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Maintenance Manual

SGCO 2000-151
for Maersk Sealand
TK 51291-4-MM (Rev. 1, 7/01)

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Recover Refrigerant
At Thermo King we recognize the need to preserve the environment and limit
the potential harm to the ozone layer that can result from allowing refrigerant
to escape into the atmosphere.

We strictly adhere to a policy that promotes the recovery and limits the loss
of refrigerant into the atmosphere.

In addition, service personnel must be aware of Federal regulations concern-


ing the use of refrigerants and the certification of technicians. For additional
information on regulations and technician certification programs, contact
your local THERMO KING dealer.
Table of Contents

Unit Protection Devices 3-2


Introduction iii
Pretrip Inspection 3-2
About This Manual iii Visual Inspection 3-2
Other Reference Manuals iii Functional Inspection 3-3
Genset Model Features iv Starting the Unit 3-3
After Start Inspection 3-4
Safety Precautions v
Microprocessor Controller 4-1
General Practices v
Battery Hazards v µP-G Microprocessor Description 4-1
Electrical Hazards v Status Indicator LEDs 4-2
General Safety Practices for Servicing Units Controller Display Menus 4-2
(or Containers) Equipped with a Navigating the Controller Menu 4-2
Microprocessor Controller vi Software Version Display 4-3
Safety Do’s and Don’ts vii Pause Mode Displays 4-3
Serial Number Locations viii Alarm List Menu 4-3
Unit Decals viii View Menu (from Main Menu) 4-3
Pretrip Menu (from Main Menu) 4-3
Test Menu (from Main Menu) 4-3
Service Guide ix
Guard Menu (from Main Menu) 4-3
Program Menu (from Main Menu) 4-3
Menu Display Definitions 4-3
Specifications 1-1
Alarm List Menu 4-4
Engine 1-1 Alarm Types 4-4
Generator 1-2 Displaying and Clearing Alarm Codes 4-5
Electrical Control System 1-2 Alarm List 4-5
Electrical Components 1-2 View Menu 4-6
Physical Specifications 1-3 Pretrip Menu 4-6
Metric Hardware Torque Charts 1-4 Test Menu 4-7
Guard Menu 4-8
Navigating Menu Guard Screens 4-8
Unit Description 2-1
Setting the User Hourmeter Thresholds
General Description 2-1 and User Hours 4-9
Unit Illustrations 2-2 Setting Unit Restarts 4-9
Unit Front View 2-2 Setting Low Oil Pressure Restart 4-10
Powerpack — Front View 2-3 Setting Delayed Cold Start 4-10
Selecting Engine Type 4-10
Selecting Regulator Type 4-10
Operating Instructions 3-1
Voltmeter Calibration 4-10
Unit Controls 3-1 Program Menu 4-11
Unit Instruments 3-1 µP-G Alarm Codes, Type and Description 4-12 to 4-17

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ii 05A71*"B*!"4)14)8

Electrical Maintenance 5-1 Alternator Operation and Diagnosis 7-1


Battery 5-1 General Description 7-1
Unit Wiring 5-1 Alternator Function 7-2
Fuse Link 5-1 Starting Excitation 7-2
Fuse 5-1 Running Excitation and Control 7-2
12 Vdc Charging System 5-1 Overload 7-2
Air Heater 5-2 Overload Shutdown 7-2
Engine Low Oil Pressure Switch 5-2 Alternator Diagnosis 7-3
Oil Pressure Sensor 5-2 Preliminary Checks 7-3
Oil Level Switch 5-3 Test Instruments 7-3
Coolant Temperature Sensor 5-4 Generator Diagnosis Procedure 7-4
Coolant Level Detector 5-4 Alternator Tests 7-10
Flywheel Sensor 5-4 AVR Replacement and Adjustment 7-12
Field, Preheat, Start and Run Relays 5-5 Maintenance Procedures 7-13
Buzzer 5-5
Structural/Accessory Maintenance 8-1
Engine Maintenance 6-1
Unit Inspection 8-1
Engine Lubrication System 6-1
Mounting Bolts 8-1
Engine Oil Change 6-1
Radiator Coil 8-1
Oil Filter Change 6-1
Radiator Fan Location 8-1
Crankcase Breather 6-1
Clip-on Header Pin Unit Installation 8-2
Engine Air Cleaner 6-2
Engine Cooling System 6-2
Antifreeze Maintenance Procedure 6-2 Mechanical Diagnosis 9-1
Checking the Antifreeze 6-3
Changing the Antifreeze 6-3
Bleeding Air from the Cooling System 6-4 Electrical and µP-G Menu Flow Diagrams 10-1
Engine Thermostat 6-4
SGCO 2000-151 Wiring Diagram 10-3
Engine Fuel System 6-5
SGCO 2000-151 Wiring Schematic 10-4
Maintenance 6-5
µP-G Menu Flow Diagram 10-5
Bleeding the Fuel System 6-6
Water in the Fuel System 6-6
Single Element Fuel Filter/Water
Separator Replacement 6-6
Engine Speed Adjustment 6-7
Adjustment Procedure 6-7
Integral Fuel Solenoid 6-7
Diagnosing the Integral Fuel Solenoid System 6-7
Fuel Solenoid Replacement 6-9
Injection Pump Service and Timing 6-9
Injection Pump Removal 6-9
Injection Pump Installation 6-10
Injection Pump Timing 6-11
Adjusting Engine Valve Clearance 6-12
Belt Tension Adjustment and Belt Replacement 6-13

<O!N*,---E.X./*Y@7$*,--.
Introduction

About This Manual Other Reference Manuals


The information in this manual is provided to assist owners, For detailed descriptions of Thermo King engines, see the
operators and service people in the proper upkeep and mainte- appropriate overhaul manual. For further information refer to:
nance of Thermo King units. The maintenance information in
this manual covers model: Parts Manual
SGCO 2000-151 Parts Manual TK 51292
SGCO Model System Number
SGCO 2000-151 718151 Diagnosis and Overhaul Manuals
TK 482 and TK 486 Engine Overhaul Manual TK 50136
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Training Guide TK 40282
Tool Catalog TK 5955

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iv Genset Model Features F4)%"?@D)&"4*

SGCO Genset Model Features


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MODEL

FEATURES
S = Standard

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Safety Precautions

Precautions
General Practices 1. Always wear eye protection when servicing a battery. If
1. ALWAYS WEAR GOGGLES OR SAFETY GLASSES. electrolyte is splashed on the skin or in the eyes, flush
Battery acid can permanently damage the eyes (see First immediately under running water. Obtain medical help as
Aid under Battery Hazards). soon as possible.
2. Keep your hands, clothing and tools clear of all fans, pul- 2. When charging a battery, do not remove the vent caps.
leys and belts when the unit is running. If it is necessary to 3. When disconnecting or connecting the generator set bat-
run the alternator with the end cover removed, be very tery, make sure the On-Off switch is in the OFF position
careful with tools or meters to avoid contacting the rotor. to prevent an electrical arc which could cause the battery
3. Be sure all mounting bolts are tight and are the correct to explode. Disconnect the ground cable first, preferably
length for their particular application. at a point AWAY FROM THE BATTERY. Connect the
4. Use extreme caution when drilling holes in the unit. The ground cable last, again away from the battery if possible.
holes may weaken structural components. Holes drilled into 4. Do not check a battery by shorting (sparking) across the
electrical wiring can cause fire, explosion or shock hazard. battery posts. Eye injury may result from the electrical arc
5. Use caution when working around exposed coil fins. The or from an explosion.
fins can cause painful lacerations.
6. Do not work on a generator set in a confined area. Under First Aid
certain conditions diesel exhaust can become very danger- • EYES: Immediately flush eyes with large amounts of
ous. water for at least 15 minutes while holding the eyelids
open. Get prompt medical attention.
• SKIN: Remove contaminated clothing. Wash thoroughly
with soap and water. Get medical attention if irritation
persists.
Battery Hazards
Few people realize just how dangerous a battery can be. The
electrolyte in a lead acid battery is dilute sulfuric acid
(H2SO4). During charge or discharge functions of a battery, a Electrical Hazards
chemical change takes place within the individual cells that
causes the gas bubbling we see through the filler hole. The High Voltage
bubbling gases are hydrogen and oxygen, and they are When servicing or repairing a generator set, the possibility of
EXPLOSIVE. If a means of ignition is present during this serious or even fatal injury from electrical shock exists.
gassing action, an explosion could occur. A defective battery Extreme care must be used when working with an operating
may suddenly explode even while standing idle. Added to this generator set. Lethal voltage potentials can exist at the unit
danger, consider a fall-out of highly corrosive sulfuric acid power cord, inside the exciter control box, inside any high
caused by the explosion. A rubber blanket or other cover can voltage junction box and within the wiring harnesses.
be used to reduce the risk of injury from a possible explosion.

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vi General Safety Precautions for Servicing Controllers <5B1)$*>%1D5@)&"48

Precautions After separating the victim from power source, check


1. Be certain the generator set On/Off switch is turned OFF immediately for the presence of a pulse and respiration. If a
before connecting or disconnecting a power plug to the pulse is not present, start CPR (Cardio Pulmonary
generator set receptacle. Never attempt to stop a refriger- Resuscitation) and call for emergency medical assistance. If a
ation unit by disconnecting the power plug from an oper- pulse is present, respiration may be restored by using mouth-
ating generator set. to-mouth resuscitation, but call for emergency medical assis-
2. Be certain a unit power plug is clean and dry before con- tance.
necting it to the generator set receptacle.
3. Use tools with insulated handles that are in good condi- Low Voltage
tion. Never hold metal tools in your hand if exposed, Control circuits are low voltage (12 Vdc). This voltage poten-
energized conductors are within reach. tial is not considered dangerous, but the large amount of cur-
4. Stand on a solid work platform with rubber mats or dry rent available (over 30 amperes) can cause severe burns if
wood if possible. If you slip, you can instinctively grab shorted to ground.
for support. This can be lethal when working on a genera- Do not wear jewelry, watch or rings. These items can short
tor set. out electrical circuits and cause severe burns to the wearer.
5. Do not make any rapid moves when working on high volt- 1. Disconnect the negative terminal of the battery if possible
age circuits. If a tool or other object falls, do not attempt when working on the generator set. Disconnect the cable
to grab it. People do not contact high voltage wires on end that is away from the battery.
purpose. It occurs from an unplanned movement. 2. Do not wear jewelry, watches or rings. These items can
6. Treat all wires and connections as high voltage until a short out and cause severe bums to the wearer.
meter and wiring diagram show otherwise.
7. Never work alone on high voltage circuits on the genera-
tor set. Another person should always be standing by in
the event of an accident to shut off the generator set and to General Safety Precautions for Servicing
aid a victim. Units (or Containers) Equipped with a
8. Have electrically insulated gloves, cable cutters and safety
Microprocessor Controller
glasses available in the immediate vicinity in the event of
an accident. Precautions must be taken to prevent electrostatic discharge
during service of the µP-G microprocessor controller and relat-
First Aid ed components. If these precautionary measures are not fol-
IMMEDIATE action must be initiated after a person has lowed, the risk of significant damage to the electronic compo-
received an electrical shock. Obtain immediate medical assis- nents of the unit is possible.
tance if available. The primary risk potential results from the failure to wear
The source of shock must be immediately removed by adequate electrostatic discharge preventive equipment when
either shutting down the power or removing the victim from handling and servicing the controller. The second cause
the source. If it is not possible to shut off the power, the wire results from electric welding on the unit and/or container chas-
should be cut with either an insulated instrument (e.g., a wood- sis without taking precautionary steps.
en handled axe or cable cutters with heavy insulated handles)
or by a rescuer wearing electrically insulated gloves and safety Controller Repair
glasses. Whichever method is used, do not look at the wire When servicing the controller, it is necessary to ensure that
while it is being cut. The ensuing flash can cause burns and electrostatic discharges are avoided. Potential differences con-
blindness. siderably lower than those which produce a small spark from a
If the victim has to be removed from a live circuit, pull the finger to a door knob can severely damage or destroy solid-
victim off with a non-conductive material. Use the victim’s state integrated circuit components. The following procedures
coat, a rope, wood, or loop your belt around the victim’s leg or must be rigidly adhered to when servicing these units to avoid
arm and pull the victim off. DO NOT TOUCH the victim. controller damage or destruction.
You can receive a shock from current flowing through the vic-
tim’s body.

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<5B1)$*>%1D5@)&"48 Safety Do’s and Don’ts vii

1. Turn the generator set OFF.


2. Disconnect the negative terminal of the battery. Safety Do’s and Don’ts
Disconnect the cable end that is away from the battery.
3. Avoid wearing clothing that generates static electricity
DO:
(wool, nylon, polyester, etc.).
• Do perform your tasks carefully, without undue haste.
4. Do wear a static discharge wrist strap (TK P/N 204-622)
• Do provide a fire extinguisher (rated ABC).
with the lead end connected to the controller's ground ter-
• Do provide a First Aid kit (for bums and abrasions). Obtain
minal. These straps are available at most electronic equip-
medical attention.
ment distributors. DO NOT wear these straps with power
• Do use the correct tools for the job you are doing.
applied to the unit.
• Do make sure that all fasteners are secure.
5. Avoid contacting the electronic components on the circuit
• Do use extreme care while making adjustments on the gener-
boards of the unit being serviced.
ator set while it is running.
6. Leave the circuit boards in their static proof packing mate-
• Do keep your hands away from moving parts.
rials until ready for installation.
• Do remember that horseplay is for horses! It has no place
7. If a defective controller is to be returned for repair, it
around machinery.
should be returned in the same static protective packing
• Do disconnect the battery before starting work on a generator
materials from which the replacement component was
set.
removed.
• Do use screwdrivers, pliers, diagonal pliers. etc. with insulat-
8. After servicing the circuit board and any other circuits, the
ed handles.
wiring should be checked for possible errors before restor-
• Do remember to keep one hand in your pocket if it is neces-
ing power.
sary to work on live circuits. This will prevent passage of
electricity into one hand, across the heart, and out the other
Welding of Units or Containers
hand.
Whenever electric welding is to be performed on any portion
• Do obtain CPR (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation) and
of the generator set, container or container chassis with the
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation knowledge.
generator set attached, it is necessary to ensure that welding
• Do Practice Safety, The Life You Save May Be Your
currents are NOT allowed to flow through the electronic cir-
Own.
cuits of the unit. These procedures must be rigidly adhered to
when servicing these units to avoid damage or destruction.
1. Disconnect all power to the generator set. DO NOT
2. Disconnect all quick-disconnect wire harnesses from the
back of the controller. • Don’t allow inexperienced personnel to work on the genera-
3. Switch all of the electrical circuit breakers in the control tor or electrical equipment.
box to the OFF position. • Don’t remove guards or protective devices.
4. Weld unit and/or container per normal welding proce- • Don’t wear loose clothing or jewelry in the vicinity of mov-
dures. Keep ground return electrode as close to the area to ing parts. These can get in machinery, with disastrous results.
be welded as practical. This will reduce the likelihood of Don’t wear jewelry while working on electrical equipment. If
stray welding currents passing through any electrical or your hair is long, wear a head covering. Hair caught in a drill
electronic circuits. press, fan belt or other moving parts can cause serious injury.
5. When the welding operation is completed, the unit power • Don’t stand on a wet floor while working on electrical equip-
cables, wiring and circuit breakers must be restored to ment. Use rubber insulated mats placed on dry wood plat-
their normal condition. forms.
• Don’t lunge after a dropped tool. To do so may place you in
a position of extreme danger.
• Don’t commence any operation until you have taken all the
necessary steps to ensure that you are in complete safety.

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viii Serial Number Locations <5B1)$*>%1D5@)&"48

Serial Number Locations Unit Decals


Unit: Nameplate attached to the unit battery box beside the Serial number decals, installation decals and warning decals
engine compartment. appear on all Thermo King generator sets. These decals pro-
Generator: Nameplate attached to the generator housing. vide information that may be needed to service or repair the
Engine: Stamped on the engine block above the oil filter. unit. Service technicians should read and follow the instruc-
µP-G Controller: Nameplate on back of controller. tions on all warning decals.

:4&)*9521#75)1*d"D5)&"4

This ELC decal tag appears


on the coolant expansion
tank to identify units with
an EMI 3000 package and
Extended Life Coolant.

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Service Guide

Every Every
2501 3,0002
Pre-Trip Hours Hours Inspect/Service These Items
Electrical
• Perform a controller Pretrip (PrE) check.
• • • Inspect battery terminals and electrolyte level.
• Inspect wire harness for damaged wires or connections.
Engine
• Check fuel supply and fill.
• • • Check engine oil level and fill as needed.
• • • Check engine coolant level. (CAUTION: Do not remove radiator cap while coolant is hot.)
• • • Inspect belt for condition and proper tension.
• • • Check engine oil pressure hot, on high speed. Minimum 276 kPa, 2.76 bar, 40 psi.
• • • Listen for unusual noises, vibrations, etc.
• • • Inspect/clean fuel transfer pump inlet strainer.
• • Remove and clean air cleaner (and pre-cleaner). Install new oil in oil bath air cleaner
assembly. Check air cleaner hose and breather hose for damage.
• • Remove and clean crankcase breather.
• • Drain water from fuel tank and check vent. Clean fuel strainer in transfer pump inlet.
• • Check and adjust engine speed at full load (60 Hz alternator output).
•3 Change engine oil (hot) and oil filter.
•3 Change fuel filter/water separator.
• Check condition of engine mounts.
— Change ELC (red) engine coolant every 5 years or 12,000 hours. Maintain anti-freeze pro-
tection at -34 C (-30 F).
Structural
• • • Visually inspect unit for fluid leaks (coolant and oil).
• • • Visually inspect unit for damaged, loose or broken parts.
• • Clean entire unit including radiator coil.
• Check all unit, fuel tank, engine and alternator mounting bolts, brackets, lines, hoses, etc.

1Inspect/serviceevery 250 operating hours in extreme (dirt yard) operating conditions.


23,000hours or 2 years, whichever occurs first.
3More frequent intervals may be necessary in extreme operating conditions.

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1 Specifications

Engine
Diesel Engine Model TK 486
Fuel Type No. 2 Diesel fuel under normal conditions
No. 1 Diesel fuel is acceptable cold weather fuel
Oil Capacity: Crankcase: 12.3 litre (13 qt)
Crankcase and Oil Filter: 13.3 litre (14 qt)
Fill to full mark on dipstick
Oil: Type: Multi-grade Petroleum Oil (Standard)
Synthetic Oil (Optional) after first 500 hours
Classification: API Type CG-4, CH-4 or better
ACEA Type E2, E3 or better
Oil Viscosity: -30 C to +0 C (-22 F to +32 F) SAE 5W-30
-25 C to +30 C (-13 F to +86 F) SAE 10W-30
-25 C to +40 C (-13 F to +104 F) SAE 10W-40
-15 C to +50 C (+5 F to +122 F) SAE 15W-40
Engine Oil Pressure 100 to 380 kPa, 1.0 to 3.8 bar, 15 to 55 psi
Engine RPM Full Load (60 Hz Alternator) 1800 +/- 10 RPM (High Speed)
No Load 1890 +/- 10 RPM (High Speed)
Valve Clearance: 0.15 to 0.25 mm (0.006 to 0.010 in.) on intake valve
0.15 to 0.25 mm (0.006 to 0.010 in.) on intake valve
Valve Setting Temperature 21 C (70 F) (Room temperature)
Timing Injection Pump 12o +/- 1o BTDC (timed on No. 1 cylinder)
Low Oil Pressure Switch (Normally Closed): 117 +/- 21 kPa, 1.17 +/- 0.21 bar, 17 +/- 3 psi
High Coolant Temperature Switch* Sensor*
Engine Thermostat 82 C (180 F)
Coolant System Capacity 9.5 liter (10 qt) with overflow tank
Engine Coolant Type Texaco ELC (Extended Life Coolant) or equivalent: ELC red
coolant, 50/50 antifreeze and water mixture, not to exceed 60/40
Radiator Cap Pressure 90 kPa, 0.90 bar, 13 psi
Fan/Water Pump Belt Tension: New or Field Reset 15 to 35 Tension number on belt tension gauge, TK P/N 204-427;
or 19 to 25 mm (0.75 to 1.0 in.) deflection with 3 to 4 Kg ( 6 to 9 lb)
of force

*µP-G controller uses a sensor to provide engine high coolant temperature protection.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


1-2 Generator Specifications

Generator
Type 460/230 Vac, 3 Phase, 60 Hz
Output Power 15 KW
Kilovolt-Amperes 18.75 kVA
RPM 1800
Automatic Voltage Regulator: Power Input 170 -250 Vac, 50-60 Hz, 1 Phase, 2-wire
Maximum Power Output: Voltage 90 Vdc at 207 Vac input
Maximum Power Output: Current Continuous 4 Amp dc; transient 6 Amp dc for 10 seconds

Electrical Control System


Controls: µP-G microprocessor controller
Voltage 12.5 V dc (nominal)
Battery 12 volt, group C31, 625 Cold Cranking Amps at -18 C (0 F)
Battery Charging 12 Vdc solid-state battery charger with 20 ampere output
Fusible Link 18 gauge wire (50 to 55 amperes)
Fuse, Battery Charger 25 amp

Electrical Components
NOTE: Disconnect components from unit circuit
to check resistance.
Current Draw (Amperes) Resistance
at 12.5 V dc (Ohms)
Air Heater: One 89 0.14
Fuel Solenoid: Pull-in 35 to 45 0.2 to 0.3
Hold-in 0.5 to 1.0 24 to 29
Starter Motor 250 to 375 (cranking)
80 no load (bench test)

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Specifications Physical Specifications 1-3

Physical Specifications
Weight (net): SGCO 2000-151 843 Kg (1860 lbs) including oil, coolant, battery and 473 liter (125
gal.) fuel tank (excluding fuel)
Unit Dimensions:

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


1-4 Metric Hardware Torque Charts Specifications

Metric Hardware Torque Charts


Bolt Size
Bolt Type M6 M8 M10 M12
and Class* N.m (Ft.-lb.) N.m (Ft.-lb.) N.m (Ft.-lb.) N.m (Ft.-lb.)
HH – CL 5.8 6-9 (4-7) 12-16 (9-12) 27-34 (20-25) 48-61 (35-40)
HH – CL 8.8 10-13 (7-10) 20-27 (15-20) 41-47 (30-35) 75-88 (55-65)
HH – CL 10.9 14-17 (10-13) 27-34 (20-25) 54-68 (40-50) 102-122 (75-90)
HH – CL 12.9 17-21 (12-16) 41-47 (30-35) 68-81 (50-60) 122-149 (90-110)
HH – SS (2) 10-13 (7-10) 20-27 (15-20) 41-47 (30-35) 75-88 (55-65)

Bolt Size
Bolt Type M14 M16 M18 M22
and Class* N.m (Ft.-lb.) N.m (Ft.-lb.) N.m (Ft.-lb.) N.m (Ft.-lb.)
HH – CL 5.8 75-88 (55-65) 115-135 (85-100) 177-216 (130-160) 339-406 (250-300)
HH – CL 8.8 115-135 (85-100) 177-216 (130-160) 271-339 (200-250) 475-610 (350-450)
HH – CL 10.9 136-176 (100-130) 224-298 (180-220) 393-474 (290-350) 678- 813 (500-600)
HH – CL 12.9 177-216 (130-160) 285-352 (210-260) 448-542 (330-400) 881-1016 (650-750)
HH – SS (2) 115-135 (85-100) 177-216 (130-160) 271-339 (200-250) 475-610 (350-450)

*HH = Hex Head, CL = Class.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


2 Unit Description

CAUTION: DO NOT attempt to operate or maintain Stop the engine before connecting or disconnecting instru-
the generator until you have familiarized yourself ments or power cables. Stop the machine immediately if there
completely with the equipment by reading the is any doubt regarding an electrical operating condition or
instructions in this manual. maintenance procedure. Take no unnecessary chances. Lethal
potentials may suddenly develop on output terminals whenever
a unit is being serviced with the engine running.

General Description EMI 3000 Package


The genset includes an EMI 3000 Extended Maintenance
Thermo King SGCO 2000-151 generator set is a self-con- Interval package, allowing standard genset maintenance inter-
tained, fully-automatic, clip-on, diesel powered unit that sup- vals to be extended to 3000 hours. However, units do require
plies 460 Volt ac electrical power for container refrigeration regular inspection in accordance with Thermo King pretrip
units. inspection and maintenance recommendations (see Service
Enclosed within the unit frame are the engine, dual volt- Guide in the introduction of this manual).
age alternator, generator battery compartment, battery charger,
regulator and control panel. An exclusive TK 486, direct
injection diesel engine drives a brushless alternator to produce
15 KW of output power at 49 C (120 F) ambient temperature.
A weatherproof box fastened inside the unit contains the unit
controls.
Each unit features a welded, heavy-gauge steel frame with
special sea-going finish; non-corrosive fittings, all stainless
steel external hardware, copper tube aluminum fin radiator,
and poly-vinyl coating on the engine and generator. The frame
also supports an integral, 473 liter (125 gal.) fuel tank.
The alternator is a brushless, rotating field ac generator.
An automatic voltage regulator provides dc power for the
field. At 1800 rpm, the alternator supplies 460 Vac, 3 phase, 3
wire, 60 Hz power.
This equipment develops normal output voltages (below
600 volts) whenever the engine is running. All output voltages
normally reach 460 volts. Under malfunction conditions, 575
volts may be produced. Any electric potential more than 50
volts is hazardous. Exercise caution and discretion in the oper-
ation and maintenance of the equipment. Avoid contacting
terminals, binding posts and other exposed connections. Use
extra care when the control box is open.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


2-2 Illustrations Unit Description

1 11

10

8
4

5 7

Unit Front View


1. Battery
2. Unit Nameplate Location
3. Fuel Tank
4. Alternator and Engine Compartment Access Doors
5. Coolant Expansion Tank Location
6. 460 Vac Power Receptacle Location
7. Lower Mounting Screw and Washer (each side)
8. Fuel Gauge (each side)
9. Control Box Location
10. Fuel Tank Fill Neck and Cap (each side)
11. Header Pin Mounting Flange (each side)

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Unit Description Illustrations 2-3

14

1 13

12
4

5 11

6 10

7 9

Powerpack — Front View


1. Air Inlet Adapter
2. Alternator
3. Starter
4. Timing Mark Location
5. Flywheel Sensor
6. Oil Filter
7. Low Oil Pressure Switch
8. Oil Pressure Sensor
9. Oil Fill and Dipstick
10. Oil Level Sensor
11. Oil Drain Hose
12. Engine Speed Adjustment Screw
13. Water Pump Pulley
14. Water Temperature Sensor

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


3 Operating Instructions

Unit Controls Unit Instruments


1. UNIT ON/OFF SWITCH. 1. INDICATOR LEDs.
a. ON position. Electrical control system energizes for a. UNIT ON LED: A green Unit On indicator LED
unit operation. FLASHES while the air heater and starter motor are
b. OFF position. Electrical control system including the energized. The Unit On light then remains ON to
fuel solenoid de-energizes to stop the engine. The indicate normal unit operation.
unit will not operate. b. ALARM LED: A red ALARM LED turns ON when a
2. µP-G CONTROLLER. The controller controls and moni- shutdown condition has occurred.
tors unit operation, records system faults and performs an 2. FUEL GAUGE. A gauge mounted in the fuel tank indi-
automatic pre-trip check. The controller monitors all unit cates the level of diesel fuel in the tank.
protection shutdown functions and the exciter system. If a
low oil level, low oil pressure, high water temperature or
alternator overload condition exists for more than 30 sec-
onds, the controller shuts down unit operation. The mod-
ule also delays excitation power supply for 15 seconds
after unit start-up.
a. DISPLAY. A digital display on the front panel
shows operating information including output volt-
age, current test state during a Pretrip test and the
controller menu. An alarm icon appears to signal an
alarm condition.
b. ALARM KEY: Press this key to view the fault code
readout in the digital display.
c. ENTER KEY: Press this key to enter or execute con-
troller menu tasks or commands.
d. DOWN ARROW KEY: Press this key to scroll
DOWN through the menu display.
e. UP ARROW KEY: Press this key to scroll UP
through the menu display.
f. SELECT KEY: Press this key to enter and display
screens from the controller menu.

Control Box Cover


1. Display
2. Mode Description
3. Keypad
4. Unit On/Off Switch
5. Unit On Light
6. Alarm Light
SGCO 2000-151, July 2001
3-2 Unit Protection Devices Operating Instructions

Unit Protection Devices Pretrip Inspection


While the Pre-trip Inspection is not a substitute for regularly
WARNING: With the Unit On/Off switch in the ON scheduled maintenance, it is an important part of the preven-
position, the unit may start at any time without warn- tive maintenance program designed to head off operating prob-
ing. lems and breakdowns before they happen.
Units equipped with a µP-G controller feature
AUTO-RESTART. The controller will make up to Visual Inspection
three attempts every 20 minutes to restart the unit The following inspections should be made before loading the
after a shutdown has occurred. This restart mode container or trailer:
continues until the unit has been successfully 1. FUEL. The diesel fuel supply must be sufficient to guar-
restarted or until a code 61 is generated due to low antee engine operation to the next check point.
battery. Protection shutdown devices that cause an 2. ENGINE OIL. Engine oil level should be at the FULL
AUTO-RESTART shutdown condition include: mark. Never overfill. The dipstick is attached to the filler
• Low Oil Pressure cap.
• Low Oil Level 3. COOLANT. Engine coolant must be above the ADD
• High Water Temperature mark with anti-freeze protection of -34 C (-30 F). Check
• Alternator Output Overload and add coolant in the expansion tank.

1. LOW OIL PRESSURE SWITCH. Engine oil pressure WARNING: DO NOT remove the radiator cap
should rise immediately on starting. If oil pressure drops from the radiator fill neck when the engine
below 117 +/- 21 kPa, 1.17 +/- 0.21 bar, 17 ± 3 psig for coolant is hot.
more than 30 seconds, the controller will stop the engine.
The controller then turns ON the Alarm light and activates CAUTION: With both Extended Life Coolant (EMI
the Alarm icon in the display. 3000) and Conventional Coolant (non-EMI 3000)
2. OIL LEVEL SENSOR. An oil level switch closes if the equipped units operating in the field, there are
oil drops below a level that is approximately 8 qt (7.6 several important rules to remember:
liters) low. If the switch stays closed for more than 30 • Extended Life Coolant (ELC) is RED in color
seconds, the controller will stop the engine. The con- while conventional coolant is GREEN or BLUE-
troller then turns ON the Alarm light and activates the GREEN.
Alarm icon in the display. • Do NOT add “RED” coolant to cooling systems
3. WATER TEMPERATURE SENSOR. If the engine using “GREEN” or “BLUE-GREEN” coolant.
coolant temperature rises to 215 to 225 F (101.7 to 107.2 • Do NOT add “GREEN” or “BLUE-GREEN”
C) for more than 30 seconds, the controller will stop the coolant to cooling systems using “RED”
engine. The controller also turns ON the Alarm light and coolant.
activates the Alarm icon in the display. The unit will
restart when the coolant temperature drops to 88 C (190 F). 4. BATTERY. Terminals must be clean. Electrolyte should
4. CURRENT LIMITER. The current limiter is a fusible be at the full mark.
link acting as a connection between the battery and the 12 5. BELT. The water pump belt must be in good condition
Vdc unit controls. At approximately 50 to 55 amps, the and adjusted to proper tension.
fusible link will melt, cutting power to the fuel heater, air 6. ELECTRICAL. Electrical connections should be securely
heater and the rest of the unit. fastened. Check wires and terminals for corrosion, cracks
5. FUSE. A 25 ampere fuse protects the battery charger cir- or moisture. Repair or replace if necessary.
cuit. The fuse is located in the battery charger cable. 7. STRUCTURAL. Visually inspect the unit for leaks, loose
6. ALTERNATOR FIELD CURRENT MONITORED. The or broken parts and other damage. Radiator coil should be
alternator field input is continuously monitored to indicate clean and free of debris. Clean if necessary. Use an air or
an output power overload. The controller will shut down water spray jet directed against the coil from the air dis-
the generator set in response to excessive exciter field cur- charge side.
rent.
CAUTION: Air or water spray jet pressure should
not be high enough to damage (bend) coil fins.

8. MOUNTING BOLTS. Check the mounting bolts on the


unit and engine. Tighten if necessary.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Operating Instructions Starting the Unit 3-3

Functional Inspection e. If an operating problem occurs during the Pretrip


To properly perform a Pretrip Test on units equipped with a Test, the Alarm icon will turn ON and FLASH. View
µP-G controller, do not apply a load to the alternator. and correct any alarm conditions. Then clear the
1. Start the unit (see “Starting the Unit” on this page). Alarms and repeat the Pretrip Test.
2. Initiate an automatic Pretrip Test.
NOTE: Clear the Alarm codes ONLY after the
NOTE: Correct all existing alarm conditions and alarm codes are documented and problems
clear the alarm codes before performing a Pretrip repaired.
test.
4. Press the ENTER key on the controller to return the unit
a. Press the SELECT key to enter Main Menu. to normal operation.
b. Press the UP or DOWN key to scroll up or down in
menu to “PtrlP”.
c. Press the SELECT key to activate the Pretrip Test
function. Flashing display will show “EntEr / PrE”. Starting the Unit
d. Press the ENTER key to start the Pretrip Test.
Flashing display will show “LOAd / PrE”. Generator sets are designed to provide power for a refrigera-
3. The controller then performs the Pretrip Test. Observe the tion unit. Before starting the generator set, make sure the
unit for proper operation and functions during pretrip test. refrigeration unit power cord is connected to the generator set
a. Controller LED display turns On and then Off. electric power receptacle. To operate the refrigeration unit on
b. LED display shows the controller input or output cir- standby power, disconnect the power cord from the generator
cuit being tested. set and plug it into the proper power supply.
c. When the controller display reaches “Phr” (preheat
relay test), the controller preheats and restarts the WARNING: With the Unit On/Off switch in the ON
engine. position, the unit may start at any time without prior
warning.
Display
Message Pretrip Test Performed 1. Turn Unit On-Off switch to ON.
88888 / 88 Display Test 2. The controller will automatically energize the air heater
OLS / PrE Oil Level Switch Test for preheat (if necessary). The preheat buzzer is energized
OPS / PrE Oil Pressure Sensor Test during the preheat period. Preheat time ranges from 5 to
LOP / PrE Oil Pressure Switch Test 120 seconds, depending on the engine temperature.
UtS / PrE Coolant Temperature Test 3. The engine then begins cranking. The air heater and pre-
FUS / PrE RPM Sensor Test heat buzzer remain energized during the cranking period.
Phr / PrE Preheat Relay Test The air heater also remains energized for 30 seconds after
rr / PrE Run Relay Test the engine starts.
Sr / PrE Start Relay Test • If the engine rpm does not exceed 50 rpm during the first
Fr / PrE Field Relay Test 4 seconds of cranking, or if the engine does not start
OPS / PrE Oil Pressure Sensor Test after 30 seconds of cranking, the cranking cycle termi-
LOP / PrE Oil Pressure Switch Test nates.
rPN / PrE RPM Sensor Test 4. If the engine fails to start, place the unit switch in the OFF
AC / PrE Output Volts Test position. Determine and correct the cause of the starting
failure. Then repeat the starting procedure.
d. When the Pretrip Test is complete, the test ends auto-
matically and the controller display shows “PASS” or CAUTION: Never use starting fluid.
“FAIL”.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


3-4 After Start Inspection Operating Instructions

After Start Inspection


After the engine has started:
1. Listen for abnormal noises.
2. Check engine oil pressure using the View menu of the
controller display. Engine oil pressure should read 100 to
380 kPa, 1.00 to 3.80 bar, 15 to 55 psig; or more.

NOTE: The engine must operate for approximately 15


seconds before the exciter circuit and battery charg-
ing circuits are energized. When Delayed Cold Start
feature is set to YES, controller shows “dELAY / AC”
screen and the alternator output remains off until the
engine temperature increases to 32 C (90 F).

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


4 Microprocessor Controller

engine oil level, high coolant temperature, run relay circuit


µP-G Microprocessor Description failure or alternator overload.
• Automatic unit restart 20 minutes after unit shutdown due to
The µP-G controller is a one-piece, self contained micro-
an unknown condition, high engine water temperature, low
processor for diesel generator sets. This system automatically
engine oil pressure, engine failure to start, check fuel alarm,
control generator set operation by providing:
or alternator overload.
• Automatic unit preheat and engine startup during initial
startup or delayed restart
The controller contains the following basic features:
• Variable air heater preheat time
1. Two digital displays on front panel:
• Automatic Pre-trip Test capability
• LARGE DISPLAY: Five digits (numerical hundreds,
• Delayed alternator excitation for 15 seconds or until engine
tens, ones, tenths and hundredth position).
coolant temperature increases to 32 C (90 F) (optional).
• SMALL DISPLAY: Three digits (numerical tens, ones
• Unit shutdown protection for the engine and alternator.
and tenths position).
Controller stops unit due to low engine oil pressure, low

µP-G Microprocessor Controller

Display
Normally shows the Output Voltage. All segments and
icons are shown in the illustration. It will be blank
when the unit On/Off switch is OFF.

Mode Description
The Alarm description indicates alarms.

Icon
An alarm icon appears next to the Alarm description if
an alarm condition occurs.

Keypad
Alarm Key: Displays fault code readout.
Enter Key: Enters/initiates new settings.
Down Arrow Key: Scrolls down through MENU dis-
play.
Up Arrow Key: Scrolls up through MENU display.
Select Key: Places you in (enters) the MENU list and
selects items for display or change.

Indicator LEDs
Unit On (Green) LED: LED FLASHES while the glow
plugs and starter motor are energized; remains ON to
indicate normal unit operation.
Alarm (Red) LED: LED turns ON when a shutdown
condition has occurred.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


4-2 Status Indicator LEDs Microprocessor Controller

2. Alarm icon appears when the Microprocessor has detected


an alarm condition. Status Indicator LEDs
3. Keypad:
The indicator LEDs located on the control box cover stay ON
a. ALARM Key: Press to display the fault code list in
continuously to indicate a unit operating mode or condition.
the controller display.
• Unit ON LED: This LED FLASHES ON and OFF during
b. ENTER KEY: Press to load settings and execute
engine preheat and cranking; and stays ON continuously dur-
other controller commands.
ing unit operation.
c. DOWN Key: Press to scroll DOWN through the con-
• Alarm LED: This LED stays ON continuously when a
troller MENU.
Shutdown Alarm occurs.
d. UP Key: Press to scroll UP through the controller
MENU.
e. SELECT Key: Press to enter the controller MENU
and select items for display or change. Controller Display Menus
4. Internal self-checking/diagnostic capability.
5. Pre-trip test capability (see “Pretrip Test” under Pretrip The µP-G controller contains an extensive display menu that
Menu in this chapter). can be navigated via keypad. The display shows several infor-
6. Hourmeter: The µP-G controller has a built-in run mation displays in addition to the Main Menu. The Main
Menu is organized into five menus (or groups).
hourmeter that can be accessed through the View Menu.
7. Application software version display when ENTER key is
NOTE: See page 10-5 to view a diagram of the com-
pressed and held for 3 seconds.
plete µP-G menu.
8. Microprocessor Inputs:
Run Relay Enabled
Engine Oil Level Sensor
Engine Oil Pressure Switch Navigating the Controller Menu:
Preheat Feedback The µP-G Main Menu is divided into 5 major menus: View,
Coolant Level Sensor Pretrip, Test, Guard and Program. Moving through these
Air Filter Switch menus and their submenus and entering commands requires
Excitation Feedback the use of 4 keys:
Voltage Regulator
Flywheel Sensor SELECT key: Press the SELECT key to enter or exit
9. Microprocessor Outputs: the Main menu or a submenu; or to enter a command
Run Relay or value.
Field Relay
Start Relay DOWN or UP key: Press the DOWN or UP
Preheat Relay or key each time you want to scroll up or down
On Light to view another item in a menu or submenu.
Alarm Light
10. Display menus: The µP-G controller contains an exten- ENTER key: Press the ENTER key each time you
sive display menu that can be navigated via keypad. The want to enter a value or load a command.
display menu is organized into 6 Main Menus: Alarm List
Menu, View Menu, Pretrip Menu, Test Menu, Guard
Menu and Program Menu.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Microprocessor Controller Controller Display Menus 4-3

Software Version Display View Menu (from Main Menu)


The software version is stored in the controller memory. With Menu screens in this group are used to display unit operating
the unit On/Off switch ON and the LCD display showing the information including output frequency, engine temperature,
standard display (voltage output): oil pressure, engine speed, battery voltage and operating hour
• Press ENTER key for 3 seconds. The display shows the soft- information. No changes can be made to the data from the
ware version for 3 seconds (e.g. “ 0200 / rEv”). View menu.

Pretrip Menu (from Main Menu)


Pause Mode Displays Menu screens in this group are used to activate pretrip tests.

WARNING: When the unit is in a PAUSE mode, the Test Menu (from Main Menu)
AC alternator output or engine may start at any time
without notice. Menu screens in this group are used to set the unit to activate
manual function tests.
A Pause mode display appears when the controller interrupts
normal unit operation to perform a check or test. Guard Menu (from Main Menu)
Menu screens in this group are used to set hourmeters, auto-
Pause Condition Display/Description restart and engine features; and calibrate the controller volt-
AC Output Delay “dELAy / AC” screen indicates that 460V meter. An access code (0007) is required to enter this menu.
output is off. Controller activates exciter
circuit when engine temperature increases Program Menu (from Main Menu)
to 32 C (90F). The Delayed Cold Start fea-
Menu screens in this group are used to set values including
ture is set to yES or nO from the Guard
temperature display units (F or C) and oil pressure units (kPa,
menu.
bar or psi).
Alarm Shutdown “PAUSE / run” screen indicates the con-
troller has stopped unit operation due to a
shutdown alarm condition. The controller Menu Display Definitions
restarts the unit if the alarm condition is Acronym Definition
corrected. The Pause mode display contin- AC Alternating current or Volts A.C. (typically)
ues until the shutdown condition has been AL Alarm light
corrected. AL_01 Alarm 01
bArS Bars
Alarm List Menu bAt Battery volts D.C.
C Celsius
Menu screens in this group display a list of alarm code(s)
CHECh Check alarm after pretrip
recorded in the controller memory. Alarm codes are used to
CntrL Control test menu or submenu
simplify unit diagnosis procedures.
dEG Degree
dELAY Delay
dLYSt Delayed field relay energize option
Ent Engine temperature
EntEr Prompt for key stroke
EOH Engine off hours (while rHr is running)
Standard Display F Fahrenheit
FAIL Fail result during pretrip
Fr Field relay
FUS Flywheel sensor
GUArd Guard menu or submenu prompt
HM1 Programmable hourmeter #1 hours

Review Software Version


• Depress ENTER key for 3 sec-
onds.
• Display shows software ver-
sion for 3 seconds.

Software Version Display

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


4-4 Alarm List Menu Microprocessor Controller

HM2 Programmable hourmeter #2 hours


Ht1 Programmable hourmeter #1 threshold Alarm List Menu
Ht2 Programmable hourmeter #2 threshold
The Alarm List menu displays alarm codes. Alarm codes are
HZ Hertz
recorded in the controller memory to simplify unit diagnosis
kPa Kilo Pascals
procedures. The first 16 fault codes including the most recent
LOAd Load of data into micro controller
fault code are retained by the controller in a non-volatile mem-
LOP Low oil pressure switch
ory in order of their occurrence (see codes, alarm type and
LOPrS Low oil pressure restart option
alarm description below). If the Alarm LED is ON or flashing
MEnU Menu menu or submenu prompt
ON and OFF, enter the ALARM LIST to view the alarm
nUrEG Newage AVR Regulator
code(s).
OIL Oil pressure
Some alarm codes are only recorded during a Pretrip Test.
OL On light
Alarm codes that are recorded during an automatic Pretrip Test
OLS Oil level switch
are recorded in the controller memory and displayed with a
OPS Oil pressure sensor
hyphen (-) preceding the alarm code.
PASS Pass result after pretrip
PAUSE Pause
Phr Preheat relay Alarm Types
PrE Pretrip mode There are three types of alarms:
PrGrM Program menu or submenu prompt • Shutdown Alarm: Alarm LED flashes and unit stops.
PSI Pounds per square inch Shutdown alarms indicate the unit has been stopped to pre-
PtrIP Pretrip menu or submenu prompt vent damage to the unit. The condition must be corrected
rEv Revision, software (typically) before restarting the unit. Alarm codes 17-20, 25, 44, 51, 61,
rHr Run hourmeter 66 and 74 are shutdown alarms.
rPM Revolutions per minute • Check Alarm: Alarm LED remains ON until alarm is
rr Run relay cleared. Check alarms indicate corrective action should be
rSL Restarts since last power up taken before a problem becomes severe. Alarm codes 06, 07,
Sr Start relay 15 to 17, 19-31, 37-43, 45, 46, 61-63, 69-72 and 99 are
St Restarts total for unit Check alarms.
tESt Test menu or submenu prompt • Log Alarm: Alarm is recorded in controller memory only.
UtS Water temperature sensor Alarm LED does not flash or turn on. Alarm codes 15, 61,
vIEW View menu or submenu prompt and 88 are Log alarms.
vr Voltage regulator
YAnEn Yanmar (TK 486) Engine

Standard Display

Alarms List
• View and write down all alarm
codes.
• Press DOWN key to view the
next alarm code.
• Correct problem.
• To clear alarm code(s) from dis-
play, press ENTER key with last
alarm code (“AL 1”) in display.

Alarms List Screen Flow Diagram

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Microprocessor Controller Alarm List Menu 4-5

Displaying and Clearing Alarm Codes Alarm List


If the Alarm LED is ON or flashing ON and OFF, use the Alarm
ALARM key to view the alarm code(s). With the unit On/Off Code Type Description
switch ON and the LCD display showing the standard display 06 Check Water Temperature Sensor Failure
(output voltage): 07 Check Engine RPM Sensor
1. Press the ALARM key. 15 Check Preheat Circuit Check
• The top display shows the number of alarms stored in 16 Check Digital Input Failure
memory (e.g. “AL 2”). 17 Check or
• The bottom display shows a two digit code for the most Shutdown Engine Failed to Crank
recent alarm (e.g. “31”). 18 Check High Engine Water Temperature
2. Write down the first alarm code. Then press the DOWN 19 Check or
key to view the next alarm code. Shutdown Low Engine Oil Pressure
3. Repeat step 2 until all alarm codes have been recorded. 20 Check Engine Failed to Start
4. After the last alarm code (“AL 1”) has been viewed and 25 Check or
recorded, the top display flashes “ENTER” (the code Shutdown Low Output Volts
number of the last alarm still appears in the bottom dis- 31 Check or
play). Shutdown Oil Pressure Sensor
35 Shutdown Run Relay Circuit
NOTE: Clear the Alarm codes ONLY after the 37 Check Coolant Level Alarm
alarm codes are documented and problems 41 Check Engine Water Temperature Check
repaired. Clearing the codes erases them from 43 Check Frequency Out of Range — Low
the controller Alarm display memory. 44 Check Fuel System Check
45 Check Frequency Out of Range — High
NOTE: If the ENTER key is not pressed within 10 46 Check Check Air Filter
seconds, the controller will default (return) to the 51 Check Alternator Overload Alarm
Standard Display. 61 Check or Low Battery or Low Battery during
Shutdown Cranking
5. To clear all alarm codes from the current display memory, 63 Check Engine Stopped — Reason Unknown
press the ENTER key. The display briefly shows 65 Check Battery Charger Check
“ALARM CLR”. 66 Check or
Shutdown Low Engine Oil Level
WARNING: Some unit malfunctions will cause an 69 Check Field Relay Check
Alarm and unit shutdown condition. When the 70 Check Any Hourmeter or Counter Exceeds
alarm codes are cleared, the unit will start auto- Limit
matically. 71 Check Hourmeter 1 Exceeds Threshold
72 Check Hourmeter 2 Exceeds Threshold
6. The controller then returns to the Standard Display. 74 Shutdown Control Revert to Default Settings
88 Log Microprocessor Internal Error
99 Check Restart Null

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


4-6 View Menu Microprocessor Controller

View Menu Pretrip Menu

NOTE: Information can ONLY be displayed using the NOTE: The controller will not perform an automatic
View menu. Items can NOT be changed. pre-trip test until all alarms have been corrected and
cleared.
The View menu displays general unit operating information
including electrical data, temperatures, etc. With the unit The Pretrip menu initiates a test of the unit’s electrical, engine
On/Off switch ON and the LCD display showing the standard and alternator system components. With the unit On/Off
display (voltage output): switch ON and the LCD display showing the standard display
1. Press SELECT key to enter the menu list. Display shows (voltage output):
“MEnU / ---”. 1. Press SELECT key to enter the menu list. Display shows
2. Press DOWN key to scroll to “VIEW” in display. “MEnU / ---”.
3. Press SELECT key to access the View menu. Display 2. Press DOWN key to scroll to “PtrlP” in display.
shows “VIEW / ---”. 3. Press SELECT key to access the Pretrip menu. Flashing
4. Press DOWN key to view items in the View menu list. display shows “EntEr / PrE”.
The display shows the value for the following functions: 4. Press ENTER key to start an automatic Pretrip test.
• Output Frequency (HZ) Display briefly shows “LOAd / PrE”. The controller then
• Engine Temperature (Ent) displays the following screens as the Pretrip test is per-
• Oil Pressure (OIL) formed:
• Engine Speed (rPM) Display Screen Pretrip Test
• Battery Volts (bAT) 88888 / 88 Display Test
• Run Hours (rHr) OLS / PrE Oil Level Switch Test
OPS / PrE Oil Pressure Sensor Test
NOTE: Press the ENTER key to lock a View LOP / PrE Oil Pressure Switch Test
screen in the LCD display. A decimal point flash- UtS / PrE Coolant Temperature Test
es in the bottom display to indicate the screen is FUS / PrE RPM Sensor Test
locked. The screen remains locked for 15 min- Phr / PrE Preheat Relay Test
utes. Press any key to unlock the display. rr / PrE Run Relay Test
Sr / PrE Start Relay Test
NOTE: The controller returns to the Standard Fr / PrE Field Relay Test
Display from a View Menu screen after about 10 OPS / PrE Oil Pressure Sensor Test
seconds, or when the SELECT key is pressed
and held for 3 seconds.

Standard Display Standard Display

MAIN MENU MAIN MENU


View Menu
— VIEW — VIEW
— VIEW / --- Pretrip Menu
— PRETRIP — PRETRIP
— XX / HZ • Display flashes “EntEr / PrE”.
— TEST — XXX.XX / Ent — TEST • Press ENTER to start Pretrip
— GUARD — XX / OlL test. Display shows “LOAd
— GUARD
— XXXX / rPM /PrE”.
— PROGRAM — XX.X / bAT — PROGRAM • Display shows current Pretrip
— XXXXX / rHr Test function as controller con-
ducts Pretrip test.

View Menu Screen Flow Diagram Pretrip Menu Screen Flow Diagram

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Microprocessor Controller Test Menu 4-7

LOP / PrE Oil Pressure Switch Test 4. Press DOWN key to scroll to “CntrL” in the display.
rPN / PrE RPM Sensor Test 5. Press SELECT key to access the Control Test submenu.
AC / PrE Output Volts Test Display shows “CntrL / ---”.
5. When pretrip test is complete, displays shows PASS or 6. Press DOWN key to scroll to desired test. The controller
FAIL. Press the ENTER key to clear the pretrip message displays the following test functions:
display and return to standard screen. View and correct Display Screen Test
any alarm codes recorded before placing unit in service. AL / 0 l Alarm Light Test
OL / 0 l On Light Test
PHr / 0 l Preheat Relay Test
rr / 0 l Run Relay Test
Test Menu Sr / 0 l Start Relay Test
Fr / 0 l Field Relay Test
The Test menu allows technicians to perform specific diagnos-
tic tests on the unit. With the unit On/Off switch ON and the NOTE: A flashing “l” in the display indicates the
LCD display showing the standard display (voltage output): test output is OFF. A flashing “0” in the display
indicates the test output is ON.
NOTE: The controller STOPS the unit when the Test
Menu is entered. A technician can then select the 7. When the desired test appears in the display, press the
control circuit or component to be tested/checked SELECT key to activate the test. The flashing “l” in the
from the Test submenu. lower display changes to a flashing “0” when the test out-
put is turned ON.
WARNING: If no key is pressed for 30 seconds and 8. When the check/diagnosis of the selected circuit is com-
all test outputs are OFF in the Test submenu, the plete, press the SELECT key to stop the test. The flashing
unit may restart at any time without prior warning. “0” in the lower display changes to a flashing “1” when
the test output is turned OFF.
1. Press SELECT key to enter the menu list. Display shows 9. When all desired tests are complete, wait 30 seconds for
“MEnU / ---”. the controller to exit the Test submenu and return to the
2. Press DOWN key to scroll to “tESt” in the display. standard display. The controller then automatically
3. Press SELECT key to access the Test menu. Display restarts the unit.
shows “tESt / ---”.
WARNING: With the Unit On/Off switch in the ON
position, the unit may start at any time without
prior warning if a controller key has not been
pressed for 30 seconds.
Standard Display

WARNING: With the Unit On/Off


switch in the ON position, the
unit may start at any time with-
out prior warning if a controller
key has not been pressed for 30
seconds.

MAIN MENU

— VIEW
— PRETRIP
Test Menu
— TEST
• Display shows “tESt / ---”.
— GUARD • Press DOWN to show “CntrL /
— PROGRAM tSt” in display.
• Press SELECT. Display
shows “Cntrl / --”.
• Press DOWN until display
shows the desired Test func-
tion.
• Press SELECT to start Test
function.
• Press SELECT again to stop
Test function.

Test Menu Screen Flow Diagram

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


4-8 Guard Menu Microprocessor Controller

• Regulator Selection
Guard Menu • Voltmeter Calibration

NOTE: An access code is required to enter the Navigating Menu Guard Screens
Guard menu to prevent unauthorized personnel from With the unit On/Off switch ON and the controller showing
tampering with the programmable features. the Standard Display:
1. Press SELECT key to enter the menu list. Display shows
The Guard menu is used to view and set programmable fea- “MEnU / ---”.
tures including: 2. Press DOWN key to scroll to “GUArd” in the display.
• Run Hourmeter (View Only) 3. Press SELECT key to access the Guard menu. Display
• Hourmeter 1 shows “0000 / GUA” with left “0” flashing. A flashing
• Hourmeter 2 digit indicates the digit that can be changed.
• Engine Off Hourmeter (View Only) 4. Enter the current access code “0007”.
• Restarts after Powerup (View Only) a. Press and release the SELECT key three times to
• Unit Restarts scroll the flashing digit (“0”) to the right digit.
• Low Oil Pressure Restart b. Press and release the DOWN key three times to scroll
• Delayed Cold Start the flashing digit to “7” (display now shows “0007 /
• Engine Selection GUA”).

Standard Display

Guard Menu
— 0 0 0 0 / GUA

MAIN MENU Enter access code 7.


Press to scroll cursor to
— VIEW next digit to right.
— PRETRIP Press or to select
— TEST number.

— GUARD Press to enter access


code. Display shows
— PROGRAM GUArd / l- - -l.

Press to enter load


Guard Submenu
value display. Top display
— GUArd / l- - -l flashes value to be
— XXXXX / rHr (Run Hours) changed.
— XXXXX / Ht1 (HM 1 Threshold)
Footnotes: — XXXXX / Hn1 (HM 1 Hours) Press or to select
1When Delayed Cold Start is set to yES, controller — XXXXX / Ht2 (HM 2 Threshold) new number.
shows “dELAy / AC” screen and alternator output — XXXXX / Hn2 (HM 2 Hours)
remains off until engine temperature increases to — XXXXX / EOH (Engine Off Hours) Press to load new
32 C (90 F). — XXXXX / rSl (Restarts after number.
2The Engine Select screen MUST be set to “yES”
Powerup)
on units equipped with a TK 486 (Yanmar) engine.
Set this screen to “nO” on units equipped with a di — XXXXX / rSt (Unit Restarts)
2.2 or se 2.2 engine. Default setting is “nO” on — LOPrS / n0 (Low Oil Press. Restart)
Press to enter load
version 0100 software and “yES” on version 0200 — dLYSt / yES1 (Delayed Cold Start)
value display.
software. — YAnEn / yES2 (Engine Select)
3The Regulator Select screen MUST be set to — nUrEG / YES3 (Regulator Select) Press or to
“yES” on units equipped with a Newage regulator. — XXXXX / CAL (Voltmeter Calib.) select new value.
Set this screen to “nO” on units equipped with a
Thermo King excitor. Default setting is “nO”. Press to load new
value.

Guard Menu Screen Flow Diagram

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Microprocessor Controller Guard Menu 4-9

c. Press the ENTER key to load the code and access the 2. From “XXXXX / Ht1” in the controller display, press the
Guard menu. The display will show “GUArd / ---”. DOWN key until the display shows “XXXXX / Hn1”
(where “XXXXX” is the number of accumulated user
NOTE: If the correct code is not entered, the dis- hours and “Hn1” is Hourmeter 1).
play returns to “GUArd”.
NOTE: If a new controller is being installed in
5. Press the DOWN or UP key to scroll through the menu list. the unit and the number of accumulated run
hours can not be determined, leave this setting
NOTE: If a new controller or new software has “00000”.
been installed, proceed immediately to
“Calibrating the Voltmeter” below. a. Press the SELECT key to enter the load User
Hourmeter display. Bottom display flashes “Hn1”.
NOTE: If no key is pressed, the controller returns b. Press the UP or DOWN key to choose the desired
to the “GUArd / ---” display from a Guard Menu hour setting.
screen after 30 seconds. c. When the desired hours show in the top display, press
the ENTER key. The display flashes “LOAd” and
then shows “XXXXX / Hn1” (where “XXXXX” is
Setting the User Hourmeter Thresholds and the new accumulated user hours).
User Hours
Setting Unit Restarts
NOTE: The procedure for setting the threshold and
countdown hours for Hourmeter 1 and Hourmeter 2 The Unit Restart feature sets the number of times the con-
are the same. troller will attempt to restart the unit after unit operation stops
due to an an auto-shutdown condition.
The User Hourmeter feature sets the controller to alert the user
that unit has operated for a defined number of hours. The NOTE: Leave this setting “00000” to have the con-
number of operating hours are entered in the controller in the troller attempt to restart the unit until the unit has
Hourmeter Threshold display. The controller then generates been successfully restarted or until a code 61 is gen-
an Check alarm when the user hourmeter reaches the threshold erated due to a low battery.
setting.
1. From “GUArd / ---” in the Guard menu, press the DOWN
NOTE: If the user does not desire to use the User key until the display shows “XXXXX / rSt” (where
Hourmeter feature to measure maintenance inter- “XXXXX” is the number of restart attempts).
vals, etc., leave the settings at “0000” to avoid nui- 2. Press the SELECT key to enter the load Unit Restart dis-
sance alarms. On units equipped with version play. Bottom display flashes “rSt”.
“0200” software, the controller will reset the User 3. Press the UP or DOWN key to choose the desired restart
Hourmeters automatically when an hourmeter attempt setting.
threshold alarm is cleared. 4. When the desired restart attempt setting shows in the top
display, press the ENTER key. The display flashes
1. From “GUArd / ---” in the Guard menu, press the DOWN “LOAd” and then shows “XXXXX / rSt” (where
key until the display shows “XXXXX / Ht1” (where “XXXXX” is the new restart attempt setting).
“XXXXX” is the threshold setting and “Ht1” is
Hourmeter Threshold 1).
a. Press the SELECT key to enter the load User
Hourmeter Threshold display. Bottom display flashes
“Ht1”.
b. Press the UP or DOWN key to choose the desired
threshold setting.
c. When the desired threshold hours show in the top dis-
play, press the ENTER key. The display flashes
“LOAd” and then shows “XXXXX / Ht1” (where
“XXXXX” is the new threshold hours).

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


4-10 Guard Menu Microprocessor Controller

Setting Low Oil Pressure Restart 3. Press the UP or DOWN key to choose the desired engine
type setting:
The Low Oil Pressure Restart feature sets the controller to
• n0 = di 2.2 or se 2.2 engine.
restart the unit after unit operation stops due to a low oil pres-
• YES = TK 486 (Yanmar) engine.
sure condition. Factory default setting is “n0”.
4. When the desired engine setting shows in the bottom dis-
1. From “GUArd / ---” in the Guard menu, press the DOWN
play, press the ENTER key. The display flashes “LOAd”
key until the display shows “LOPrS / n0” (where “n0”
and then shows “YAnEN / XXX” (where “XXX” is the
means the feature is off).
new setting).
2. Press the SELECT key to enter the load Low Oil Pressure
Restart display. Bottom display flashes “n0”.
3. Press the UP or DOWN key to choose the desired restart Selecting Regulator Type
attempt setting: The Regulator Select feature sets the controller to the Newage
• n0 = inactive or off. AVR regulator. The Engine Select screen must be set to
• yES = active or on. “YES” on units equipped with an AVR regulator. Factory
4. When the desired restart attempt setting shows in the bot- default setting is “YES” units with AVR regulator. However,
tom display, press the ENTER key. The display flashes default setting on replacement software is “nO”.
“LOAd” and then shows “LOPrS / XXX” (where “XXX” 1. From “GUArd / ---” in the Guard menu, press the DOWN
is the new low oil pressure restart attempt setting). key until the display shows “nUrEG / YES” (where
“YES” means the feature is set for a AVR regulator).
Setting Delayed Cold Start 2. Press the SELECT key to enter the load Engine Select dis-
play. Bottom display flashes “YES”.
The Delayed Cold Start feature sets the controller to delay
3. Press the UP or DOWN key to choose the desired engine
alternator excitation until the engine water temperature
type setting:
increases to 32 C (90 F). Factory default setting is “yES”.
• n0 = Standard Thermo King exciter.
1. From “GUArd / ---” in the Guard menu, press the DOWN
• YES = Newage AVR regulator.
key until the display shows “dLYSt / n0” (where “n0”
4. When the desired engine setting shows in the bottom dis-
means the feature is off).
play, press the ENTER key. The display flashes “LOAd”
2. Press the SELECT key to enter the load Delayed Cold
and then shows “YAnEN / XXX” (where “XXX” is the
Start display. Bottom display flashes “n0”.
new setting).
3. Press the UP or DOWN key to choose the desired restart
attempt setting:
• n0 = inactive or off. Voltmeter Calibration
• yES = active or on. The Voltmeter Calibration feature calibrates the controller to
4. When the desired restart attempt setting shows in the bot- the alternator output. The controller voltmeter should be cali-
tom display, press the ENTER key. The display flashes brated whenever a new controller is installed in the unit or
“LOAd” and then shows “dLYSt / XXX” (where “XXX” when the controller is suspected of displaying inaccurate read-
is the new delayed cold start setting). ings.
1. Turn the unit On/Off switch OFF to stop the unit.
Selecting Engine Type 2. Disconnect the refrigeration unit from the generator.
3. Turn the unit On/Off switch ON to restart the unit.
The Engine Select feature sets the controller to the Yanmar
4. Check the output voltage at the genset plug. Check the
(TK 486) engine. The Engine Select screen must be set to
voltage between the three phases. All three phases should
“YES” on units equipped with a TK 486 engine. Default set-
be within 3% of each other. Determine the average volt-
ting is “YES” on version 0200 software and “nO” and version
age reading between the three phases.
0100 software.
5. From “GUArd / ---” in the Guard menu, press the DOWN
1. From “GUArd / ---” in the Guard menu, press the DOWN
key until the display shows “XXXXX / CAL” (where
key until the display shows “YAnEN / YES” (where
“XXXXX” is the current voltage reading).
“YES” means the feature is set for a TK 486 engine).
6. Press the SELECT key to enter the load Voltmeter
2. Press the SELECT key to enter the load Engine Select dis-
Calibration display. Bottom display flashes “CAL”.
play. Bottom display flashes “YES”.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Microprocessor Controller Program Menu 4-11

7. Press the UP or DOWN key to adjust the top display read- 5. When the desired function appears in the display, press
ing to the average voltage reading determined in step 1. the SELECT key to activate the program function. The
8. When the correct voltage reading shows in the top display, upper display begins flashing (e.g. “F” flashes).
press the ENTER key. The display flashes “LOAd” and 6. Press DOWN key to scroll to the desired value.
then shows “XXX / CAL” (where “XXX” is the new volt- 7. With the new value in the display, press the ENTER key
age reading). to load the value in the controller memory. Display will
show “LOAd” and then return to display the new value
and function (e.g. “C / dEG”).
8. When all new values s are set, wait 30 seconds for the
Program Menu controller to exit the Program submenu and return to the
standard display.
The Program menu is used to set display values for tempera-
ture and oil pressure units. With the unit On/Off switch ON
and the LCD display showing the standard display (voltage
output):
1. Press SELECT key to enter the menu list. Display shows
“MEnU / ---”.
2. Press DOWN key to scroll to “PrGm” in display.
3. Press SELECT key to access the Program menu. Display
shows “PrGm / ---”.
4. Press DOWN key to scroll to the desired function:
Display Screen Program Function
X / dEG Set degrees F or C
XXXX / OIL Set oil pressure units in PSI, BARS or
kPA

Standard Display

MAIN MENU

— VIEW
— PRETRIP
— TEST
— GUARD
Test Menu
— PROGRAM
• Display shows “PrGm / ---”.
• Press DOWN until display
shows the desired Program
function.
• Press SELECT to activate the
Program function.
• Press DOWN to scroll to
desired value.
• Press ENTER to load the new
value in the controller memory.

Program Menu Screen Flow Diagram

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


4-12 Alarm Codes, Type and Description Microprocessor Controller

µP-G Alarm Codes, Type and Description


• Shutdown Alarm (Level 1 Alarm): Alarm icon appears in controller display, Alarm LED turns ON and the unit stops.
Correct alarm condition and acknowledge alarm before restarting the unit.
• Check Alarm (Level 2 Alarm): Alarm icon appears in display until alarm is acknowledged and cleared.

Note: The phrase “restart after 20 minutes” refers to the auto-restart mode where the unit will make up to three
attempts every 20 minutes to restart the unit after a shutdown has occurred. This restart mode contin-
ues until the unit has been successfully restarted or until a code 61 is generated due to low battery.

Alarm
Code Type Cause or Explanation

*06 Check Water Temperature Sensor Failure


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Water temperature is out of range for 2 seconds: Below -40 C (-40 F) or above
130 C (266 F)
- Sensor or circuit is open or shorted

*Pretrip:
• Check alarm is generated if the fault conditions above occur during a pretrip test.

*07 Check Engine RPM Sensor


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine cranks; RPM is below 40 during cranking, but oil pressure was above 35
kPa, 0.35 bar, 5 psig for 7 seconds after the starter de-energized
- Engine cranks; RPM is above 40 but below 800, and oil pressure is above 35
kPa, 0.35 bar, 5 psig for 37 seconds
- Engine has started but RPM is below 800 for 60 seconds

*Pretrip:
• During Pretrip test, a Check alarm is generated if:
- RPM sensor showed RPMs when the engine was not running
- RPM sensor did NOT show RPMs when the engine should have been running

15 Check Preheat Circuit Check


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Preheat relay output is energized during cranking, but the preheat digital input is
low for 2 seconds, log alarm is recorded.
- Preheat output is energized during cranking and the battery volts are less than
9.0 V for 3 seconds, a log alarm is recorded. The unit will attempt to start without
the preheat if this occurs.

16 Check Digital Input Failure


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Digital inputs have been changing once a second for the last 10 seconds. This
condition indicates noise on the line, a loose connection, or a bad sensor.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Microprocessor Controller Alarm Codes, Type and Description 4-13

Alarm
Code Type Cause or Explanation

17 Check/Shutdown Engine Failed to Crank


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine does not crank: RPM is below 40 for 3 seconds after starter is energized
and oil pressure is below 35 kPa, 0.35 bar, 5 psig for 7 seconds after starter is
de-energized
- The unit will try to start 2 more times.

• Shutdown alarm is generated if:


- Engine fails to start after the 3rd attempt

18 Check High Engine Water Temperature


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is ON and water temperature is above 107 C (225 F) for 25 seconds
- Engine then stops until water temperature decreases to 88 C (190 F). Engine
then attempts to restart

*19 Check/Shutdown Low Engine Oil Pressure


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is ON; oil level indicates normal; and oil pressure is below 104 kPa, 1.04
bar, 15 psig at water temperatures above 10 C (50 F) for 30 seconds, or oil pres-
sure does NOT increase 35 kPa, 0.35 bar, 5 psig at water temperatures below
10 C (50 F) for 30 seconds
- Unit will attempt to restart after 20 minutes if programmable Low Oil Pressure
Restart feature is set to Yes (ON)

• Shutdown alarm is generated if:


- The fault conditions above occur and the programmable Low Oil Pressure
Restart feature is set to nO (OFF)

*Pretrip: Alarms are generated during the pretrip test if the fault conditions above
occur.

20 Check Engine Failed To Start


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine cranks; RPM is above 40, but below 800 for 30 seconds and oil pressure
was not above 35 kPa, 0.35 bar, 5 psig for 7 seconds after starter de-energized
- The unit will try to start 2 more times
- If engine fails to start after the 3rd attempt, it will try to restart after 20 minutes

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


4-14 Alarm Codes, Type and Description Microprocessor Controller

Alarm
Code Type Cause or Explanation

*25 Check/Shutdown Low Output Voltage


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is ON; field relay is energized but the output voltage is below 180 VAC for
30 seconds

*Pretrip:
• Shutdown alarm is generated if:
- The field relay is energized during the pretrip test and the output voltage is below
200 VAC

*31 Check/Shutdown Oil Pressure Sensor


• A Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is OFF and oil pressure is above 69 kPa, 0.69 bar, 10 psig for 2 seconds;
or the low oil pressure switch indicates oil pressure (opens) for 10 seconds
- Engine is ON and oil pressure is above 2070 kPa, 20.70 bar, 300 psig
- Engine is ON; the low oil pressure switch indicates oil pressure (opens); the oil
level switch indicates normal (open); but the oil pressure is below 15 psig at
water temperatures above 100 C (212 F), or the oil pressure has not increased
by 35 kPa, 0.35 bar, 5 psig at water temperatures below 100 C (212 F)

*Pretrip:
• During Pretrip test, a Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is OFF and oil pressure is above 69 kPa, 0.69 bar, 10 psig
- Engine is ON and oil pressure is below 35 kPa, 0.35 bar, 5 psig
- Engine is ON; the low oil pressure switch indicates no oil pressure (closed); and
the controller has not recorded a previous Oil Pressure Sensor Check alarm
• A Shutdown alarm is generated if:
- Engine is OFF; the low oil pressure switch indicates oil pressure (open); and the
controller has already generated a Oil Pressure Sensor Check alarm
- Engine is ON; the low oil pressure switch indicates no oil pressure (closed); and
the controller has already generated a Oil Pressure Sensor Check alarm

*35 Shutdown Run Relay Circuit


• A Shutdown alarm is generated if:
- During cranking: Run relay digital feedback is low after energizing during crank-
ing. Controller attempts to energize run relay and obtain high digital feedback 3
times before generating alarm
- During running: The run relay output does not match the run relay digital feed-
back input for 4 seconds

*Pretrip:
• A Shutdown alarm is generated if:
- Run relay digital feedback input is low after 3 seconds during the pretrip test

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Microprocessor Controller Alarm Codes, Type and Description 4-15

Alarm
Code Type Cause or Explanation

*37 Check Coolant Level Alarm


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is OFF and the coolant level sensor indicates low coolant for 30 seconds

*Pretrip:
• Check alarm is generated if:
- During the Engine OFF portion of the pretrip test, the coolant level sensor indi-
cates low coolant for 3 seconds

41 Check Engine Water Temperature Check


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is ON and water temperature is above 102 C (215 F) for 2 minutes

43 Check Frequency Out of Range-Low


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is ON and engine RPMs are above 800 but below 1350 for 10 seconds

44 Check Fuel System Check


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is ON and engine RPMs are below 1050 and have stayed below 1075 for
80 seconds
- The engine stops and will then attempt to restart after 20 minutes

45 Check Frequency Out of Range-High


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is ON and engine RPMs are above 2100 for 10 seconds

46 Check Check Air Filter


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is ON and the air filter digital input is low for 10 seconds

51 Check Alternator Overload Alarm


• Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is ON and field current exceeds 1.7 amperes for 15 seconds, or exceeds
2.4 amperes for 5 seconds
- The engine stops and will then attempt to restart after 20 minutes

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


4-16 Alarm Codes, Type and Description Microprocessor Controller

Alarm
Code Type Cause or Explanation

61 Check/Shutdown Low or High Battery Alarm


• A Check alarm is generated if:
- During engine preheating: The battery voltage is below 9.0 V for 3 seconds.
Controller will attempt to start engine without preheat
- Engine is OFF: The battery voltage is below 12.2 V for 3 minutes. If this occurs
when the unit is in a restart null mode, the engine immediately attempts to start
- Engine is ON: The battery voltage is above 16.0 V for 3 minutes

• A Shutdown alarm is generated if:


- The unit has attempted a start and a controller reset occurs before the unit start
is completed

63 Check Engine Stopped - Reason Unknown


• A Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is OFF: The engine has stopped when it should be running
- The engine will attempt to restart after 20 minutes

65 Check Battery Charger Check


• A Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is ON: The battery voltage is below 12.2 V for 3 minutes
- Engine is ON: The battery voltage is above 16.0 V for 3 minutes

*66 Check/Shutdown Low Engine Oil Level


• A Check alarm is generated if:
- Engine is OFF and the oil level switch indicates low oil level (closed) for 3 min-
utes
- Engine is ON, oil pressure sensor is high, but low oil level switch indicates low oil
level (closed) for 3 minutes

• A Shutdown alarm is generated if:


- Engine is ON, the oil level switch indicates low oil level (closed) for 3 minutes,
and the low oil pressure switch indicates no oil pressure (closed)

*Pretrip:
• A Shutdown alarm is generated if:
- During the Engine OFF portion of the pretrip test, the oil level switch indicates
low oil level (closed) for 3 seconds

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Microprocessor Controller Alarm Codes, Type and Description 4-17

Alarm
Code Type Cause or Explanation

*69 Check Field Relay Check


• A Check alarm is generated if:
- Field relay is energized and the field current is less than 0.3 amperes for 10 sec-
onds

*Pretrip:
• A Check alarm is generated if the fault conditions above occur during a pretrip
test

70 Check Hour Meter Exceeds Limits


• A Check alarm is generated if:
- One or more hourmeters exceeds 99,999
- Restart counter has exceeded 9999

71 Check Hour Meter Exceeds Limits


• A Check alarm is generated if:
- Programmable hourmeter 1 has exceeded the set limit. Clearing this code will
also reset the hourmeter 1.

72 Check Hour Meter Exceeds Limits


• A Check alarm is generated if:
- Programmable hourmeter 2 has exceeded the set limit. Clearing this code will
also reset the hourmeter 2.

74 Shutdown Control Reverted to Default Settings


• A Shutdown alarm is generated if:
- Controller reverts to factory programmable settings due to a chip change in the
controller or due to performing a controller cold start

88 Check Shutdown Microprocessor Fault Alarm


• A Check alarm is generated if:
- Controller has found a fault condition with either its RAM or Eprom. If this alarm
occurs twice the controller should be returned for repair

99 Check Restart Null


• The controller will try to restart unit after 20 minute null (off) period.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


5 Electrical Maintenance

Battery 12 V dc Charging System


Battery charging current is supplied by a solid-state battery
CAUTION: Before connecting or disconnecting the charger using current from the ac alternator. The battery
unit battery, place the Unit On/Off switch in OFF charging circuit provides a 12 Vdc, 20 amp output to maintain
position. the battery at the proper charge level (13.8 to 14.3 volts).
The alternator exciter field is energized by the µP-G Field
Inspect and clean the battery terminals and check the elec- Conversion Module to initiate battery charging approximately
trolyte level during scheduled maintenance inspections. The 15 seconds after engine start-up.
minimum specific gravity should be 1.235. Add distilled
water as necessary to maintain the proper water level. NOTE: The engine must run for approximately 15
A dead or low battery can be the cause of an ammeter seconds before the before the exciter field is ener-
indicating discharge due to lack of initial excitation of the gized to start alternator output. When Delayed Cold
alternator Start feature is set to YES, controller shows “dELAY
/ AC” screen and the alternator output remains off
until the engine temperature increases to 32 C (90 F).

Unit Wiring Battery Charger Diagnosis


Inspect the unit wiring and wire harnesses during scheduled The battery charger contains a red and green LEDs. These
maintenance inspections for loose, chaffed or broken wires to LEDs provide the following indications:
protect against unit malfunctions due to open or short circuits. • Green LED on: Ready — Battery is fully charged.
• Red and Green LED on: Charging — Battery charge level is
between 13.8 to 14.2 Vdc.
• Red LED on: Charging — Battery charge level is below 13.
Fuse Link • No LED on: No power output from battery charger.
Disconnect output leads and check for 14 Vdc voltage out-
The fuse link is located inside the unit control box on the back
put. If no output, check for 230 Vac input to battery charger
of the µP-G microprocessor. The fuse link protects the electric
on Brown and Blue wires. If 230 Vac input to battery charg-
system from a short in the 2A or 2A1 circuit. If the fuse link
er and connections are good, replace the battery charger.
burns out, check for a grounded 2A or 2A1 wire or a short in
the fuel heater.

Fuse
A 25 amp fuse protects the battery charger circuit. The fuse is
located in the battery charger cable.

Battery Charger
1. LED Display

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


5-2 Air Heater Electrical Maintenance

Air Heater Engine Low Oil Pressure Switch


The air heater heats the intake air to help the engine start in Engine oil pressure should rise immediately on starting, caus-
cold weather. The air heater is energized when the controller ing the oil pressure switch to open. If the oil pressure drops
initiates a unit start-up (Unit On/Off switch in the ON posi- below 117 +/- 21 kPa, 1.17 +/- 0.21 bar, 17 +/- 3 psi, the
tion). switch will close and cause the controller to stop the engine. A
The air heater is mounted on the open end of the intake continuity tester is needed to check the oil pressure switch.
manifold. Check the resistance of the air intake heater with an 1. Remove wire OPS from the switch.
ohmmeter between the M6 terminal on the front of the heater 2. Continuity tester should indicate a complete circuit
and the screw on the back of the heater (or the heater case). between the terminal and ground.
The resistance should be 0.1 to 0.2 ohms. 3. Start the engine. Tester should show an open circuit
Check the current draw of the heater with a clamp-on between each terminal and ground. Repair consists of
ammeter while the engine is cranking. Connect ammeter at the replacing the switch.
H wire near the M6 terminal on the front of the heater. The
current draw should be approximately 89 amps at 12.5 volts.
The heater is probably defective if the current draw is less than
60 amps or more than 100 amps. Oil Pressure Sensor
The oil pressure sensor is connected to the engine oil system
and uses oil pressure to present a variable resistance to the
controller. If the controller records Alarm Code 31 and the oil
pressure appears to be normal, test the oil pressure sensor.

NOTE: Polarity must be considered when connect-


ing pressure sensors. If a sensor is connected back-
wards, the display will show four dashes (----).
Consult the unit wiring diagram or schematic for cor-
rect connections.

Sensor Test
1. Turn the unit On/Off switch OFF.
2. Disconnect the OSP and OSN wires from the oil pressure
sensor.
Air Heater 3. Turn the unit On/Off switch ON.
4. Enter the controller View menu and scroll to the oil pres-
1. M6 Terminal sure screen. The display should show “---- / OiL”. If all
sensors show “----” in the top display, the controller may
be defective or the sensor polarity may be reversed. Test
the controller and check the sensor wiring for correct
polarity.

Oil Pressure Switch


1. Oil Pressure Switch Oil Pressure Sensor

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Electrical Maintenance Oil Level Switch 5-3

5. Using a digital voltmeter, check the voltage from the OSP Bench test the switch if there is continuity between the OLS
wire to OSN. The voltage must be +7 volts or more. and CH wires and there are no short circuits in the wires.
a. If the top display showed “----” and the voltage is +7
volts or more, the sensor is defective. Replace the Switch Removal and Installation
sensor. Be sure to reconnect the OSP wire after ser- 1. Disconnect the switch wires from the main wire harness
vice is complete. before removing the switch.
b. If the top display showed something other than “----” 2. Remove the push-in style switch by carefully prying it out
or the voltage is less than +7 volts, the wire harness of the oil pan with a pry bar. The neoprene seal may stay
or the controller is defective, not the sensor. in the oil pan.
Continuity test the wire harness OSP circuit. Test the 3. To install the push-in style switch, first remove the neo-
controller. prene seal from the switch. Lubricate the neoprene seal
and install it in the oil pan. Then press the switch into the
neoprene seal. No tools are required.

Oil Level Switch 4. Connect the switch wires to the main wire harness after
installing it.
The low oil level sensor (OLS) switch will close and cause the
controller to stop the engine if the engine oil level drops below
NOTE: The low oil level switch must have a drip
the actuation level. The oil level switch is located in the oil
loop formed in wire leads as shown in the illus-
pan on the front side of the engine near the oil filter.
tration. The drip loop prevents water from enter-
ing the switch through the end of the sleeving
Switch Test
that protects the switch wires.
1. Make sure that the unit is turned OFF.
2. Disconnect the switch wires from the main wire harness.
Bench Test
3. Connect a continuity tester to the two sockets in the low
1. Disconnect the switch wires from the main wire harness.
oil level switch wire connector.
Remove the switch from the oil pan.
4. Check the oil level with the dipstick and make sure that it
2. Use a small container partially filled with engine oil to
is between the low mark and the full mark. Add oil if nec-
check the float. Make sure that it floats in engine oil and
essary.
that it slides freely between the upper and lower stops.
5. The switch should be open and there should be no conti-
3. Slide the float up to the upper stop and check the continu-
nuity between the switch wires with the oil level between
ity through the switch (between OLS and CH wires). The
the low mark and the full mark on the dipstick.
switch should be open.
4. Slide the float down to the lower stop and check the conti-
nuity through the switch. The switch should be closed.
5. Replace the switch if the float sinks or does not slide
freely, or if the switch does not open and close properly.

Push-in Style Oil Level Switch


1. 19 mm (0.75 in.)
2. Secure with Tie Band
3. Drip Loop with Open End of Sleeving Pointed Down
4. Upper Stop
5. Float
6. Lower Stop

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


5-4 Coolant Temperature Sensor Electrical Maintenance

b. If the voltage is incorrect, recheck the voltage at the


Coolant Temperature Sensor same circuit at pins 1 and 2 of the CN7 connector on
the back of the controller. The voltage must be from
The coolant temperature sensor is connected to the engine
4.90 to 5.10 volts dc. If the voltage is correct at the
coolant system near the water pump and uses coolant tempera-
controller, the problem is in the wiring. Continuity
ture to present a variable resistance to the controller. If the
test the wire harness circuits. If the voltage is incor-
controller records Alarm Code 18 or 41 and the coolant tem-
rect again, the controller is defective. Test the con-
perature appears to be normal, test the coolant temperature
troller.
sensor.

NOTE: Polarity must be considered when connect-


ing temperature sensors. If a sensor is connected
backwards, the display will show four dashes (----) Coolant Level Detector
and record Alarm Code 06. Consult the unit wiring The coolant level detector (sensor) is a stainless steel probe
diagram or schematic for correct connections. immersed in the coolant. It does not fail or wear out, but may
fail to conduct current if it is dirty.
Sensor Test If the coolant level drops too low in the radiator, the sen-
1. Turn the unit On/Off switch OFF. sor will no longer conduct current to return a signal to the con-
2. Disconnect the sensor at the plug next to the sensor. troller. After 30 seconds, the controller will record Alarm
3. Turn the unit On/Off switch ON. Code 37. If the controller records alarm code 37 and the radia-
4. Enter the controller View menu and scroll to the engine tor is full of coolant, test the coolant level sensor.
temperature screen. The display should show “---- / Ent”.
If all sensors show “----” in the top display, the controller WARNING: DO NOT remove the radiator cap from
may be defective or the sensor polarity may be reversed. the radiator fill neck when the engine coolant is hot.
Test the controller and check the sensor wiring for correct
polarity. Sensor Test
5. Using a digital voltmeter, check the voltage at the sensor 1. Ground the sensor to chassis ground with a jumper wire.
plug connected to the controller. The voltage must be 2. Attempt to clear Alarm Code 37 from the controller.
from 4.90 to 5.10 volts dc. • If Alarm Code 37 clears, clean the sensor.
a. If the voltage is correct, disassemble and inspect the • If Alarm Code 37 does not clear, test the wire harness
coolant sensor plug. If there are no broken wires or for continuity. Also test the controller.
pushed pins in the plug, replace the sensor.

Flywheel Sensor
The flywheel sensor is in the engine bell housing adjacent to,
but not touching, the flywheel (backed off 1/2 turn).
The flywheel sensor is a device containing an inductance
coil and magnet. When the magnetic field is distorted by the
passing ring gear teeth, the inductance coil generates an ac
electrical signal that has a voltage and frequency variation pro-
portional to the engine rpm.
By monitoring the frequency of this signal with the starter
disconnect module, the timing of the starter disengagement can
be precisely controlled.
If the flywheel sensor fails, the starter may not disengage
or engage properly.

Flywheel Sensor with Wiring and Schematic


Symbols

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Electrical Maintenance Relays 5-5

Testing the Flywheel Sensor


Equipment required: Field, Preheat, Start and Run Relays
• AC voltmeter capable of reading up to 10 volts
These are 12 Vdc relays. These relays are identical and inter-
• Ohmmeter
changeable. Test a relay by interchanging it with a known
• SG unit for installing the sensor in the threaded hole in the
good relay.
flywheel housing.
To test the flywheel sensor:
Field Relay A
1. Install the flywheel sensor into the threaded hole in the
Field Relay A grounds the exciter field circuit 15 -20 seconds
flywheel housing of an SG unit until it contacts the ring
after unit startup. Field Relay A must be grounded to supply
gear. Back out the sensor 1/2 turn and tighten the lock
alternator output to the battery charger. If the field relay fails
nut.
in the open position, the exciter field will not energize. If the
2. Disconnect wires (FS1 and FS2) from the sensor.
field relay fails in the closed position, the exciter field will
3. Start and operate the unit. Check the ac voltage output
remained energized.
across the sensor terminals. Use a meter with a high ohms
per volt internal resistance. A Simpson 260, Fluke digital
Preheat Relay
or any good VOM will work. However, an automotive
The preheat relay supplies power to the air heater relay
type meter may not give an accurate reading because the
and the buzzer. If the preheat relay fails in the open position,
meter may load the circuit heavily and cause the voltage
the air heater would not preheat and the engine may not start,
level to appear lower than actual. The output voltage
resulting in the cranking time limit being exceeded. If the pre-
should be 1.5 to 2.0 Vac.
heat relay fails in the closed position, the air heater will remain
energized.
NOTE: If the voltage is slightly off, the voltage
may be increased by turning the sensor in more. Start Relay
The voltage may be lowered by turning the sen- The start relay is energized by the controller after proper pre-
sor out more. heat time has occurred. When this relay energizes, the starter
solenoid receives power and the engine cranks. If the start
4. Reconnect FS1 and FS2 wires on flywheel sensor. relay fails in the open position, the engine would not crank. If
the relay failed in the closed position, the starter would contin-
If the flywheel sensor passes the above test, the sensor may be ue to crank after the unit started.
considered good. If a unit is not available, an alternate but less
reliable test may be performed as follows: Run Relay
1. Disconnect the sensor from all wires. The run relay supplies power to the fuel solenoid. If the run
2. Measure the resistance across the terminals. The resis- relay fails in the closed position, the unit would operate contin-
tance should be 250 to 300 ohms across the terminals. uously and not stop for a protection shutdown. If the relay
3. Measure the resistance from each terminal to the alu- fails in the open position, the fuel solenoid would not stay in.
minum case. There should be no continuity from each
terminal to the case.

Buzzer
The buzzer module on the circuit board is sounds off when the
air heater relay is energized for preheat and starting.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


6 Engine Maintenance

Oil Filter Change


Engine Lubrication System
The oil filter should be changed when you change engine oil.
The TK 486 diesel engine has a pressure lubrication system.
Oil is circulated by a trochoid type oil pump driven by the Spin-on Filter:
crankshaft timing gear. The pumping capacity of the trochoid 1. Remove the filter.
type pump is several times greater than the capacity required 2. Apply oil to rubber ring of new filter and install filter.
by the engine. Oil is picked up through a suction tube with a 3. Tighten the filter by hand until the rubber ring makes con-
screened inlet. tact. Then tighten 1/2 turn more.
4. Start the unit and check for leaks.
Engine Oil Change
NOTE: Do not use a tool to tighten the filter.
The engine oil should be changed according to the Service
Guide in the Introduction of this manual or the Maintenance
Inspection Schedule on the unit. Drain the oil only when the
engine is hot to ensure that all the oil drains out. When chang- Crankcase Breather
ing oil, keep the unit and trailer level so all the oil can flow
from the oil pan. The crankcase breather includes a baffle, screen and cover
located in the rocker arm cover. The crankcase pressure
1. Drain out as much of the oil as possible. Most of the dirt should be between 0 and 50 mm (0 to 2 in.) H2O. Inspect the
particles are found in the last few quarts of oil that drain breather assembly and hose during scheduled maintenance
out. inspections to make sure they are not plugged or damaged.
2. Refill the pan with oil and check the dipstick level.
• TK 486 Engine: Add 12.3 liters (13 qt.) of oil.

NOTE: See Specifications chapter for unit oil


capacity and correct type of oil to use.

3. Operate the unit. Then recheck the oil level. Add oil as
necessary to reach the full mark.

Crankcase Breather System


1. Air Heater
2. Intake Manifold
3. Restrictor in Breather Hose
4. Crankcase Breather

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


6-2 Engine Air Cleaner Engine Maintenance

Engine Air Cleaner Engine Cooling System


A heavy duty oil bath air cleaner filters all of the air entering The engine uses a closed, circulating type, pressurized cooling
the engine. Excessive restriction of the air intake system system. Correct engine temperatures are controlled and main-
reduces the flow of air to the engine. This in turn affects tained by a radiator, fan and thermostat. The coolant is circu-
horsepower output, fuel consumption and engine life. lated through the system by a belt-driven centrifugal pump.
The speed that dirt and foreign particles accumulate at the The pump draws the coolant from the side of the radiator, cir-
bottom of the air cleaner sump determines the frequency of culates it through the cylinder block and head, then back to the
cleaning. radiator. A thermostat mounted in the water outlet from the
1. Remove the reservoir under the filter. cylinder head to the radiator automatically maintains coolant
2. Remove the dirty oil and sludge. Remove air cleaner temperature within the specified temperature range.
body and clean in a parts washer. All water-cooled engines are shipped from the factory
3. Refill the reservoir to the oil level mark with clean engine with a 50% permanent type antifreeze concentrate and 50%
oil, but DO NOT OVERFILL. Use the same weight oil water mixture in the engine cooling system. Benefits include:
used in the engine crankcase. 1. Prevents freezing down to -34 C (-30 F).
2. Retards rust and mineral scale that can cause the engine to
overheat.
3. Retards corrosion (acid) that can an attack accumulator
tank, water tubes, radiator and engine block plug.
4. Provides lubrication for the water pump seal.

Antifreeze Maintenance Procedure


Regular inspection is required to verify the condition of the
antifreeze. The inhibitors in Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
antifreeze (red color) extend change intervals to 5 years or
12,000 hours. A decal tag on the coolant expansion tank will
identify units with ELC antifreeze.
ELC coolants are available in 100% full strength concen-
trate or (pre-mixed) 50/50% mixture. Thermo King recom-
mends the use of 50/50% pre-mixed ELC antifreeze to assure
that de-ionized water is used. 100% concentrate extended life
coolant must be mixed with de-ionized or distilled water (NOT
tap water) to ensure cooling system integrity.

NOTE: See Specifications chapter for coolant capac-


ity and correct type of antifreeze for your unit.

CAUTION: There are several important rules:


• Extended Life Coolant (ELC) is RED in color while
conventional coolant is GREEN or BLUE-GREEN.
• Do NOT add “RED” coolant to cooling systems
using “GREEN” or “BLUE-GREEN” coolant.
• Do NOT add “GREEN” or “BLUE-GREEN” coolant
to cooling systems using “RED” coolant.

When changing antifreeze, drain, flush and replace the


total antifreeze mixture to maintain total cooling system pro-
tection. To prevent mineral scale, use water with a total hard-
Air Cleaner System ness under 170 ppm. If the total water hardness is over 170
ppm, soften the water or use distilled water. The water must
1. Air Cleaner also be de-mineralized, de-ionized or distilled if it does not
2. Air Cleaner Hose meet the following requirements: chlorides concentration
3. Air Intake Adapter under 40 ppm, sulfates concentration under 100 ppm and total
4. Oil Cup Clamp dissolved solids under 340 ppm.
5. Oil Cup

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Engine Maintenance Engine Cooling System 6-3

The factory recommends the use of a 50/50 antifreeze/water Changing the Antifreeze
mixture in all units even if they are not exposed to freezing tem-
peratures. This antifreeze mixture will provide the required cor- WARNING: Avoid direct contact with hot coolant.
rosion protection and lubrication for the water pump.
1. Operate the engine until it is up to operating temperature.
Checking the Antifreeze Then stop the unit.
Check the solution concentration by using a temperature com- 2. Open the engine block drain and completely drain coolant.
pensated antifreeze hydrometer or a refractometer designed for Observe coolant color. If the coolant is dirty, proceed
testing antifreeze. A refractometer works with both ELC and with a, b, and c. Otherwise go to step 3.
conventional antifreeze. Maintain a minimum of 50 percent a. Pour clear water into radiator and allow it to drain out
permanent type antifreeze concentrate and 50 percent water of the block until it is clear.
solution to provide protection to -34 C (-30 F). Do not mix b. Close the block drain and install a commercially
antifreeze stronger than 68 percent permanent type coolant con- available radiator and block flushing agent. Operate
centrate and 32 percent water for use in extreme temperatures. the unit in accordance with instructions of the flush-
ing agent manufacturer.
c. Open the engine block drain to drain water and flush-
ing solution.

Engine Cooling System


1. Water Pump 12. Overflow Tank
2. Water Temperature Sensor
3. Engine Thermostat Housing
4. Engine Thermostat
5. Vent Hose
6. Radiator Cap
7. Expansion Tank
8. Vent Fitting for Bleeding Air from Radiator (recently built models)
9. Water Level Sensor
10. Radiator
11. Drain Cock, Radiator
SGCO 2000-151, July 2001
6-4 Engine Cooling System Engine Maintenance

3. Pour clear water into the radiator. Allow it to drain out of Bleeding Air from the Cooling System
the block until it is clear.
4. Inspect all the hoses for deterioration and the hose clamps A jiggle pin thermostat prevents air from being trapped in the
for tightness. Replace if necessary. engine block. This should make it unnecessary to bleed the air
5. Loosen the water pump belt. Check the water pump bear- out of the engine. Normally approximately 8.5 liters (9 quarts)
ing for looseness and retighten the belt (see “Belt Tension of coolant will drain from the cooling system. If only 4 liters
Adjustment and Replacement” on page 6-13). (4 quarts) of coolant seem to fill the cooling system after it has
6. Inspect the radiator cap. Replace the cap if the gasket been drained, air has been trapped in the block. Bleed the air
shows any signs of deterioration. out of the block using the following procedure:
7. Prepare 8 liters (2 gallons) of 50/50% antifreeze/water
mixture. Do not add antifreeze and then water to the unit. CAUTION: IF YOU SUSPECT THAT AIR IS TRAPPED
This procedure may not give a true 50/50 mixture because IN THE BLOCK, DO NOT START THE ENGINE WITH-
the exact cooling system capacity may not be known. OUT BLEEDING THE AIR OUT OF THE BLOCK.

NOTE: Thermo King recommends the use of NOTE: If an engine operates with air trapped in the
50/50% pre-mixed ELC antifreeze to assure that block, the engine may be damaged. The high water
de-ionized water is used. 100% concentrate temperature switch may not protect an engine that
extended life coolant must be mixed with de-ion- has air trapped in the block.
ized or distilled water (NOT tap water) to ensure
cooling system integrity. 1. Before pouring coolant into the cooling system, loosen the
plug on the back of the water pump. Recently built units
8. Close all drains. On recently built units, also open vent fit- also include a special vent fitting on the top of the inlet
ting on top of the inlet header on the radiator. Refill the header on the radiator. Also open this fitting to bleed air
radiator with the 50/50 antifreeze mixture. Make sure all air from the radiator.
is bled from the cooling system. 2. Slowly pour coolant into the system until coolant comes
out of the bypass hose (or plug) fitting.
NOTE: Make certain all air is purged from the 3. Tighten the plug on the water pump.
cooling system. Recently built units include a 4. Pour coolant into the system until it appears to be full.
special vent fitting on the top of the inlet header 5. Make sure that the amount of coolant that goes back into
on the radiator. Open this fitting to bleed air the system is approximately equal to the amount of
from the cooling system when refilling the radia- coolant that was drained from the system.
tor with coolant. 6. Start and operate the unit for a minute. Then stop the unit.
7. Check the coolant level and add coolant if necessary.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until the coolant level stabilizes.
9. Close the vent fitting on the top of the inlet header on the
radiator (recently built units only).

Engine Thermostat
For best engine operation, always use a 82.0 C (180 F) ther-
mostat.

Engine Thermostat
1. Jiggle Pin
2. Install This End Toward Engine
SGCO 2000-151, July 2001
Engine Maintenance Engine Fuel System 6-5

The TK 486 diesel engine uses an in-line injection pump.


Engine Fuel System The injection pump camshaft is driven at one end by the
engine timing gears. The cam lobes actuate the plungers, forc-
The components of a typical fuel system include:
ing fuel through the injection nozzles. A governor assembly is
1. Fuel tank
connected to the other end of the injection pump camshaft.
2. Fuel strainer (inlet to transfer pump)
The governor meters the amount of fuel delivered to the injec-
3. Fuel filter
tion nozzles by controlling the position of the plungers.
4. Water separator
Injection pump leakage, injection nozzle overflow and
5. Hand fuel pump
excess fuel from the fuel filter assembly return to the fuel tank
6. Transfer pump
through the return lines.
7. Injection pump
8. Injection nozzles
Maintenance
The hand fuel pump is used to manually draw fuel from The fuel system is relatively trouble-free and if correctly main-
the tank up to the transfer pump if the unit should run out of tained will usually not require major service repairs between
fuel. engine overhauls.
The transfer pump draws fuel from the fuel tank through a Contamination is the most common cause of fuel system
fuel inlet strainer at the inlet to the transfer pump. The transfer problems. Therefore, to ensure best operating results, the fuel
pump then delivers fuel through the fuel heater (option) to the must be clean and fuel tanks must be free of contaminants.
water separator and fuel filter. Filtered fuel passes through a The single element fuel filter/water separator must be changed
line from the outlet fitting on the filter base to the injection according to the Service Guide in the Introduction of this man-
pump. ual or the Maintenance Inspection Schedule on the unit.

Fuel System
1. Fuel Return Line 7. Fuel strainer
2. Fuel Supply Line to Injection Pump 8. Hand Pump
3. Fuel Bleed Screw 9. Fuel Supply Line
4. Injection Pump 10. Electric Fuel Heater
5. Fuel Supply Line to Fuel Filter 11. Fuel Filter/Water Separator
6. Transfer Pump 12. Fuel Return Line

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


6-6 Engine Fuel System Engine Maintenance

NOTE: The injection nozzles should be tested every 4. Loosen the injection lines at the injection nozzles.
10,000 hours when only clean fuel is used and the 5. Crank the engine until fuel appears at the nozzles.
fuel system is maintained according to the 6. Tighten the injection lines.
Maintenance Inspection Schedule. Refer to the TK 7. Start the engine and observe engine operation for a few
482 and TK 486 Engine Overhaul Manual for injection minutes. If the engine fails to start, or starts but stops in a
nozzle testing and repair. few minutes, repeat the procedure.

Whenever the fuel system is opened, take the following Water in the Fuel System
precautions to prevent dirt from entering the system:
Water in the fuel system can damage the injection pump and
• Cap all fuel lines.
nozzles. This damage will subsequently cause more expensive
• Work in a relatively clean area whenever possible.
damage to the engine. A large accumulation of water in the
• Complete the work in the shortest possible time.
bottom of the fuel tank will stop a diesel engine. Water should
Any major injection pump or nozzle repairs should be
be drained off during scheduled maintenance inspections. Let
done by a quality diesel injection service shop. The necessary
the tank set idle for an hour before removing the drain plug
service equipment and facilities are not found in most engine
from fuel tank. Let water and fuel drain into a container until
rebuild shops because of the large investment required.
only fuel is draining from tank. Replace drain plug. DO NOT
The following procedures can be done under field condi-
steam clean fuel tank caps.
tions:
• Bleeding air from the fuel system
NOTE: Some fuel tanks have a check valve in the
• Fuel tank and filter system maintenance
drain plug fitting. Push the check valve open with a
• Prime pump (hand) replacement or repair*
small screw driver to drain water and fuel.
• Transfer pump replacement or repair*
• Injection line replacement*
• Pump and governor adjustments*
• Pump timing
Single Element Fuel Filter/Water Separator
• Nozzle spray pattern testing and adjustment*
Replacement
• Minor rebuilding of nozzles* A single element fuel filter/water separator removes contami-
nates and water from the fuel. Two orifices in the filter head
*These procedures are covered in the TK 482 and TK 486 control the pressure in the fuel system by allowing a certain
Overhaul Manual, TK 50136. amount of fuel to return to the tank. One orifice is located in
the center of the filter head bleeds off water and returns it to
the fuel tank. The other orifice is located off-center on the fil-
Bleeding the Fuel System ter head and bleeds off air.
The fuel system must have the air bled out if the fuel tank 1. Unscrew the filter using a strap wrench. Drain filter and
becomes empty, if repairs are made to the fuel system, or if air properly dispose of fuel and filter.
gets into the system for any other reason. 2. Fill the new filter with clean fuel through one of the small
openings in the top of the filter body. Do not use the cen-
NOTE: Keep the fuel tank vent open. If the vent ter hole to add fuel to the filter or unfiltered fuel may
becomes clogged, a partial vacuum develops in the reach the injection pump. Filling the filter with fuel
tank. This increases the tendency for air to enter the purges air from the filter.
system. 3. Clean the filter head seal surface. Lubricate filter seal
with clean fuel.
1. Loosen the bleed screw at the injection pump about one 4. Install and tighten the filter until it is hand-tight. Then
turn. tighten 1/4 turn more using a strap wrench.
2. Unscrew the hand pump handle and manually prime the
fuel system until air bubbles are no longer visible in the
fuel coming out of the bleed screw.
3. Tighten the bleed screw and screw the hand pump handle
back in.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Engine Maintenance Engine Speed Adjustment 6-7

Engine Speed Adjustment Integral Fuel Solenoid


The fuel solenoid contains 2 coils: the pull-in coil, and the
NOTE: The speed of the engine should be checked hold-in coil. The pull-in coil draws approximately 35 to 45
with a hand tachometer, TK P/N 204-220, on the amperes at 12 volts. The hold-in coil draws approximately 1
crankshaft pulley bolt or by the use of a stroboscope ampere at 12 volts. The pull-in coil must be energized to
tachometer, TK P/N 204-436. move the injection pump governor linkage to the fuel on posi-
tion. Once the governor linkage is in the fuel on position, the
When the diesel engine fails to maintain the correct engine hold-in coil will keep the linkage in the fuel on position until
speed, check the following before adjusting the speed: the 8D circuit is de-energized. The pull-in coil must be de-
energized after a few seconds to keep it from being damaged.
1. Bleed the air out of the fuel system. Check the speed. A fuel solenoid timer printed circuit board contains the
2. Bleed the air out of the nozzles. Check the speed. timer and relay that control the pull-in coil in the fuel solenoid.
Refer to a parts manual for the correct printed circuit board for
Make the engine speed adjustments with the engine fully your unit.
warmed up.
DIagnosing the Integral Fuel Solenoid
Adjustment Procedure System
1. Start the unit and check the speed rpm. The engine speed
should be 1800 +/- 10 rpm at Full Load (60 Hz alternator NOTE: The fuel solenoid pull-in coil may require 35
output); 1890 +/- 10 rpm at No Load. to 45 amperes to pull the solenoid plunger in. The
2. Loosen the jam nut on the speed adjustment screw. unit’s battery must be in good condition. If the bat-
3. Adjust the screw to change engine rpm. tery has enough power to crank the engine over, it
4. When the speed is correct, tighten the jam nut. has enough power to energize the fuel solenoid pull-
in coil.

If you suspect that the engine does not operate because the fuel
solenoid is not operating correctly, use the following proce-
dure:
1. Disconnect wire 8S from the starter solenoid.

Integral Fuel Solenoid Harness Connections


1. Pin B: White (8DP) Wire
2. Pin A: Red (8D) Wire
3. Pin C: Black (CH) Wire
4. Fuel Solenoid and Connector
5. Main Wire Harness Connector and Pins:
Pin A = 8D
Engine Speed Adjustment
Pin B = 8DP
1. Fuel Solenoid Pin C = CH
2. Low Speed Adjustment Screw

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


6-8 Integral Fuel Solenoid Engine Maintenance

2. Disconnect the fuel solenoid wire connector from the c. De-energize the hold-in coil by removing the jumper
main wire harness. from the 8D circuit and terminal 2. The fuel solenoid
3. Place the Unit On/Off switch in the ON position. should make a definite click when the hold-in coil is
4. Check the voltage on 8D circuit in the main wire harness de-energized.
connector for the fuel solenoid. Refer to the illustration d. If the hold-in coil does not function properly, check
on page 6-7 or the unit wiring diagram to identify the pins the resistance of the hold-in coil by placing an ohm-
in the wire harness and fuel solenoid connectors. meter between the 8D circuit and the CH circuit in
a. If battery voltage is not present on the 8D circuit, the connector to the fuel solenoid. The resistance of
check the 8D circuit and related components for a the hold-in coil should be 24 to 29 ohms. If the resis-
fault. tance of the hold-in coil is not in this range, replace
b. If battery voltage is present on the 8D circuit, go to the fuel solenoid.
step 5. e. If the hold-in coil does function properly, go to step
5. Check CH circuit in the main wire harness at the fuel sole- 9.
noid connector for continuity to a good chassis ground. 9. Reconnect the main wire harness connector to the fuel
a. If there is no continuity between CH circuit and a solenoid connector.
good chassis ground, check the CH wire for an open 10. Remove the fuel solenoid relay from its socket and make
circuit. sure the unit On-Off switch is in the ON position.
b. If there is continuity between CH circuit and a good 11. Check the voltage on the 8D circuit at terminal 85 in the
chassis ground, go to step 6. fuel solenoid relay socket. Refer to the illustration below
6. Place a jumper wire between the CH circuit in the connec- to identify the terminals in the relay socket.
tor on the fuel solenoid and a good chassis ground. a. If battery voltage is not present on the 8D circuit,
7. Test the pull-in coil by momentarily placing a jumper check the 8D circuit and related components for a
between the 8DP circuit pin in the connector on the fuel fault.
solenoid and terminal 2 at the fuse link. The fuel solenoid b. If battery voltage is present on the 8D circuit, go to
should make a definite click when the pull-in coil is ener- step 12.
gized and should click again when the pull-in coil is de- 12. Check the voltage on the 2A or 2B circuit at terminal 30
energized. in the fuel solenoid relay socket.
a. If battery voltage is not present on the 2A or 2B cir-
NOTE: The pull-in coil may draw 35 to 45 cuit, check circuit 2A or 2B for an open or a short.
amperes so do not leave the jumper connected b. If battery voltage is present on circuit 2A or 2B, go to
to pin 8DP for more than a few seconds. step 13.

a. If the pull-in coil does not energize, check the resis-


tance of the pull-in coil by placing an ohmmeter
between 8DP circuit and the CH circuit in the connec-
tor on the fuel solenoid. The resistance of the pull-in
coil should be 0.2 to 0.3 ohms. If the resistance of the
pull-in coil is not in this range, replace the fuel sole-
noid.

NOTE: If the pull-in coil fails, make sure to


replace the fuel solenoid relay with the cor-
rect relay. Refer to unit parts manual.

b. If the pull-in coil does energize, go to step 8.


8. Test the hold-in coil.
a. Energize the hold-in coil by placing a jumper
between the 8D circuit in the connector to the fuel
solenoid and terminal 2 at the fuse link.
b. Momentarily energize the pull-in coil by placing a
jumper between the 8DP circuit in the connector to Relay Socket Terminal Identification — Integral Fuel
the fuel solenoid and terminal 2 at the fuse link. The Solenoid
fuel solenoid should make a definite click when the
pull-in coil is energized, but should not click when 1. 87 Terminal/8DP Wire
the pull-in coil is de-energized. 2. 85 Terminal/8D Wire
3. 86 Terminal/8DC Wire
4. 30 Terminal/2A or 2B Wire

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Engine Maintenance Injection Pump Service 6-9

13. Test the relay.


a. Use a jumper to connect the 85 terminal on the relay Injection Pump Service and Timing
to terminal 2 at the fuse link.
b. Use another jumper to connect the 86 terminal on the
NOTE: The procedure outlined will assume the
relay to a CH circuit.
pump is being removed and replaced on the engine.
c. If the relay does not energize, it is defective. Replace
If the pump has not been removed, only the last por-
the relay.
tion of the procedure is used for timing.
d. If the fuel solenoid does energize, the timer is defec-
tive. Replace the fuel solenoid timer PC board.
14. Turn the unit OFF.
15. Connect wire 8S to the starter solenoid.
Injection Pump Removal
The injection pump drive gear will not fit through the gear
Fuel Solenoid Replacement housing when removing the pump. The gear must be separat-
ed from the pump using tool P/N 204-1011. When this tool is
1. Disconnect wire 8S from the starter solenoid.
used, it is not necessary to remove the water pump belt, fuel
2. Disconnect the fuel solenoid wire connector and remove
pump, crankshaft pulley, crankshaft seal or front plate.
the old fuel solenoid.
1. Remove the starter for clearance. Also remove the fuel
3. Connect the main harness connector to the new fuel sole-
lines, harness and mounting hardware from the injection
noid.
pump. Cover all injection lines and fuel lines with plastic
4. Place the Unit On/Off switch in the ON position to to
covers or tape. The smallest amount of dirt can damage
energize the fuel solenoid.
the fuel system.
NOTE: The fuel solenoid must be energized
when it is being installed. If it is not, the plunger
and the linkage may not line up correctly. Then
the fuel solenoid will not function properly.

5. Place the O-ring in the groove in the end of the fuel injec-
tion pump. Make sure that the O-ring is positioned cor-
rectly during installation to avoid damage and leaks.
6. Install the new fuel solenoid.
7. Turn the unit OFF.
8. Connect wire 8S to the starter solenoid.

Integral Fuel Solenoid Components Align Timing Marks


1. Integral Fuel Solenoid 1. Timing Mark Access Hole
2. O-ring 2. Number One Cylinder Injection Line
3. Fuel Injection Pump Groove 3. Number One Cylinder Delivery Valve Holder

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


6-10 Injection Pump Service Engine Maintenance

2. Remove the cover plate from the gear case. Remove the Injection Pump Installation
nut and lockwasher that secure the gear to the injection
pump shaft. Use a shop rag to prevent the lockwasher or 1. Rotate the injection pump shaft to align the key with the
nut from falling into the gear case. keyway in the gear. Then insert the injection pump shaft
3. Use the hardware from the cover plate to attach the tool into the gear.
plate (P/N 204-1011) to the gear case. Attach the plate 2. Fasten the injection pump to the gear case using the cor-
with the marked side pointing up and out away from the rect hardware.
case. 3. Remove the screws that hold the gear to the tool plate and
4. Align the threaded holes in the injection pump gear with remove the tool plate.
the two holes in the tool plate by rotating the engine 4. Fasten gear to injection pump shaft with a lockwasher and
crankshaft. Attach the gear to the tool plate with the nut. Use a shop rag to prevent the lockwasher or nut from
screws provided with the tool plate. falling into the gear case. Torque the nut to 60 to 68 N.m
5. Thread the long screw into the small end of the adapter (44 to 50 ft-lb).
(both parts are supplied with the tool plate). Insert the 5. Fasten the cover plate to the gear case. Install the fuel
adapter into the tool plate. Carefully align the screw over lines, harness and mounting hardware from the injection
the center of the injection pump shaft. Then rotate the pump. Also install the starter.
screw to force the injection pump shaft from the gear. 6. Check the injection pump timing.
6. Remove the screw and adapter, leaving the tool plate in
position. This holds the gear in the proper tooth align-
ment until the injection pump is re-installed.

Injection Pump Gear Tool (P/N 204-1011)


1. Injection Pump 5. Adapter (Tool)
2. Gear Case 6. Long Screw (Tool)
3. Cover Plate 7. Short Screw (Tool)
4. Cover Plate Bolt 8. Plate (Tool)

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Engine Maintenance Injection Pump Service 6-11

Injection Pump Timing d. If the rocker arms are tight, the engine is at top dead
center of the exhaust stroke for the number one cylin-
This timing procedure requires fuel pressure at the injection der. Rotate the engine 360 degrees to place the engine
pump inlet. This can be accomplished by pumping the priming at top dead center of the compression stroke for the
pump by hand, or by using an electric fuel pump to supply fuel number one cylinder.
to the fuel pump inlet. 6. Energize the fuel solenoid:
1. Place the Unit On/Off switch in the OFF position.
2. Remove the round cover (plug) from the timing mark WARNING: Disconnect the 8S wire from the
access hole on the front of the bell housing. The index starter solenoid to prevent the engine from
marks on either side of this hole and the timing marks on cranking. Otherwise, the µP-G controller may
the flywheel are used to check the injection pump timing. start the unit at any time when the unit On/Off
switch is ON.
WARNING: Loosen all of the injection lines at
the injection nozzles to prevent the possibility of a. Disconnect the 8S wire from the starter solenoid to
the engine firing while it is being rotated. prevent the controller from cranking the engine.
Then place the On-Off switch in the ON position.
3. Remove the injection line for the number one cylinder b. If the engine is not in the unit, use jumper wires to
from the injection nozzle and from the delivery valve on energize the fuel solenoid at the three pin fuel sole-
the injection pump. noid connector. Place a jumper between the black
wire (CH wire, pin C) and the negative terminal of a
NOTE: The number one cylinder is the cylinder at 12 Vdc power source. Place a jumper between the
the flywheel end of the engine. red wire (8D wire, pin A) and the positive terminal of
a 12 Vdc power source. Then momentarily place a
4. Remove the rocker arm cover. jumper between the white wire (8DP wire, pin B) and
5. Place the engine at top dead center of the compression the positive terminal of a 12 Vdc power source.
stroke for the number one cylinder.
a. Rotate the engine in the normal direction of rotation CAUTION: Do not leave the jumper on the white
(clockwise viewed from the water pump end) until wire (8DP wire, pin B) more than a few seconds
the 1-4 timing mark on the flywheel lines up with the or the fuel solenoid will be damaged.
index mark in the timing mark access hole.
b. Check the rocker arms on the number one cylinder to
see if they are loose.
c. If the rocker arms are loose, the engine is at top dead
center of the compression stroke for the number one
cylinder.

Timing Mark Alignment


1. Position Timing Mark in Bottom of Access Hole
2. Correct Timing Mark Alignment as Fuel Rises in
Top Dead Center Marks
Delivery Valve Holder
1. Index Mark 3. Injection Timing Mark
2. Top Dead Center Mark for Cylinders 1 and 4

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


6-12 Adjusting Engine Valve Clearance Engine Maintenance

7. Rotate the engine backwards (counterclockwise viewed WARNING: Loosen all of the injection lines at
from the water pump end) until the injection timing mark the injection nozzles to prevent the possibility of
is positioned in the bottom of the timing mark access hole. the engine firing while it is being rotated.
The injection timing mark is a horizontal line stamped on
the flywheel approximately 30 mm (1.2 in.) before the top 3. Place the engine at top dead center of the compression
dead center mark. stroke for the number one cylinder.
8. Pump the priming pump by hand a few times, or energize a. Rotate the engine in the normal direction of rotation
the electric fuel pump if an electric fuel is being used. (clockwise viewed from the water pump end). Rotate
9. Use a clean towel to remove the fuel from the top end of the engine until the 1-4 timing mark on the flywheel
the delivery valve holder. lines up with the index mark in access hole.
10. Slowly turn the engine in the normal direction of rotation b. Check the rocker arms on the number one cylinder.
until you see the fuel rise in the end of the delivery valve c. If the rocker arms are loose, the engine is at top dead
holder. Stop as soon as you see the fuel rise. center of the compression stroke for the number one
11. Check position of the timing marks. The injection timing cylinder.
mark on the flywheel should be aligned with the index d. If the rocker arms are tight, the engine is at top dead
mark on the side of the timing mark access hole. Repeat center of the exhaust stroke for the number one cylin-
steps 8 through 11 to recheck the timing. der. Rotate the engine 360 degrees to place the engine
12. If the timing is off by more than 1 degree (2.5 mm), at top dead center of the compression stroke for the
loosen the mounting nuts on the studs that fasten the injec- number one cylinder.
tion pump to the engine and rotate the injection pump to 4. Check the valve clearance of both valves for the number
change the timing. one cylinder with a feeler gauge. Also check the valve
a. Pull the top of the injection pump away from the clearance for the intake valve for the number two cylinder,
engine to advance the timing. and the exhaust valve for the number three cylinder. The
b. Push the top of the injection pump toward the engine clearance for both the intake and exhaust valves should be
to retard the timing. 0.15 to 0.25 mm (0.006 to 0.010 in.).
13. Tighten the injection pump mounting nuts and recheck the
timing. Repeat steps 8 through 12 until the timing is cor- NOTE: Check to make sure that the valve stem
rect. cap is in good condition and is positioned
14. Install the cover in the timing mark access hole, install the squarely on the top of the valve stem. Replace
injection line for the number one cylinder, install the rock- the valve stem cap if it shows significant wear.
er arm cover, tighten the other injection lines, and recon-
nect the 8S wire when finished with the procedure. 5. Loosen the lock nut and adjust the valves as required by
turning the adjustment screw.

Adjusting Engine Valve Clearance


Valve clearance should be checked as required. It is very
important that valves be adjusted to the correct specifications
for satisfactory engine operation. Insufficient valve clearance
will result in compression loss and misfiring of cylinders
resulting in burned valves and seats. Excessive valve clear-
ance will result in noisy valve operation and abnormal wear of
the valves and rocker arms. The intake and exhaust valves are
adjusted with the valve in the closed position.
1. Remove the rocker arm cover.
2. Remove the round cover (plug) from the timing mark
access hole on the front of the bell housing.

Timing Marks
1. Timing Mark
2. Top Dead Center Mark for Cylinders 1 and 4
3. Top Dead Center Mark for Cylinders 2 and 3

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Engine Maintenance Belt Tension Adjustment 6-13

6. Hold the adjustment screw while tightening the lock nut.


7. Recheck the valve clearance. Belt Tension Adjustment and Belt
8. Rotate the engine one full turn (360 degrees) to place the Replacement
engine at top dead center of the compression stroke for the
number four cylinder. Rotate the engine clockwise as
NOTE: Belt tension specifications are measured
viewed from the water pump end. Align the 1-4 timing
using Thermo King belt gauge tool, P/N 204-427.
mark on the flywheel with the index mark in the access
hole. This places the engine at top dead center of the
Belts should be regularly inspected during unit pre-trip for
compression stroke for the number four cylinder.
wear, scuffing or cracking and correct tension.
9. Check and adjust both valves for the number four cylin-
Correct belt tension is critical for correct unit operation.
der.
Belts that are too loose will slip, squeal or whip causing exces-
10. Place the engine at top dead center of the compression
sive vibration levels and poor unit performance. Belts that are
stroke for the number four cylinder. Also check the valve
too tight will put too much strain on the belt fibers and bear-
clearance for the intake valve for the number three cylin-
ings, causing premature belt and bearing failures. New belts
der, and the exhaust valve for the number two cylinder.
should be tensioned cold.
The clearance for both the intake and exhaust valves
should be 0.15 to 0.25 mm (0.006 to 0.010 in.).
NOTE: DO NOT attempt to remove or install belts
11. Replace the rocker arm cover and the timing mark access
without loosening adjustments. Belts that are
hole cover. Tighten the fuel injection lines when finished.
installed by prying will fail prematurely due to inter-
nal cord damage.

Valve Adjustments
Water Pump Fan Belt

Engine Water Pump Pulley (Items 1- 6):


Cylinder No. 1 2 3 4 1. Fixed Pulley Section
2. Spacer
Valve arrangement E I E I E I E I
3. Shims*
Piston in No. 1 cylinder is at O O O O 4. Sliding Pulley Section
TDC on compression stroke 5. Store Extra Shims Here*
Piston in No. 4 cylinder is at Θ Θ ΘΘ 6. Nut (4)
TDC on compression stroke 7. Belt
8. Crankshaft Pulley

Valve Adjustments and Cylinder Configurations * NOTE: The entire pulley assembly requires a minimum
of 4 shims for correct radiator fan alignment.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


6-14 Belt Tension Adjustment Engine Maintenance

WARNING: DO NOT jump belts on by cranking the


engine. Personal injury may result.

WARNING: DO NOT attempt to adjust belts with the


unit operating.

WARNING: With the unit On/Off switch in the ON


position, the unit may start operation at any time
without prior warning. Switch unit On/Off switch to
OFF position before performing maintenance or
repair procedures.

The water pump belt tension should read 15 to 35 on the belt


tension gauge.
1. Remove the nuts from the water pump pulley.
2. Remove the pulley sliding section and add or remove
shims to adjust the belt tension. If shims are removed to
tighten the belt, the shims that are removed must be
installed on the front of the pulley (see “Water Pump Fan
Belt” illustration on page 6-13).
3. Reinstall the belt on the pulley and replace the sliding pul-
ley section on the pulley.
4. Place any extra shims on the outside of the sliding pulley.

NOTE: The entire pulley assembly requires a


minimum of 4 shims for correct radiator fan
alignment.

5. Tighten the mounting nuts on the water pump pulley.


6. The belt tension should read 15-35 on the belt tension
gauge.

NOTE: When adjusting the belt tension using shims


and adjustable pulleys, the belt may still feel loose
when the belt tension gauge indicates the correct
tension. Allow 18 to 25 mm (0.75 to 1.0 inch) deflec-
tion with 3 to 4 kg ( 6 to 9 lb) of force.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


7 Alternator Operation
and Diagnosis
The residual voltage supplies initial excitation power to
General Description the AVR. The initial excitation power increases alternator out-
put until steady state output voltage is reached. The AVR
The 460/230 Vac alternator consists of three principal compo-
derives a sample voltage from the output windings for voltage
nents: the main alternator, the integral direct-connected
control purposes. In response to this sample voltage, the AVR
exciter, and an externally mounted excitation control system.
controls the power fed to the exciter field (FLD) and thereby
The main alternator may be subdivided into the 4-pole
the rotating main field. The AVR provides closed loop control
rotating main field and the alternator stator (ALT).
of the output voltage within the specified limits, compensating
The rotating main field, the rotating rectifier and the
for load, speed, temperature and power factor of the generator.
exciter armature are all mounted on a common shaft. Output
A frequency measuring circuit continually monitors the
of the exciter is rectified by the shaft mounted rotating bridge
generator output and provides output under speed protection of
rectifier to provide the rotating main field excitation.
the excitation system. AVR provides under-speed protection
The externally mounted excitation control system is ener-
by reducing the output voltage proportionally with speed below
gized from the alternator output through an automatic voltage
a preset threshold. This threshold, called the under frequency
regulator (AVR). Excitation power is derived from a separate
roll off point (UFRO), is factory set at 95%. The UFRO adjust-
2-lead stator winding. Positive voltage build up from residual
ment is factory sealed to prevent field adjustment.
levels is provided through the semiconductor power circuitry
A solid-state battery charger is also tapped into the alter-
of the AVR. The exciter field contains a permanent magnet to
nator stator leads. The battery charger converts the alternator
maintain a residual voltage level.
output voltage to 14 Vdc. The voltage regulator RED lead is
connected to the 2 circuit.

460/230 Vac Alternator Component Function

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


7-2 Alternator Function Alternator Operation and Diagnosis

Overload Shutdown
Alternator Function
Overload shutdown is provided by the Field Amps Conversion
Module. If an overload condition becomes more than tempo-
Starting Excitation rary, the increase in exciter field current due to the overload
The initial excitation for the alternator is supplied by a perma- causes the AVR to increase field current to the Field Amps
nent magnet in the exciter field and residual magnetism in the Conversion Module. This module converts the field current to
main field. Residual main stator voltage provides initial exci- an analog voltage that is sent to the microprocessor controller.
tation power to the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) from a When an overload occurs, the controller de-energizes the fuel
separate 2-lead stator winding. The generator set controller solenoid to stop the engine.
energizes Field Relay A 15 seconds after the engine starts. If the Generator set Controller shuts down unit operation,
Energizing the Field Relay A connects K1 and K2 on the AVR it indicates one of the following:
to start current flow from the AVR to wire F1. Wire F1 sends 1. There is a malfunction in the load causing the load to fail
the current through the exciter field to build voltage in the sta- to start or to draw single phase current.
tor windings. The exciter field current then returns through 2. The engine speed or power is low due to improper speed
wire F2 to the Field Amps Conversion Module where the cir- adjustment, fuel supply problems or other mechanical
cuit is completed to chassis ground. The Field Amps conditions while the generator is supplying motor starting
Conversion Module is on the µP-G relay board. current to the load.
3. Internal component failure in the AVR, resulting in exces-
sive field current. This includes possible malfunction of
Running Excitation and Control protective elements in the excitation control.
When the alternator output reaches the rated voltage, excita- 4. Failure in the alternator rotating elements (exciter arma-
tion is provided by the alternator excitation winding. The ture, rotating diode assemblies or main field) can cause
magnetic field that was formed in the exciter field winding by the regulator to supply excessive exciter field current.
the AVR induces voltage in the exciter rotating winding. This 5. Engine shutdown on low engine oil level, low oil pressure
voltage is changed from three-phase ac to dc by the rotating or high water temperature.
rectifier. The dc current is transferred to the rotating main
field winding. The rotating main field now becomes magne-
tized.
The magnetic field formed in the rotating main field wind-
ing induces a voltage in the alternator stator windings. This
voltage is sent out of the alternator stator leads to the power
plug and load. 460 Vac, 3-phase output can be measured at
the power plug.
In addition to being powered from the stator excitation
winding, the AVR monitors the stator output for voltage con-
trol purposes. The AVR controls the power fed to the exciter
field, and therefore, the main field, to maintain the alternator
output voltage within specified limits.

Overload
For temporary overloads (such as refrigeration unit start up),
the AVR controls the power fed to the exciter field to maintain
the alternator output voltage.
Over voltages caused by open circuit sensing terminals are
avoided by loss detection sensing circuitry that reduces the
alternator terminal voltage to a safe fixed level.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Alternator Operation and Diagnosis Alternator Diagnosis 7-3

Test Instruments
Alternator Diagnosis
If the preceding checks did not uncover the cause of the mal-
function, more extensive diagnostic procedures will be
Preliminary Checks required. The following tests will require various electrical test
instruments. The technician performing the tests should have a
WARNING: Extreme care must be used when work- good working knowledge of their basic electrical principles.
ing with an operating generator set. Lethal voltage The tests are intended to determine whether the source of
potentials exist inside the control box, at terminals difficulty lies in the generator itself or in the excitation control
on the AVR and at the power receptacle. system. Following the procedures carefully will, in most
cases, avoid unnecessary dismantling and reassembly of the
Before attempting more specific diagnosis procedures, check generator when easily corrected problems may exist in the
the following items to ensure a superficial problem is not over- external circuitry.
looked. The test instruments required include:
• AC-DC voltmeter 2.5 V to 500 V ranges (+/- 2% max. error).
NOTE: Further diagnosis is a waste of time until • AC induction ammeter (amprobe).
these items are checked, since a problem in one of • DC ammeter (preferably induction type TK P/N 204-449).
these areas will influence test results. • Ohmmeter.
• Megohmmeter (Megger®). A megohmmeter is essentially a
1. If the generator fails to provide voltage output to the plug, high-range resistance meter (ohmmeter) with a built-in
perform a controller Pretrip Test. The controller must pass direct-current generator. This meter is constructed with both
the Pretrip test to verify the field relay circuit is operating current and voltage coils-enabling true ohms to be read
correctly. Field Relay A (K1 to K2) circuit must be ener- directly and independently of the actual voltage applied. The
gized before the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) can meter gives you a direct reading of insulation resistance in
supply current to the exciter field of the alternator. “ohms” or “megohms” (1 megohm = 1,000,000 ohms). For
2. If the generator malfunction is accompanied by excessive good insulation, the resistance should read in the megohm
black exhaust smoke and engine lugging, double check all range.
possible engine problems such as fuel supply, injection Normally, good insulation has high resistance; poor insu-
timing, engine speed, restricted air cleaner, etc. lation, relatively low resistance. The actual resistance values
3. Disconnect the refrigeration unit from the generator and can be higher or lower, depending upon such factors as the
check the output voltage at the plug. Voltage between the temperature or moisture content of the insulation (resistance
three phases should be 450 to 470 Vac, depending on decreases with increase in temperature or moisture).
engine speed. All three phases should be within 1% of A popular megohmmeter used in the field today is the
each other. “Megger®” manufactured by:
If the voltages appear normal, make sure the refriger- AVO Biddle Instruments
ation unit is not at fault. Reconnect refrigeration unit and Bluebell, Pennsylvania 19422
run in Cool mode. Check the amperage draw with an Phone: (215) 646-9200
induction ammeter (amprobe), and compare it with the • Milli-ohmmeter.
refrigeration unit nameplate.
4. Stop the generator set. Check all push-in plugs on control
circuit for loose pins or sockets. Make sure all wire termi-
nals are tight.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


7-4 Alternator Diagnosis Alternator Operation and Diagnosis

Generator Diagnosis Procedure 3. Start the engine. Alternator output voltage should
rise to 470 to 550 Vac while the jumper wire is con-
nected to the F1 lead. If the voltage does not reach
WARNING: When servicing or repairing a generator
the 470 to 550 Vac, check for an internal alternator
set, the possibility of serious or even fatal injury
problem. See Alternator Tests on pages 7-10 to 7-11.
from electrical shock exists. Extreme care must be
4. Stop the engine and disconnect the jumper wire.
used when working with an operating generator set.
Connect F1 lead to X terminal of the AVR.
Lethal voltage potentials can exist at the unit power
5. Restart the engine to verify normal 460 Vac output.
cord, inside the exciter control box, inside any high
• If the Alternator output voltage returns to 0 to 100
voltage junction box and within the wiring harness-
Vac, repeat steps 1 through 5 to flash the exciter field
es.
again. Normal output AC voltage after field flashing
due to residual magnetism is 120 +/- 20 Vac. If the
Normal alternator output voltage is 460 +/- 10 VAC with
AC voltage output is less than 120 +/- 20 Vac,
engine rpm 1890 +/- 10 rpm and no load applied. If the gener-
replace the exciter field.
ator produces no or low voltage output at the plug, perform the
tests listed below to identify the component that may be caus-
NOTE: A new exciter field is not magnetized.
ing a generator malfunction.
Install the new exciter field and then follow the
Flash Exciter Field procedure to magnetize it.
• Symptom: Low Output Voltage—0 to 100 Vac
A. Flash Exciter Field (see illustration below).
• If the output voltage is now greater than 120 Vac
1. With the unit off, open the control box and disconnect
but less than 420 Vac, and all three output voltages
the F1 lead from the AVR.
are equal, go to step B on page 7-5.
2. Connect a jumper wire from the positive (+) post of
• If the output voltage is now greater than 120 Vac
the 12 Vdc battery to the F1 lead.
but less than 420 Vac, and unequal line to line volt-
ages, go to “Symptom: Unequal Line to Line
Voltage” on page 7-9.

Flashing the Exciter Field

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Alternator Operation and Diagnosis Alternator Diagnosis 7-5

B. Check AVR Excitation and Sense Voltage Inputs (see C. Check Exciter Field Circuit Resistance (see illustrations
illustration below). on pages 7-6 and 7-7). If the excitation and sense voltage
Both the Excitation voltage and Sense voltage should be are one-half the output voltage, but alternator output does
one half the generator output voltage with 460 VAC alter- not reach 460 +/- 10 VAC, check the resistance of the
nator connections. exciter field circuit.
1. With the engine running, measure the voltage on the 1. With the engine stopped, disconnect the F1 wire from
excitation winding, Q1 to Q2 at AVR terminals P2 to AVR terminal X and the CH wire from AVR terminal
P3. XX.
2. Also measure the sense voltage on the T7 to T8 wires 2. Measure the field wire resistance across wires F1 to
at AVR terminals 2 to 3. CH. The resistance should be 13.9 +/- 10% Ohms at
3. With 120 to 420 Vac output voltage, the excitation 25 C (77 F) field temperature. If the alternator has
voltage and sense voltage should each be one-half of been operated recently, the resistance could be
the output voltage due to the permanent magnet in approximately one ohm higher.
exciter field and residual magnetism in the main field. • If the resistance is correct, go to step D on page 7-8.
4. If AVR excitation voltage or sense voltage is outside • If the resistance is incorrect, measure the resistance
the value in step 3 above, disconnect the wires from from F1 to F2 at controller relay board connector
the AVR and recheck the voltage across the wire plug CN1. The resistance should still be 13.9 +/-
leads. 10% Ohms at 25 C (77 F) field temperature.
• If the excitation voltage and sense voltage remain - If the resistance is still incorrect, replace the alter-
outside the above readings, check for an alternator nator exciter field.
problem. See Alternator Tests on pages 7-10 to 7-11. - If the resistance is now correct, check the F2 cir-
• If the measured voltage recovers to one-half of the cuit from the controller relay board to CH for a
output voltage, the AVR input may be shorted. Go problem. Resistance should be 0 ohms to indicate
to Step E on page 7-9. a good circuit.

Measuring the Excitation and Sense Voltage Inputs to AVR

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


7-6 Alternator Diagnosis Alternator Operation and Diagnosis

Check Exciter Field Circuit Resistance: F1 to CH

Check Exciter Field Circuit Resistance: F1 to F2

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Alternator Operation and Diagnosis Alternator Diagnosis 7-7

Check Exciter Field Circuit Resistance: F2 to CH

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


7-8 Alternator Diagnosis Alternator Operation and Diagnosis

D. Check Field Relay A Circuit (see illustration below). 6. Start the engine and repeat the exciter field output
AVR terminals K1 to K2 must be connected together thru current test in step 3 above.
the Field Relay A (FRA) contacts 30 and 87 before the • If there is now no current output from AVR terminal
AVR will start voltage output across exciter field wires F1 X to the F1 lead, check for a defective Field Relay
and CH. A (FRA) or K1 to K2 circuit.
1. Insulate the ammeter connections in the following • If there is measurable field current but the field cur-
procedure to prevent shock hazard. With the engine rent is low and the output voltage is low, or the field
stopped, connect a 10 amp DC ammeter in series with current is high and the output voltage is high; go to
AVR terminal X and the field lead F1 (normally con- “Setting the Volts and Stability Controls on the
nected to AVR terminal X). AVR” on page 7-12.
2. Disconnect the K1 and K2 wires from AVR terminals • If there is measurable field current but the field cur-
K1 and K2. Connect a jumper wire between termi- rent is high and the output voltage is low, check for
nals K1 and K2. low engine rpm. Adjust engine to 1890 +/- 10 rpm
3. Start the engine and check the exciter field output and then go to “Setting the Volts and Stability
current on the ammeter. Exciter circuit current draw Controls on the AVR” on page 7-12.
should be 0.5 to 0.60 amps at no load or 1.0 to 1.5 • If there is measurable field current but the field cur-
amps at full load with 460 Vac output and with rent is low and the output voltage is high, check for
engine rpm at 1890 +/- 10 rpm. high engine rpm. Adjust engine to 1890 +/- 10 rpm
4. Stop the engine. If there was no current output from and then go to “Setting the Volts and Stability
AVR terminal X to F1 lead, go to step E on page 7-9. Controls on the AVR” on page 7-12.
Otherwise go to the next step.
5. Remove the jumper from the K1 to K2 terminals. NOTE: Correct engine rpm provides 60 Hertz
Reconnect the K1 and K2 wires to AVR terminals K1 output with 15 KW electrical load connected
and K2. to the generator set.

Checking Field Relay A Circuit K1 to K2

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Alternator Operation and Diagnosis 7-9

7. If adjusting the voltage and stability controls on the • Symptom: Poor Motor Starting Performance
AVR (page 7-12) does not result in correct output of 1. Check for poor engine performance or low engine rpm.
460 Vac with the correct field excitation current, go 2. Check the motor starting exciter field current draw. The
to step E. ammeter connections for this check are the same as the
E. Replace the AVR. If the alternator output voltage contin- ammeter connections for the “Checking Field Relay A
ues to be incorrect with correct excitation voltage, correct Circuit K1 to K2” illustration below but do not remove
sense voltage, correct exciter field resistance, correct con- wires K1 and K2.
nection across AVR terminals K1 to K2, and 1890 +/- 10 a. With the unit off, open the control box and disconnect
rpm at no load; stop the engine and replace the AVR. the F1 lead from the AVR.
F. If step E does not correct the voltage output and excitation b. Insulate the ammeter connections in the following
current readings, reinstall the original AVR in the control procedure to prevent shock hazard. With the engine
box and check for an alternator problem. Go to Alternator stopped, connect a 10 amp DC ammeter in series with
Tests on pages 7-10 to 7-11. AVR terminal X and the field lead F1 (normally con-
nected to AVR terminal X).
• Symptom: Low Output Voltage—100 to 440 Vac; c. Start the engine and check the exciter field output
Equal Line to Line Voltage current from the AVR terminal X. Exciter circuit
Follow alternator check procedures in paragraphs B through F current draw should reach 6 amps. If the current
on page 7-5 to 7-9. draw is less than 5 amps, stop the engine. Follow
alternator check procedures in paragraphs B through
• Symptom: Unequal Line to Line Voltage F on pages 7-5 to 7-9.
Verify the unequal line to line voltage condition with no load 3. If the engine performance is correct and the motor starting
applied to the alternator. If the unequal voltage condition is performance is poor, check the exciter armature diodes for
present with no load applied, check the alternator lead connec- an open or short. See “Alternator Test C: Rotating
tions against the unit wiring diagram. If the connections are Rectifier” on page 7-10.
correct, check for an internal alternator fault with the stator
windings.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


7-10 Alternator Diagnosis Alternator Operation and Diagnosis

Alternator Tests Alternator Test C: Rotating Rectifier (See Illustration


The Alternator Test includes testing the main alternator-stator, Below)
rotating main field, rotating rectifier, rotating exciter and Six rectifying diodes are mounted on the rotating rectifier.
exciter field. All tests must be made with reliable equipment. Three are positive and three are negative. When testing
• Standard ohmmeter can be used to check winding continuity. diodes, use the diode test on a digital multimeter.
• Milliohmmeter must be used to check winding resistance of 1. Unbolt each of the diode leads.
the main stator windings.
• Megohmmeter must be used to check for insulation break- NOTE: The diodes must be disconnected for
down. testing, or false test readings may occur.

Alternator Test A: Main Alternator Stator Windings 2. Disconnect main alternator field leads which connect to
(See Illustration Below) exciter diode heat sinks.
Disconnect all 12 stator leads to test the stator windings. 3. Check the forward voltage drop of each diode. Forward
1. Disconnect the stator leads from the excitation control voltage drop should be 0.5 to 0.7 V. Forward voltage drop
package. Check for continuity between the following pairs: on all diodes should be equal.
T1-T4, T2-T5, T3-T6, T7-T10, T8-T11, T9-T12. Using a 4. Check reverse continuity of each diode. Meter display
milliohmmeter, the resistance between any of the above should show open circuit (OL) on reverse continuity
pairs should be 0.1236 to 0.1366 ohms at 77 F (25 C). check.
2. Using a megohmmeter, check for insulation breakdown
between each pair of leads. Insulation resistance should be
greater than a 1megohm.
3. Remove the stator end bell for the remaining alternator
tests.

Alternator Test B: Excitation Stator Winding (See


Illustration Below)
1. Disconnect the Q1 and Q2 stator leads to test the excita-
tion stator winding for continuity. The resistance of the
excitation winding should be 2.28 to 2.52 ohms at 77 F
(25 C).
2. Using a megohmmeter, check for insulation breakdown
between each pair of leads. Insulation resistance should be
greater than a 1megohm.
3. Remove the stator end bell for the remaining alternator
tests.

Alternator Test C: Rotating Rectifier Diodes


A. Disconnect the main alternator field lead to test the
Alternator Tests A and B: Alternator Stator Windings
diodes.
A. Disconnect all 14 stator leads to test the stator. B. Test each diode separately using the diode test on a
Check the continuity, resistance and insulation of digital multimeter.
each set of leads.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Alternator Operation and Diagnosis Alternator Diagnosis 7-11

Alternator Test D: Rotating Exciter (See Illustration Alternator Test F: Exciter Field (See Illustrations on
Below) Pages 7-6 and 7-7)
All rectifier leads must remain disconnected from previous Refer to the results from the Exciter Field Circuit Test or
tests. check the resistance of the exciter field again. Also check the
1. Check the resistance between the following combinations exciter field for a short to ground.
of leads: (CR6-CR4), (CR3-CR1), (CR3-CR2), (CR6- 1. Disconnect the field wires F1 and F2 from the control box
CR5), (CR5-CR4) and (CR2-CR1). The resistance should circuitry.
be 0.580 to 0.710 ohms at 77 F (25 C) for each lead com- 2. Measure the resistance of the field circuit (F1 to chassis
bination. ground). The resistance should be 13.9 (+/- 10%) ohms at
2. Using a megohmmeter, check for insulation breakdown 77 F (25 C).
between each pair of leads and the rotor case. 3. Using a megohmmeter, check for insulation breakdown
between the exciter field and the stator or ground.
Alternator Test E: Main Alternator Field (See
Illustration Below) NOTE: A new exciter field is not magnetized. If
1. Measure the resistance of the main alternator field. The you install a new exciter field, follow the proce-
resistance should be 2.475 to 3.025 ohms at 77 F (25 C). dure, “A. Flash Exciter Field” on page 7-4 to
2. Using a megohmmeter, check for insulation breakdown magnetize it.
between the main field and the rotor or ground.

Alternator Test D: Rotating Exciter Armature Alternator Test E: Main Alternator Field
Resistance of each lead combination should be 0.580 to Resistance of the main field should be 2.475 to 3.025
0.710 ohms at 25 C (77 F). ohms at 25 C (77 F).

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


7-12 AVR Replacement and Adjustment Alternator Operation and Diagnosis

Setting the Frequency Selection and Optimum


AVR Replacement and Adjustment Response Selection on a Replacement AVR
The generator output voltage is set at the factory, but can be
altered by careful adjustment of the Volts control on the AVR NOTE: Set the Frequency and Optimum Response
board. If the generator set voltage output is unstable, a separate selections before installing the AVR board in the
Stability control includes a damping circuit to provide good control box.
steady state and transient performance of the generator.
The Volts and Stability controls must be reset when an The Frequency Selection determines the frequency of the alter-
AVR Test has been performed on a good AVR or when a nator output. Set the “jumper” selector lead for 60 Hz by con-
replacement AVR is installed. When a replacement AVR is necting the jumper between the C and 60 terminals on the
installed in the generator set, the Frequency Selection and AVR board.
Optimum Response Selection must also be set to match the The Optimum Response Selection matches the AVR to
generator set. the size of the alternator. Set the “jumper” selector lead
between the C and A terminals on the AVR board.

Setting the Volts and Stability Controls on the AVR

WARNING: Do not increase the voltage above the


rated generator voltage. If in doubt, refer to the rat-
ing plate mounted on generator case.

1. Before running generator, turn VOLTS control fully anti-


clockwise.
2. Turn the STABILITY control to midway position.
3. Connect a suitable voltmeter (O-600 Vac) across the line
output of the generator.
4. Start generator set, and run on no load at nominal frequen-
cy (60-63Hz).

NOTE: If the red Light Emitting Diode (LED) is


illuminated, the Under Frequency Roll Off (UFRO)
adjustment circuit is operating. The UFRO
adjustment is preset and sealed at the factory.
Make sure the Frequency Selection jumper link is
set to 60 Hz and engine speed is 1890 +/- 10 rpm
at no load.

5. Carefully turn VOLTS control clockwise until 460 Vac is


reached.
6. Voltage and stability adjustment is now complete.

NOTE: The DROOP and TRIM controls on the AVR


board are not used on this generator set.

AVR Board
1. Stability Selection: Jumper must be set between A
and C terminals.
2. Stability Control: Adjust to prevent voltage hunting.
3. Frequency Selection: Jumper must be set between C
and 60 terminals.
4. Do not adjust. UFRO under speed control is preset at
95% and sealed at the factory.
5. Voltage Control: Adjust to set alternator output volt-
age.
6. Droop Control: Not used.
7. Trim Control: Not used.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Alternator Operation and Diagnosis Maintenance Procedures 7-13

Generator Housing
Maintenance Procedures Feel the alternator housing cautiously for abnormally high
The following paragraphs cover detailed maintenance proce- temperatures as determined by previous experience with the
dures, including disassembly and assembly of equipment for unit. If the generator is overheated, check the winding temper-
necessary component removal and replacement. Many repair ature with thermometer, locate the cause such as lack of venti-
or replacement operations can be performed without extensive lation, overload, etc., and correct the condition or shut down
disassembly of the generator. See “Alternator Assembly” the generator. Inspect the generator housing for obstruction of
illustration on page 7-14. air passages.

WARNING: DO NOT attempt adjustments or Generator Bearing


changes in wiring while a unit is in operation. The The alternator is fitted with a permanently lubricated, sealed
unit generates sufficient voltage to cause severe and bearing that requires no maintenance in normal service.
possible fatal shock. Use extreme caution when
operating in wet or damp locations. Impeller Fan (Blower)
Visually inspect the impeller fan to confirm that no vanes are
General Inspection missing and that the fan is not encrusted with dirt or other for-
Inspect the entire unit to see that controls are in order and that eign matter to the point where it will not function properly.
there are no loose nuts, bolts, electrical connections or fittings.
Inspect for secure engine to generator mountings. Remove Coupling
any waste material from area around the unit. Check battery Disc type coupling. Inspect to see that coupling bolts are tight
connections. and that the generator is solidly secured to the engine.

Insulation
Inspect insulation on wires, coils and control components. See
that insulation is not frayed, broken or deteriorated. Replace
wire having damaged insulation.

Field Coils, Stator Windings


Visually inspect the field coils and stator windings, their leads
and connections to determine if they are electrically and
mechanically satisfactory. Look for any evidence of overheat-
ing, burned or frayed insulation, loose connections, foreign
matter, etc.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


7-14 Maintenance Procedures Alternator Operation and Diagnosis

Alternator Assembly
1. Rotor Assembly
2. Disc, Rotor Drive
3. Impeller Fan (Blower), Generator
4. Rotor (Includes items 1, 2, 3 and 5 through 12)
5. Key
6. Spacer, Bearing
7. Bearing/Seal, Rotor
8. Exciter Assembly, Rotor
9. Rectifier, Positive Assembly
10. Rectifier, Negative Assembly
11. Nut, Rectifier Assembly
12. Screw, Mounting Rectifier
13. Screw, Mounting Bearing
14. Stator and End Bell Assembly
15. Stator, Wound
16. Exciter, Field
17. Bell, End
18. Stud, Bell
19. Cover, End Bell
20. Screw, Mounting End Bell Cover
21. Gasket, End Bell Cover
22. O-ring
23. Screw, Retainer
24. Retainer, Exciter
25. Rotor
SGCO 2000-151, July 2001
8 Structural/Accessory
Maintenance

Unit Inspection Radiator Coil


Inspect the unit during unit pre-trip inspection and scheduled Clean the radiator during scheduled maintenance intervals by
maintenance intervals for loose or broken wires or hardware, blowing compressed air from the outside of the coil in toward
and other physical damage which might affect unit perfor- the condenser fan (the direction opposite the normal air flow).
mance and require repair or replacement of parts. Inspect the coil and fins for damage and repair if necessary.

NOTE: See Service Guide in the Introduction of this CAUTION: Air pressure should not be high enough
manual for correct service interval for your unit. 250 to damage coil fins.
or 500 hour inspection/service intervals are required
in extreme operating conditions.

Radiator Fan Location


The radiator fan and hub assembly mounts on the water pump
Mounting Bolts
pulley. When installed, the fan blade should be in the orifice
Check and tighten all engine and control box mounting bolts with 65 to 70 percent of the blade width to the air discharge
during scheduled maintenance intervals. Unit mounting hard- side for proper fan performance.
ware should be inspected for tightness during every pre-trip.

Mounting Bolt Torque


Lower Mounting Bolts 203 N.m (150 ft-lb)
TK 486 Engine 203 N.m (150 ft-lb)
Control Box 20 to 27 N.m (15 to 20 ft-lb)
Power Cord Receptacle 20 to 27 N.m (15 to 20 ft-lb)

Radiator Fan Blade Placement


1. Radiator Coil Orifice
2. Airflow Direction
3. 65 to 70% of Fan Blade Depth to Air Discharge Side
of Orifice

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


8-2 Clip-on Header Pin Unit Installation Structural/Accessory Maintenance

3. Install two lower mounting bolts:


Clip-on Header Pin Unit Installation a. Open the retainer door covering each mounting bolt
hole.
1. Lift the unit into mounting position on front wall of the
b. Remove the mounting bolt from the bolt holder tube
container. Both header pins of generator set mounting
and install the bolt in the mounting hole.
channel should fit into mounting holes on top of the con-
c. Tighten each lower mounting bolt to 203 N.m (150 ft-
tainer.
lb).
d. Close and latch the retainer door over each mounting
CAUTION: Take adequate precautions when lift-
bolt to prevent accidental loosening or loss of the
ing and mounting the generator set to prevent
mounting bolt during unit operation.
personal injury or unit damage.

2. Check to be sure the generator set frame fits tightly


against the container.

CAUTION: Excessive vibration or unit malfunc-


tion can occur if mounting clamps are not prop-
erly secured. The generator set MUST be tight
against the container.

Clip-on Header Pin Mounting Installation


1. Header Pin
2. Mounting Bolt Retainer Assembly
3. Mounting Bolt
4. Retainer Door with Latch
5. Bolt Holder Tube

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


A B+45-#%4-*,:%-<#"(%(

NOTE: This diagnosis guide applies to units equipped with TK 486 engines. For major repair of TK 486
engines, refer to Overhaul Manual, TK 50136.

!"#$%&%"# '"((%)*+,!-.(+ /+0+$1

2#%&,(3%&45,678,9!: Corroded battery cable connections Clean and tighten


)-4;*%<5&,$"+(,#"&
4"0+,"# Batteries discharged Charge or replace batteries

Fuse link open (blown) Check for short circuit and replace
fuse link

Defective On/Off switch Check switch

Open circuit Check 2, 2A and 8 circuits

2#%&,(3%&45,67,=4"#&>"**+>, Batteries discharged Charge or replace battery


9!:,)-4;*%<5&,%(,67?,).&
+#<%#+,$"+(,#"&,4>-#; Corroded battery connections Clean and tighten

Defective starter relay or open circuit Replace relay; check 8 and 52 circuits

Defective starter solenoid Replace solenoid

Defective starter Repair starter

Water in cylinders Check for hydrostatic lock. Remove


injectors and turn engine slowly

@&->&+>,0"&">,&.>#(,).& Starter clutch defective Replace


+#<%#+,$"+(,#"&,4>-#;

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


ACD Mechanical Diagnosis

!67:EFE67 '6@@EG9H,!I2@H /HBH:J

H#<%#+,4>-#;(,).&,K-%*( Fuel solenoid not energized Check 8D, 8DP circuits and fuel relay.
&",(&->& Check the Engine Select screen in the
Guard submenu of the controller: YanEn
must be set to yES. See “Guard Menu” in
the Microprocessor Controller chapter of
this manual

Fuel solenoid valve defective Replace


or stuck

No fuel or wrong fuel Fill with proper fuel

Air cleaner clogged Clean and refill oil reservoir on oil bath air
cleaner

Exhaust plugged Clear exhaust system

Air heater defective Replace defective air heater

Air in fuel system Bleed air

Fuel pump defective Replace pump

Incorrect timing Adjust timing

Injection nozzles defective Repair or replace nozzles

Injection pump defective Replace pump

Compression low Overhaul engine

H#<%#+,(&"L(,-K&+>,(&->&%#< Alarm symbol in controller display Check alarm code and repair fault (see
“Alarm Codes Descriptions and Corrective
Actions” in Electrical Maintenance chapter)

Vent of fuel tank obstructed Unclog vent

Fuel filter obstructed Replace filter element

Clogged fuel tank or fuel lines Clean fuel tank and fuel lines

Air in injection pump Bleed fuel system

Fuse link open (blown) Check for short circuit and replace
fuse link

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Mechanical Diagnosis ACM

!67:EFE67 '6@@EG9H,!I2@H /HBH:J

H#<%#+,$"+(,#"&,$+N+*"L Air cleaner or intake Clean air intake system; clean and refill oil
K.**,L"3+> system clogged reservoir on oil bath air cleaner

Fuel tank vent clogged Unclog vent

Clogged fuel tank or fuel lines Clean fuel tank and fuel lines

Speed adjustment wrong Adjust speed

Insufficient fuel volume leaving Check for dirty filter or air in system
filter(s)

Injection pump timing off Adjust timing

Nozzles defective Repair or replace nozzles

Delivery of fuel pump insufficient Repair pump

Worn injection pump plungers, Repair or replace pump


delivery valve defective, injection
rate too low, gum formations

Compression low or unbalanced Overhaul engine

H#<%#+,;#"4;(,5+-N%*1 Wrong fuel Change fuel

Air in system Bleed fuel system

Fuel return line plugged Remove return line restriction

Injection nozzles fouled or Clean, repair or replace injection


opening pressure too low nozzles

Valve out of adjustment Adjust valves

Delivery valve spring broken Replace spring or repair injection pump

Injection pump not timed Retime injection pump

Compression too low Overhaul engine

Rod or main bearing worn Replace rod or main bearings

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


ACO Mechanical Diagnosis

!67:EFE67 '6@@EG9H,!I2@H /HBH:J

H#<%#+,(L++$,&"",5%<5 Mis-adjusted speed screw Adjust speed screw

Control rod sticks Repair injection pump

H#<%#+,K-%*(,&",(&"L,35+# Fuel solenoid defective Replace solenoid


.#%&,%(,6KK
Injection pump defective Replace pump

H#<%#+,>.#(,5"& Coolant level is low Add coolant

Loose or worn water pump belt Replace belt

Generator overloaded Check load

Dirty radiator Wash radiator

Defective thermostat Check or replace thermostat

Cooling system heavily scaled Clean cooling system

Cylinder head gasket leaks Replace cylinder head gasket.


Use correct gasket

6%*,L>+((.>+,&"",*"3,">, Insufficient oil in pan Add oil


$>"L(,(.$$+#*1P,B%#%0.0
"%*,L>+((.>+,K">,-,5"& Defective oil pressure sensor Check oil line to oil pressure sensor to
+#<%#+,%(,QQR,;'-S see if it is blocked. Check oil pressure
QPQR,)->S,QR,L(%,=*"3,"%* sensor. Replace if necessary
L>+((.>+,(3%&45,(+&&%#<?
Oil relief valve sticking Disassemble and clean oil pressure
regulator valve

Worn oil pump, camshaft, main Repair engine


or connecting rod bearings,
loose oil gallery plug

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Mechanical Diagnosis ACT

!67:EFE67 '6@@EG9H,!I2@H /HBH:J

U%<5,"%*,4"#(.0L&%"# Oil leakage Check and eliminate possible causes


at cylinder head cover, oil lines, oil filter,
front timing cover or crankshaft seals

Clogged air cleaner system Clean air intake system; clean and refill oil
reservoir on oil bath air cleaner

Clogged crankcase breather Clean breather system

Damaged valve seals Replace seals on valve stem

Worn valve stem Replace valves

Poor compression Check and eliminate possible causes.


Repair as necessary

Broken piston rings or cylinder Have engine repaired and rebored.


bore worn or scored Replace broken piston rings

G-&&+>1,%(,#"&,>+45-><%#< Loose connections in electrical Check all electrical connections and


">,%(,"N+>45-><%#< system charging system

Battery defective Replace battery

Battery charger wire harness Replace wire harness


defective

Air heater does not shut off Check preheat relay and preheat circuit

Battery charger defective Replace battery charger

V5%&+,@0";+, Cold engine Allow engine to warm up


=K.+*,%(,#"&,).>#%#<?
Air or water in fuel Bleed system. Replace filters, clean
fuel system, drain and clean tank and
check supply tank for water. Use known
good fuel

Insufficient preheat Check air heater

Low compression Check and eliminate possible causes.


Repair as necessary

Timing incorrect Readjust timing

Injection pump defective Replace or repair pump

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


ACW Mechanical Diagnosis

!67:EFE67 '6@@EG9H,!I2@H /HBH:J

G*.+,@0";+ Excessive oil consumption Refer to High Oil Consumption. Repair


="%*,4"#(.0L&%"#? as necessary

G*-4;,@0";+ Cold engine Allow engine to warm up


=+X4+((%N+,K.+*,&",-%>,>-&%"?
Y,H#<%#+,%(,(""&%#<,5+-N%*1S Wrong fuel Drain and refill with correct fuel
+0%&(,&5%4;,)*-4;,4*".$(
"K,(0";+ Clogged air intake system Clean or replace air cleaner

Restricted exhaust system Clean or replace

Oil being drawn in Check oil level in oil bath air filter

Excessive load Check drive system and engine oil


pressure

Injection pump not timed Check timing of injection pump

Opening pressure of nozzle is Repair nozzle. Replace if necessary


too low or needle sticks

Injection amount too great Have pump repaired

Poor compression Check and eliminate possible causes.


Repair as necessary

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


10 Electrical and µP-G
Menu Flow Diagrams

Electrical and µP-G Menu Flow Diagrams 10-1


SGCO 2000-151 Wiring Diagram 10-3
SGCO 2000-151 Wiring Schematic 10-4
µP-G Menu Flow Diagram 10-5

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


10-2 Electrical and µP-G Menu Flow Diagrams

This page intentionally left blank.

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Electrical and µP-G Menu Flow Diagrams SGCO 2000-151 Wiring Diagram 10-3

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Electrical and µP-G Menu Flow Diagrams SGCO 2000-151 Wiring Schematic 10-4

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001


Standard Display

Keypad Operating Tips

Text Input:
• To enter a number: Press the UP or DOWN key to
increase or decrease the value of a digit in the display.
Pause Mode Displays
To Enter a Controller Menu or Submenu:
— dELAY / AC1 • Press ALARM key to directly enter the Alarms menu.
— PAUSE / run2 • Press ENTER key to view the Software Version display.
• Press SELECT key to directly enter the Main Menu; or a
submenu from the Main Menu.
• Press and hold SELECT key down for 3 seconds to return
Software Display
directly to the Standard Display.
— Version “XX.XX / rEu”
To Enter a Command or a New Value in a Screen:
• Press ENTER key.
Electrical and µP-G Menu Flow Diagrams

Alarms Menu To Scroll in a Menu:


• Top display shows the number • Press UP key to scroll up.
of alarms stored in memory • Press DOWN key to scroll down.
(e.g. “AL 3”). To Lock a View Screen on the Display:
• Bottom display shows a 2 digit • Press ENTER key to increase the display time of the cur-
MAIN MENU code for the most recent rent screen to 15 minutes. Press any key to unlock/exit
alarm. screen.
• View and write down all alarm
— nEnU / l- - -l codes.

• Press key to view addi-


tional alarm codes.
• After the last alarm code (AL
1) has been viewed and
View Menu recorded, the top display flash-
— vIEU es “ENTER”.
— XX / HZ (Output Frequency) • Press key to clear all
— XXX / Ent (Engine Temp.) alarm codes from the current
— XX / OiL (Oil Pressure) display memory.
— XXXX / rPn (Engine Speed) • Correct all problems before
— XX.X / bAt (Battery Volts) returning the unit to service.
— XXXX / rHr (Run Hours)

Pretrip Menu
— PtrIP
• The display flashes “EntEr / PrE”.

• Press key to to start an auto-


matic Pretrip test.
• Display shows “LOAd / PrE”.
Test Menu • Display then shows the current
— tESt test. Pretrip tests include:
— tESt / l- - -l Controller Test Submenu
— CntrL / tSt - Display “88888 / 888”
— CntrL / l- - -l - Oil Level Switch “OLS / PrE”
— AL / O “l” (Alarm Light Test) - Oil Press. Sensor “OPS / PrE”
— OL / O “l” (On Light Test) - Oil Press. Switch “LOP / PrE”
— PHr / O “l” (Preheat Relay Test) Press to start test. - Coolant Level “CLS / PrE”
— rr / O “l” (Run Relay Test) Display shows: (TEST) / “O” l. - Water Temp. Sensor “UtS / PrE”
— Sr / O “l” (Start Relay Test) - RPM Sensor “FUS / PrE”
— Fr / O “l” (Field Relay Test) Press again to stop test. - Preheat Relay “PHr / PrE”
- Run Relay “rr / PrE”
- Start Relay “Sr / PrE”
- Field Relay “Fr / PrE”
Guard Menu - Oil Press. Sensor “OPS / PrE”
— GUArd - Oil Press. Switch “LOP / PrE”
— 0 0 0 0 / GUA - RPM Sensor “rPN / PrE”
Enter access code 7. Guard Submenu - Output Voltage “AC / PrE”
• When test is complete, display
Press to scroll cursor to — GUArd / l- - -l shows test result: “PASS”, “FAIL”
next digit to right. — XXXXX / rHr (Run Hours) or CHECK”.
Press or to select — XXXXX / Ht1 (HM 1 Threshold)
— XXXXX / Hn1 (HM 1 Hours) • If “FAIL” or “CHECK” appear,
number.
— XXXXX / Ht2 (HM 2 Threshold) press the key to view and
Press to enter access Press to enter load
— XXXXX / Hn2 (HM 2 Hours) correct any alarms that occur.
code. Display shows value display. Top display
— XXXXX / EOH (Engine Off Hours)
GUArd / l- - -l. flashes value to be • If “PASS” appears, press the
— XXXXX / rSl (Restarts after
changed. key to return to the Main Menu
Powerup)
— XXXXX / rSt (Unit Restarts) Press or to select
— LOPrS / n0 (Low Oil Press. Restart) new number.
— dLYSt / YES1 (Delayed Cold Start)
— YAnEn / YES3 (Engine Select) Press to load new
— nUrEG / YES4 (Regulator Select) number.
— XXXXX / CAL (Voltmeter Calib.)

Press to enter load


value display.

Press or to select
new value.
Press to load new value.
Program Menu
— PrGrn
— PrGrn / l- - -l
— F (or C) / dEG(Temperature Units)
— PSI (or bArS or kPA) / OlL (Pressure Units) Footnotes:
Press to enter load
1When Delayed Cold Start is set to yES, controller shows “dELAy /
value display.
AC” screen and alternator output remains off until engine tempera-
ture increases to 32 C (90 F).
Top display flashes unit 2”PAUSE / run” screen indicates controller has stopped unit opera-
to be changed. tion due to a shutdown alarm. Controller restarts unit if alarm con-
dition is corrected.
µP-G Menu Flow Diagram

Press or to 3The Engine Select screen MUST be set to “yES” on units equipped
select new value. with a TK 486 (Yanmar) engine. Set this screen to “nO” on units
equipped with a di 2.2 or se 2.2 engine. Default setting is “nO” on
Press to load new
version 0100 software and “yES” on version 0200 software.
value. 4The Regualtor Select screen MUST be set to “yES” on units
equipped with a Newage regulator. Set this screen to “nO” on
units equipped with a Thermo King excitor. Default setting is “nO”.
10-5

SGCO 2000-151, July 2001