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Skeletal System

Skeleton- serves as the framework of your body.


Two main groups of bones:
1. Axial skeleton- it is composed of bones that protect some delicate organs of the body.
- consists of the skull, backbone, breastbone and ribs.
2. Appendicular skeleton- it consists of bones that provide support and together with muscle, make
movement possible.
- consists of the collar bones, shoulder bones, and bones of the arms, hips and legs.
The bones of the body:
*Axial skeleton
1. Skull- it may look like one big bone, but actually it is composed of 29 bones.
- 8 bones form a helmetlike case called cranium that protects the brain.
- 14 facial bones, 6 tiny ear bones and a bone at the back of the tongue.
2. Backbone or spine- it is attached to the base of the skull.
- It consists of 26 irregularly- shaped bones called vertebrae.
3. Breastbone or sternum- it is found at the middle of the chest and is attached to the cagelike flat,
curved bones called ribs.
- There are 12 pairs of ribs, 10 pairs are attached to the breastbone while 2 pairs are not
(called floating ribs)
*Appendicular skeleton
1. Collar bones/ clavicles- are bones that run sidewise just below your neck.
2. Shoulder blades/ scapulae- are flat, triangular bones at the upper part of your back.
3. Humerus- the upper arm bone
4. Ulna & Radius- forearm bones
*Each hand has a total of 27 bones from the wrist, palm and fingers.
5. Hip bone- attached to the backbone and joined together by cartilages at the front, it forms a ring
called pelvis.
6. Thigh bone/femur- bone in the upper leg.
7. Tibia & Fibula- bones in the lower leg.
8. Knee cap/ patella- it is found between the upper and lower leg.
* Each foot also has several bones, a total of 26 bones.
The structure of a bone:
1. Periosteum- a thin membrane that covers the surface of the bone.
2. Compact bone
3. Spongy bone
4. Bone marrow- where red and white blood cells are produced.

* Collagen- a protein that makes the bone tough.


* Joint- it is where the two bones meet.
Kinds of joints
1. Fixed joint- they do not allow any movement.
- the fixed joints in the skull/ cranium are called sutures.
2. Gliding joints- joints between vertebrae that allow these bones to do limited twisting, turning, or
sliding.
3. Pivot joints- allow limited movements.
- they are found at the part where a bone of the head meets the neck bone.
4. Hinge joints- joints in our fingers.
5. Ball-and-socket joints- allow us to move our arms and legs sideward, backward, forward and
around.
* Tendons- connect muscles to bones.
* Ligament- connects one bone to another.
* Cartilage- acts as a cushion between two bones.
* Synovial fluid- it lubricates the joint which enables the bones to move smoothly.
Diseases of bones
1. Rickets- it weakens and softens the bones due to vitamin D deficiency lack of exposure to
sunlight.
2. Osteoporosis- is a condition of thinning and weakening of the bones due to lack of calcium and
phosphorous.
3. Arthritis- is an inflammation of the joint that usually affects the elderly people.
4. Scoliosis- refers to an abnormal curvature of the spine or backbone.