements that extended over some sto- et al. 1995) (Fig. 5) is adapted as the reference point and

ries (Fig. 5). It is assumed that the role of diagonals in will be referred to as the basic model in the followings.

bending strength is negligible, as well as the role of This structure will be redesigned (with identical amount of

perimeter columns in shear resistance (Moon 2010). material), based on graph of Fig. 4, as the proposed model.

Therefore, changing dimensions of perimeter columns can- Two models are then analyzed, and the results will be

not affect the shearing performance and vice versa. In tall- compared at the end. The mentioned building is a concrete

enough structures, the fundamental eigenfrequency, as the tube system, braced by shear walls in a cross and zigzag

objective function herein, is related to bending. Hence, to pattern in wide and narrow faces, respectively (Fig. 8). The

optimize this parameter, the perimeter column dimensions geometrical information of this building is presented in

are selected as design variable, with the confidence that the Table 1 (Kowalczyk et al. 1995).

shear performance remains unchanged and the fundamental

response of the structure is not influenced by it. Structural modeling and definitions

tems can be decoupled into two separate systems. Clo-

sely spaced columns located on structure’s perimeter

increase effective moment of inertia to resist the bending

moments. Hence, a cantilevered box beam, Fig. 6, is a

reasonable model for the bending system (Smith and

Coull 1996).

In the presented model in Fig. 6, thickness of the box, t,

accounts for the perimeter columns and is taken as the only

independent variable. As the relations in this paper are

constructed based on stiffness (D), it would be beneficial to

present D as a function of thickness (t), so

zÞ ¼ ðEI0 Þ tð

Dð zÞ ð33Þ

where E is the Young’s modulus of elasticity and I0 = [(4/

3)b3 ? 4ab2], in which 2a = 38.12 m and 2b = 21.08 m

are perimeter dimensions based on Fig. 6 that their values

are presented in Table 1.

In addition, we need a relation to calculate the dimen-

sions of columns from the thickness (t). According to the

relation presented by Kwan (1994), thickness of the box

can be calculated as

Fig. 5 Braced tube system; 780 Third Avenue building

123

Int J Adv Struct Eng

Floors above ground Typical story height First story height Structural height Plan dimensions Column spacing

area (Ac).

Structural design

in Fig. 4 is RMS (D min ) which in turn needs two more

inputs D and Dmin, based on Eq. (29). Substituting Eq. (33)

into Eq. (12), we have the following relation for D:

Z 1 Z 0:385

D¼ ðEI0 Þ t dð

zÞ ¼ ðEI0 Þð0:1504Þ dð

zÞ

0 0

Z 0:63

þ ðEI0 Þ ð0:1715Þ dð

zÞ

0:385

Z 1

þ zÞ ¼ ðEI0 ÞðtÞ

ðEI0 Þ ð0:1931Þ dð ð35Þ

0:63

Fig. 6 Beam model with hollow box section for bending resisting where

system of the structure t ¼ 0:1714 ð36Þ

zone limits of basic model. Thickness (t) of each zone can

in which t is same as used in Eq. (33), Ac is the sectional be calculated using Eq. (34). Considering Eq. (33), the

area of the columns, and s is the columns’ spacing which is following relation can be written for Dmin:

2.84 m here (Table 1). In basic structure, perimeter col-

Dmin ¼ ðEI0 Þ tmin ð37Þ

umns are 1.2 m wide, and depth reduces from 0.457 to

0.406 to 0.356 m at floors 19 and 31 (Kowalczyk et al. where tmin is a design constraint which could be dependent

1995), Fig. 7a. Thus, the design domain of basic structure on some practical requirements. Suppose minimum depth

123

Int J Adv Struct Eng

of 0.2 m for columns and keep their width unchanged the selected graph. The limitation that must be observed

(1.2 m). Thus, the minimum sectional area would be while calculating a constant value for dð zÞ in each span is

0.24 m2, so using Eq. (34) for s = 2.84 m, we have to keep the material volume unchanged. For simplicity, it is

tmin ¼ 0:0845 m ð38Þ assumed that dð zÞ varies linearly in each span. Thus, 2, as

the average of 1.81 and 2.2, is selected for the constant

as the minimum thickness of the box. Therefore, based on value of stiffness pattern (d) in this zone.

Eqs. (29), (35) and (37), and using the obtained values for t To calculate equivalent thickness from the obtained

and tmin from Eqs. (36) and (38), respectively, value of d in the previous part, Eqs. (27), (33) and (35) are

used which results in

min ¼ tmin ¼ 0:4929

D ð39Þ

t t ¼ t d ð40Þ

Referring to Fig. 4 and choosing RMS = 0.5 (approxi- By use of the value of t from Eq. (36) into Eq. (40),

mate value instead of 0.4929), the related diagram for equivalent thickness of each zone is calculated. Consider-

zÞ] is selected (the green one). Based on

stiffness pattern [dð ing first zone as example, substituting 2 as d in (40) yields

this diagram, CH is 0.386 in its dimensionless format. t = 0.3428. All that remains is to evaluate the sectional

Using total height of 172.4 m (Table 1), its dimensional area of columns based on equivalent thickness t. Substi-

value is 66.4 m. Dividing 66.4 m by 3.5 m (typical story tuting the obtained t into Eq. (34), with s = 2.84 m, col-

height), results approximately 19 stories as the CS zone. umns’ sectional areas are determined. Supposing uniform

Thus, the last 19 stories of the proposed model must have width of 1.2 m for columns, their depth can be simply

minimum value of stiffness. For the other stories, dð zÞ can calculated using the sectional area values. This calculation

be determined from the selected diagram. However, as the yields 0.8 m for the first zone. Other zones information can

value of dðzÞ varies continuously and is not practical, the be found from Fig. 7.

design domain must be divided into some zones with

constant value of dð zÞ. Based on Fig. 8b, each diagonal Software analysis and results

element ties six stories. It seems reasonable to choose

every 6 stories as a zone. Therefore, typical length of each In previous part, the optimal dimensions of the columns are

zone is about 21 m with non-dimensional value of 0.1218 obtained by a hand calculation and simple approach. To

(0.1270 for the first zone containing first floor). Thus, each evaluate enhancement of the proposed structure compared

zone limits elevation can be determined, and the related to basic one, both of them are analyzed in SAP2000 (2013).

value of dð zÞ can be read from the selected graph. For To construct models in the software, geometrical infor-

example, the first zone of proposed structure concludes mation from Table 1 and column dimensions presented in

story 1–6 with elevation span from 150.5 to 172.4 m. The Fig. 7 are used. The bracing pattern is presented in Fig. 8,

dimensionless values of the span limits are 0.873 and 1 and the thickness of filled panels in basic model is the same

with value of dð zÞ as 1.81 and 2.2, respectively, based on as adjacent columns. The bracing geometry in proposed

model is completely similar to that of basic one to assess

just bending system role in dynamic response. The effec-

tive mass is about 800 kg/m2, and compressive strength of

concrete is about 35 MPa.

The modal analysis outputs show that the fundamental

period of the new structure is 4.26 versus 4.77 s related to

basic model. That means, fundamental eigenfrequency as

the objective function is improved in the proposed structure

to some extent. This fact shows that, in addition to sim-

plicity of the proposed method, the result is satisfactory in

application.

Conclusions

rise structures, vibrational characteristics are investigated.

An optimization problem with the objective of fundamental

Fig. 8 Model used in SAP2000 a 3D, b narrow face, c wide face eigenfrequency, the main effective factor in dynamic

123

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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative SAP2000 (2013) Ultimate 16.0.0, Structural Analysis Program,

Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creative Computer and Structures Inc., Berkeley, USA

commons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distri- Smith S, Coull A (1996) Tall building structures. McGraw Hill Book

bution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate Company, New York

credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Stromberg LL, Beghini A, Baker WF, Paulino G (2011) Application

Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. of layout and topology optimization using pattern gradation for

the conceptual design of buildings. Struct Multidiscipl Optim

43(2):165–180

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