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Chapter 6 - Section A - Mathcad Solutions

6.7 At constant temperature Eqs. (6.25) and (6.26) can be written:

dS = E ˜ V˜ dP and dH = 1  E ˜ T ˜ V˜ dP
For an estimate, assume properties independent
of pressure.
T  270˜ K P1  381˜ kPa P2  1200˜ kPa
3
3 m 3 1
V  1.551˜ 10 ˜ E  2.095˜ 10 ˜K
kg

'S  E ˜ V˜ P2  P1 'H  1  E ˜ T ˜ V˜ P2  P1
J J
'S 2.661 Ans. 'H 551.7 Ans.
kg˜ K kg

J
6.8 Isobutane: Tc  408.1˜ K Zc  0.282 CP  2.78˜
gm˜ K
P1  4000˜ kPa
3
gm cm
P2  2000˜ kPa molwt 58.123˜ Vc  262.7˜
mol mol
Eq. (3.63) for volume of a saturated liquid may be used for the volume of a
compressed liquid if the effect of pressure on liquid volume is neglected.
§¨ 359 · §¨ 0.88 ·
T
T  ¨ 360 ¸ ˜ K Tr  Tr ¨ 0.882 ¸
Tc
¨ 361 ¨ 0.885
© ¹ © ¹
(The elements are denoted by subscripts 1, 2, & 3
 o
ª ª 2º º
« « »» §¨ 131.604 · 3
« ¬ 1Tr 7¼ » cm
V  ¬ Vc˜ Zc ¼ V ¨ 132.138 ¸
¨ 132.683 mol
© ¹
Assume that changes in T and V are negligible during throtling. Then Eq.
(6.8) is integrated to yield:

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'H = T˜ 'S  V˜ 'P but 'H = 0 Then at 360 K,

V1˜ P2  P1 J
'S  'S 0.733 Ans.
T1 mol˜ K

We use the additional values of T and V to estimate the volume expansivity:


3
cm
'V  V3  V1 'V 1.079 'T  T3  T1 'T 2K
mol

1 'V 3 1
E ˜ E 4.098835 u 10 K
V1 'T
Assuming properties independent of pressure,
Eq. (6.29) may be integrated to give
'T 3
'S = CP˜E  ˜'
V˜ P 'P  P2  P1 'P 2 u 10 kPa
T

Whence 'T 
T1
˜
'S  E ˜'V1˜ P
'T 0.768 K Ans.
CP molwt

6.9 T  298.15˜ K P1  1˜ bar P2  1500˜ bar


3
6 1 6 1 cm
E  250˜ 10 ˜K N  45˜ 10 ˜ bar V1  1003˜
kg
3
cm
By Eq. (3.5), V2  V1˜ exp ª¬N ˜ P2  P1 º¼ V2 937.574
kg
V1  V2 3
cm
Vave  Vave 970.287 By Eqs. (6.28) & (6.29),
2 kg

'H  Vave ˜ 1  E ˜ T ˜ P2  P1 'U  'H  P2˜ V2  P1˜ V1


kJ kJ
'H 134.6 Ans. 'U 5.93 Ans.
kg kg

'S  E ˜ Vave ˜ P2  P1 Q  T˜ 'S Work  'U  Q

kJ kJ kJ
'S 0.03636 Ans. Q 10.84 Ans. Work 4.91 Ans.
kg˜ K kg kg

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6.10 For a constant-volume change, by Eq. (3.5),

E ˜N T2  T1  ˜ P2  P1 = 0 T1  298.15˜ K T2  323.15˜ K

5 1 5 1 P1  1˜ bar
E  36.2˜ 10 ˜K N  4.42˜ 10 ˜ bar

E ˜ T2  T1
P2   P1 P2 205.75 bar Ans.
N

6.14 --- 6.16 Vectors containing T, P, Tc, Pc, and Z for Parts (a) through (n):

§ 300 · § 40 · § 308.3 · § 61.39 · § .187 ·


¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
¨ 175 ¸ ¨ 75 ¸ ¨ 150.9 ¸ ¨ 48.98 ¸ ¨ .000 ¸
¨ 575 ¸ ¨ 30 ¸ ¨ 562.2 ¸ ¨ 48.98 ¸ ¨ .210 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 500 ¸ ¨ 50 ¸ ¨ 425.1 ¸ ¨ 37.96 ¸ ¨ .200 ¸
¨ 325 ¸ ¨ 60 ¸ ¨ 304.2 ¸ ¨ 73.83 ¸ ¨ .224 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 175 ¸ ¨ 60 ¸ ¨ 132.9 ¸ ¨ 34.99 ¸ ¨ .048 ¸
¨ 575 ¸ ¨ 35 ¸ ¨ 556.4 ¸ ¨ 45.60 ¸ ¨ .193 ¸
T ¨ ¸˜K P  ¨ ¸ bar Tc  ¨ ¸ ˜ K Pc  ¨ ¸ bar Z ¨ ¸
650
¨ ¸ ¨ 50 ¸ ¨ 553.6 ¸ ¨ 40.73 ¸ ¨ .210 ¸
¨ 300 ¸ ¨ 35 ¸ ¨ 282.3 ¸ ¨ 50.40 ¸ ¨ .087 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 400 ¸ ¨ 70 ¸ ¨ 373.5 ¸ ¨ 89.63 ¸ ¨ .094 ¸
¨ 150 ¸ ¨ 50 ¸ ¨ 126.2 ¸ ¨ 34.00 ¸ ¨ .038 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 575 ¸ ¨ 15 ¸ ¨ 568.7
¸ ¨ 24.90
¸ ¨ .400
¸
¨ 375 ¸ ¨ 25 ¸ ¨ 369.8 ¸ ¨ 42.48 ¸ ¨ .152 ¸
¨ 475 ¨ 75 ¨ 365.6 ¨ 46.65 ¨ .140
© ¹ © ¹ © ¹ © ¹ © ¹

o 
o
T P
Tr  Pr 
Tc Pc

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6.14 Redlich/Kwong equation: :  0.08664 <  0.42748

 o  o
§ Pr · Eq. (3.53) q  § < ·
E: ¨ ˜ Eq. (3.54)
¨
© Tr ¹ 1.5
© : ˜ Tr ¹
Guess: z 1
zE
Given z = 1  E  q˜ E ˜ Eq. (3.52)
z˜ z  E

Z E  q  Find()
z

§ Z E i  qi  E i ·
i  1  14 Ii  ln ¨ Eq. (6.65b)
© Z E i  qi ¹
HRi  R˜ Ti˜ ª¬ Z E i  qi  1  1.5˜ qi˜ Iiº¼ Eq. (6.67) The derivative in these

SRi  R˜ ln Z E i  qi  E i  0.5˜ qi˜ Ii Eq. (6.68) equations equals -0.5

HRi SRi
Z E i  qi J J
0.695 -2.302·103 -5.461
-2.068·103 mol -8.767 mol˜ K
0.605
0.772 -3.319·103 -4.026

0.685 -4.503·103 -6.542

0.729 -2.3·103 -5.024

0.75 -1.362·103 -5.648

0.709 -4.316·103 -5.346


Ans.
0.706 -5.381·103 -5.978

0.771 -1.764·103 -4.12

0.744 -2.659·103 -4.698

0.663 -1.488·103 -7.257

0.766 -3.39·103 -4.115

0.775 -2.122·103 -3.939

0.75 -3.623·103 -5.523

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6.15 Soave/Redlich/Kwong equation:

o
:  0.08664 <  0.42748 c 0.480  1.574˜ Z  0.176˜ Z 2

o  o  o

D  ª¬ 1  c˜ 1  Tr
0.5 º¼
2
§
E: ¨ ˜
Pr · Eq. (3.53) q  §
¨
<D˜ · Eq. (3.54)
© Tr ¹ © : ˜ Tr ¹
Guess: z 1
zE
Given z = 1  E  q˜ E ˜ Eq. (3.52) Z E  q  Find()
z
z˜ z  E
0.5
§ Tri ·
The derivative in the following equations equals: ci˜ ¨
© Di ¹
§ Z E i  qi  E i ·
i  1  14 Ii  ln ¨ Eq. (6.65b)
© Z E i  q i ¹
ª ª § Tri · 0.5 º º
HRi  R˜ Ti˜ « Z E i  qi  1  «ci˜ ¨  1» ˜ qi˜ Ii » Eq. (6.67)
¬ ¬ © Di ¹ ¼ ¼
ª § Tri ·
0.5 º
SRi  R˜ « ln Z E i  qi  E i  ci˜ ¨ ˜ qi˜ Ii » Eq. (6.68)
¬ © Di ¹ ¼
HRi SRi
Z E i  qi J J
0.691 -2.595·103 -6.412
-2.099·103 mol -8.947 mol˜ K
0.606
0.774 -3.751·103 -4.795

0.722 -4.821·103 -7.408

0.741 -2.585·103 -5.974

0.768 -1.406·103 -6.02

0.715 -4.816·103 -6.246


-5.806·103 -6.849 Ans.
0.741
0.774 -1.857·103 -4.451

0.749 -2.807·103 -5.098

0.673 -1.527·103 -7.581

0.769 -4.244·103 -5.618

0.776 -2.323·103 -4.482

0.787 -3.776·103 -6.103

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6.16 Peng/Robinson equation: V  1  2 H  1 2

o
:  0.07779 <  0.45724 c 0.37464  1.54226˜ Z  0.26992˜ Z 2

o  o  o
D  ª¬ 1  c˜ 1  Tr
0.5 º
¼
2
E: §¨ ˜
Pr ·
Eq. (3.53) q  §¨
<D ˜ ·
Eq. (3.54)
© Tr ¹ © : ˜ Tr ¹
Guess: z 1
zE
Given z = 1  E  q˜ E ˜ Eq. (3.52) Z E  q  Find ( z)
z  HE˜ ˜ z  VE˜
0.5
§ Tri ·
The derivative in the following equations equals: ci˜ ¨
© Di ¹
1 § Z E i  qi  VE˜ i ·
i  1  14 Ii  ˜ ln ¨ Eq. (6.65b)
2˜ 2 © i i
Z E  q  HE
˜ i¹

ª ª § Tri · 0.5 º º
HRi  R˜ Ti˜ « Z E i  qi  1  «ci˜ ¨  1» ˜ qi˜ Ii » Eq. (6.67)
¬ ¬ © Di ¹ ¼ ¼
ª § Tri ·
0.5 º
SRi  R˜ « ln Z E i  qi  E i  ci˜ ¨ ˜ qi˜ Ii » Eq. (6.68)
¬ © Di ¹ ¼
Z E i  qi
HRi SRi
0.667 J J
-2.655·103 -6.41
0.572 -2.146·103 mol -8.846 mol˜ K
0.754 -3.861·103 -4.804
0.691 -4.985·103 -7.422
0.716 -2.665·103 -5.993
0.732 -1.468·103 -6.016
0.69 -4.95·103 -6.256
Ans.
0.71 -6.014·103 -6.872
0.752 -1.917·103 -4.452
0.725 -2.896·103 -5.099
0.64 -1.573·103 -7.539
0.748 -4.357·103 -5.631
0.756 -2.39·103 -4.484
0.753 -3.947·103 -6.126

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Lee/Kesler Correlation --- By linear interpolation in Tables E.1--E.12:
0 1
(HR) (HR) HR
h0 equals h1 equals h equals
RTc RTc RTc
0 1
(SR) (SR) SR
s0 equals s1 equals s equals
R R R

§ .686 · § .093 · § .950 · § 1.003 ·


¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
¨ .590 ¸ ¨ .155 ¸ ¨ 1.709 ¸ ¨ .471 ¸
¨ .774 ¸ ¨ .024 ¸ ¨ .705 ¸ ¨ .591 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ .675 ¸ ¨ .118 ¸ ¨ 1.319 ¸ ¨ .437 ¸
¨ .725 ¸ ¨ .008 ¸ ¨ .993 ¸ ¨ .635 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ .744 ¸ ¨ .165 ¸ ¨  1.265 ¸ ¨  .184 ¸
¨ .705 ¸ ¨ .019 ¸ ¨ .962 ¸ ¨ .751 ¸
Z0  ¨ ¸ Z1  ¨ ¸ h0  ¨ ¸ h1  ¨ ¸
¨ .699 ¸ ¨ .102 ¸ ¨  1.200 ¸ ¨  .444 ¸
¨ .770 ¸ ¨ .001 ¸ ¨ .770 ¸ ¨ .550 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ .742 ¸ ¨ .007 ¸ ¨ .875 ¸ ¨ .598 ¸
¨ .651 ¸ ¨ .144 ¸ ¨ 1.466 ¸ ¨ .405 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ .767 ¸ ¨ .034 ¸ ¨ .723 ¸ ¨ .631 ¸
¨ .776 ¸ ¨ .032 ¸ ¨ .701 ¸ ¨ .604 ¸
¨ .746 ¨ .154 ¨ 1.216 ¨ .211
© ¹ © ¹ © ¹ © ¹

 o  o o


Z Z0  Z ˜ Z1 Eq. (3.57) h h0  Z ˜ h1 (6.85) HR  (h˜ Tc˜ R)

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§ .711 · § .961 ·
¨ ¨
¨ 1.110 ¸ ¨ .492 ¸
¨ .497 ¸ ¨ .549 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨  .829 ¸ ¨  .443 ¸
¨ .631 ¸ ¨ .590 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨  .710 ¸ ¨  .276 ¸
¨ .674 ¸ ¨ .700 ¸ o  o
s0  ¨ ¸ s1  ¨ ¸ s  s0  Z ˜ s1 SR  ( s˜ R) Eq. (6.86)
¨  .750 ¸ ¨  .441 ¸
¨ .517 ¸ ¨ .509 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨  .587 ¸ ¨  .555 ¸
¨ .917 ¸ ¨ .429 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
.511 .589
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ .491 ¸ ¨ .563 ¸
¨ .688 ¨ .287
© ¹ © ¹

HRi SRi
Zi hi si
0.669 -1.138 -0.891 J J
-2.916·103 -7.405
0.59 -1.709 -1.11 -2.144·103 mol -9.229 mol˜ K
0.769 -0.829 -0.612 -3.875·103 -5.091
0.699 -1.406 -0.918 -4.971·103 -7.629
0.727 -1.135 -0.763 -2.871·103 -6.345
0.752 -1.274 -0.723 -1.407·103 -6.013
0.701 -1.107 -0.809 -5.121·103 -6.727
0.72 -1.293 -0.843 -5.952·103 -7.005 Ans.
0.77 -0.818 -0.561 -1.92·103 -4.667
0.743 -0.931 -0.639 -2.892·103 -5.314
0.656 -1.481 -0.933 -1.554·103 -7.759
0.753 -0.975 -0.747 -4.612·103 -6.207
0.771 -0.793 -0.577 -2.438·103 -4.794
0.768 -1.246 -0.728 -3.786·103 -6.054

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T
6.17 T  323.15˜ K  273.15t t 50
K
The pressure is the vapor pressure given by the Antoine equation:

§
t  exp ¨ 13.8858 
P ()
2788.51 ·
P (50) 36.166
© t  220.79 ¹

d kPa
P ()
t 1.375 P  36.166˜ kPa dPdt  1.375˜
dt K

(a) The entropy change of vaporization is equal to the latent heat divided by
the temperature. For the Clapeyron equation, Eq. (6.69), we need the
volume change of vaporization. For this we estimate the liquid volume by
Eq. (3.63) and the vapor volume by the generalized virial correlation. For
benzene:
Z  0.210 Tc  562.2˜ K Pc  48.98˜ bar Zc  0.271

3
cm T P
Vc  259˜ Tr  Tr 0.575 Pr  Pr 0.007
mol Tc Pc

By Eqs. (3.65), (3.66), (3.61), & (3.63)

0.422 0.172
B0  0.083  B0 0.941 B1  0.139  B1 1.621
1.6 4.2
Tr Tr

3
R˜ T ª Pr º
Vvap 
P ¬

˜ « 1  B0  Z ˜ B1 ˜ »
Tr ¼
Vvap 7.306 u 10
4 cm
mol

ª 1Tr 2/7º 3
Vliq  Vc˜ Zc¬ ¼ cm
By Eq. (3.72), Vliq 93.151
mol
Solve Eq. (6.72) for the latent heat and divide by T to get the entropy change
of vaporization:
J
'S  dPdt˜ Vvap  Vliq 'S 100.34 Ans.
mol˜ K
(b) Here for the entropy change of vaporization:

R˜ T J
'S  ˜ dPdt 'S 102.14 Ans.
P mol˜ K

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6.20 The process may be assumed to occur adiabatically and at constant
pressure. It is therefore isenthalpic, and may for calculational purposes be
considered to occur in two steps:
(1) Heating of the water from -6 degC to the final equilibrium temperature
of 0 degC.
(2) Freezing of a fraction x of the water at the equilibrium T.
Enthalpy changes for these two steps sum to zero:
J
CP˜ 't  x˜ 'Hfusion = 0 CP  4.226˜ 't  6˜ K
gm˜ K

joule '
C P˜ t
'Hfusion  333.4˜ x x 0.076 Ans.
gm 'Hfusion

The entropy change for the two steps is:

T2  273.15˜ K T1  ( 273.15  6) ˜ K

§ T2 · x˜ 'Hfusion 3 J
'S  CP˜ ln ¨  'S 1.034709 u 10 Ans.
© T1 ¹ T2 gm˜ K

The freezing process itself is irreversible, because it does not occur at the
equilibrium temperature of 0 degC.

BTU BTU
6.21 Data, Table F.4: H1  1156.3˜ H2  1533.4˜
lbm lbm

BTU BTU
S1  1.7320˜ S2  1.9977˜
lbm˜ rankine lbm˜ rankine

'H  H2  H1 'S  S2  S1

BTU BTU
'H 377.1 'S 0.266 Ans.
lbm lbm˜ rankine

For steam as an ideal gas, apply Eqs. (4.9) and (5.18). [t in degF]

T1  ( 227.96  459.67)rankine T2  ( 1000  459.67)rankine

P1  20˜ psi P2  50˜ psi

T1 382.017 K T2 810.928 K

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lb
molwt  18
lbmol

'H 

R˜ MCPH T1  T2  3.470  1.450˜ 10
3
 0.0  0.121˜ 10 ˜ T2  T1
5

molwt
BTU
'H 372.536 Ans.
lbm

§

R˜ ¨ MCPS T1  T2  3.470  1.450˜ 10
3 5
 0.0  0.121˜ 10 ˜ ln ¨
§ T2 · § P2 · ·
 ln ¨
'S 
© © T1 ¹ © P1 ¹ ¹
molwt

BTU
'S 0.259 Ans.
lbm˜ rankine

6.22 Data, Table F.2 at 8000 kPa:


3
cm J J
Vliq  1.384˜ Hliq  1317.1˜ Sliq  3.2076˜
gm gm gm˜ K
3
cm J J
Vvap  23.525˜ Hvap  2759.9˜ Svap  5.7471˜
gm gm gm˜ K
6 6
0.15˜ 10 3 0.15˜ 10 3
˜ cm ˜ cm
2 2
mliq  mvap 
Vliq Vvap

mliq 54.191 kg mvap 3.188 kg

Htotal  mliq˜ Hliq  mvap˜ Hvap Ans.


Htotal 80173.5 kJ

Stotal  mliq˜ Sliq  mvap˜ Svap kJ


Ans.
Stotal 192.145
K

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6.23 Data, Table F.2 at 1000 kPa:
3
cm J J
Vliq  1.127˜ Hliq  762.605˜ Sliq  2.1382˜
gm gm gm˜ K
3
cm J J
Vvap  194.29˜ Hvap  2776.2˜ Svap  6.5828˜
gm gm gm˜ K

Let x = fraction of mass that is vapor (quality) x  0.5 (Guess)

x˜ Vvap 70
Given = x  Find()
x
(1  x)V
˜ liq 30
x 0.013

H  (1  x)H
˜ liq  x˜ Hvap S  (1  x)S
˜ liq  x˜ Svap

J J
H 789.495 S 2.198 Ans.
gm gm˜ K

6.24 Data, Table F.3 at 350 degF:


3 3
ft ft
Vliq  0.01799˜ Vvap  3.342˜
lbm lbm

BTU BTU
Hliq  321.76˜ Hvap  1192.3˜
lbm lbm

50˜ mliq˜ Vliq


mliq  mvap = 3˜ lbm mvap˜ Vvap = 50˜ mliq˜ Vliq mliq  = 3˜ lbm
Vvap
3˜ lbm
mliq  mliq 2.364 lb
50˜ Vliq
1
Vvap

mvap  3˜ lbm  mliq mvap 0.636 lb

Htotal  mliq˜ Hliq  mvap˜ Hvap Htotal 1519.1 BTU Ans.

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3
1 cm
6.25 V ˜ Data, Table F.1 at 230 degC:
0.025 gm
3
cm J J
Vliq  1.209˜ Hliq  990.3˜ Sliq  2.6102˜
gm gm gm˜ K
3
cm J J
Vvap  71.45˜ Hvap  2802.0˜ Svap  6.2107˜
gm gm gm˜ K

V  Vliq
V = (1  x)V
˜ liq  x˜ Vvap x
Vvap  Vliq

H  (1  x)H
˜ liq  x˜ Hvap S  (1  x)S
˜ liq  x˜ Svap

J J
x 0.552 H 1991 S 4.599 Ans.
gm gm˜ K

6.26 Vtotal = mtotal˜ Vliq  mvap˜ 'Vlv


3
3 Table F.1, cm
Vtotal  0.15˜ m Vvap  392.4˜
150 degC: gm
3 3
Table F.1, cm cm
Vliq  1.004˜ 'Vlv  32930˜
30 degC: gm gm

Vtotal Vtotal  mtotal˜ Vliq


mtotal  mvap 
Vvap 'Vlv

3
mtotal 0.382 kg mvap 4.543 u 10 kg

mliq  mtotal  mvap Vtot.liq  mliq˜ Vliq

3
mliq 377.72 gm Vtot.liq 379.23 cm Ans.

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J J
6.27 Table F.2, 1100 kPa: Hliq  781.124˜ Hvap  2779.7˜
gm gm
J
Interpolate @101.325 kPa & 105 degC: H2  2686.1˜
gm

Const.-H throttling: H2 = Hliq  x˜ Hvap  Hliq

H2  Hliq
x x 0.953 Ans.
Hvap  Hliq

6.28 Data, Table F.2 at 2100 kPa and 260 degC, by interpolation:
J J gm
H1  2923.5˜ S1  6.5640˜ molwt  18.015
gm gm˜ K mol
J
H2  2923.5˜ Final state is at this enthalpy and a pressure of 125
gm kPa.
By interpolation at these conditions, the final temperature is 224.80 degC and
J J
S2  7.8316˜ 'S  S2  S1 'S 1.268 Ans.
gm˜ K gm˜ K
For steam as an ideal gas, there would be no temperature change and the
entropy change would be given by:
P1  2100˜ kPa
R § P2 · J
P2  125˜ kPa 'S  ˜ ln ¨ 'S 1.302 Ans.
molwt © P1 ¹ gm˜ K

6.29 Data, Table F.4 at 300(psia) and 500 degF:


BTU BTU
H1  1257.7˜ S1  1.5703˜
lbm lbm˜ rankine

BTU
H2  1257.7˜ Final state is at this enthalpy and a pressure of
lbm 20(psia).
By interpolation at these conditions, the final temperature is 438.87 degF and
BTU BTU
S2  1.8606˜ 'S  S2  S1 'S 0.29
lbm˜ rankine lbm˜ rankine

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For steam as an ideal gas, there would be no temperature change and the
entropy change would be given by:
lb
P1  300˜ psi P2  20˜ psi molwt  18
lbmol
§ P2 ·
R˜ ln ¨
'S  © P1 ¹ 'S 0.299
BTU Ans.
molwt lbm˜ rankine

6.30 Data, Table F.2 at 500 kPa and 300 degC


J
S1  7.4614˜ The final state is at this entropy and a pressure of
gm˜ K 50 kPa. This is a state of wet steam, for which

J J
Sliq  1.0912˜ Svap  7.5947˜
gm˜ K gm˜ K

J J
Hliq  340.564˜ Hvap  2646.9˜
gm gm

S2 = S1 = Sliq  x˜ Svap  Sliq S1  Sliq


x x 0.98
Svap  Sliq

J
H2  Hliq  x˜ Hvap  Hliq H2 2599.6 Ans.
gm

6.31 Vapor pressures of water from Table F.1:

At 25 degC: Psat  3.166˜ kPa

Psat
P  101.33˜ kPa xwater  xwater 0.031 Ans.
P
At 50 degC: Psat  12.34˜ kPa

Psat
xwater  xwater 0.122 Ans.
P

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6.32 Process occurs at constant total volume:
3
Vtotal  (0.014  0.021)m
˜

J J
Data, Table F.1 at 100 degC: Uliq  419.0˜ Uvap  2506.5˜
gm gm
3 3
cm cm
Vliq  1.044˜ Vvap  1673.0˜
gm gm
3 3
0.021˜ m 0.014˜ m
mliq  mvap 
Vliq Vvap mass  mliq  mvap

mvap
x 4
mass x 4.158 u 10 (initial quality)

Vtotal 3
cm This state is first reached as
V2  V2 1.739
mass gm saturated liquid at 349.83 degC

For this state, P = 16,500.1 kPa, and


J J
U2  1641.7˜ U1  Uliq  x˜ Uvap  Uliq U1 419.868
gm gm

J
Q  U2  U1 Q 1221.8 Ans.
gm

6.33 Vtotal  0.25˜ m3

Data, Table F.2, sat. vapor at 1500 kPa:


3 Vtotal
cm J
V1  131.66˜ U1  2592.4˜ mass 
gm gm V1

Of this total mass, 25% condenses making the quality 0.75 x  0.75
Since the total volume and mass don't change,
we have for the final state:
V2 = V1 = Vliq  x˜ Vvap  Vliq Whence

V1  Vliq
x= (A) Find P for which (A) yields the value
Vvap  Vliq x = 0.75 for wet steam

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Since the liquid volume is much smaller than the vapor volume, we make a
preliminary calculation to estimate:

V1 3
Vvap  cm
x Vvap 175.547
gm
This value occurs at a pressure a bit above 1100 kPa. Evaluate x at 1100
and 1150 kPa by (A). Interpolate on x to find P = 1114.5 kPa and
J J
Uliq  782.41˜ Uvap  2584.9˜
gm gm

J
U2  Uliq  x˜ Uvap  Uliq U2 2134.3
gm

Q  mass˜ U2  U1 Q 869.9 kJ Ans.

3 3
cm cm
6.34 Table F.2,101.325 kPa: Vliq  1.044˜ Vvap  1673.0˜
gm gm

3
J J 0.02˜ m
Uliq  418.959˜ Uvap  2506.5˜ mliq 
gm gm Vliq
3 mvap
1.98˜ m
mvap  mtotal  mliq  mvap x
Vvap mtotal
3
cm
V1  Vliq  x˜ Vvap  Vliq V1 98.326 x 0.058
gm

U1  Uliq  x˜ Uvap  Uliq U1 540.421


J
gm
Since the total volume and the total mass do not change during the process,
the initial and final specific volumes are the same. The final state is
therefore the state for which the specific volume of saturated vapor is
98.326 cu cm/gm. By interpolation in Table F.1, we find t = 213.0 degC and

J
U2  2598.4˜ Q  mtotal˜ U2  U1 Q 41860.5 kJ Ans.
gm

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6.35 Data, Table F.2 at 800 kPa and 350 degC:
3
cm J 3
V1  354.34˜ U1  2878.9˜ Vtotal  0.4˜ m
gm gm

The final state at 200 degC has the same specific volume as the initial
state, and this occurs for superheated steam at a pressure between 575 and
600 kPa. By interpolation, we find P = 596.4 kPa and

J Vtotal
U2  2638.7˜ Q ˜ U2  U1 Q 271.15 kJ Ans.
gm V1

6.36 Data, Table F.2 at 800 kPa and 200 degC:


J J
U1  2629.9˜ S1  6.8148˜ mass  1˜ kg
gm gm˜ K
(a) Isothermal expansion to 150 kPa and 200 degC
J J
U2  2656.3˜ S2  7.6439˜ T  473.15˜ K
gm gm˜ K

Q  mass˜ T˜ S2  S1 Q 392.29 kJ Ans.

Also: Work  mass˜ U2  U1  Q Work 365.89 kJ


(b) Constant-entropy expansion to 150 kPa. The final state is wet steam:
J J
Sliq  1.4336˜ Svap  7.2234˜
gm˜ K gm˜ K

J J
Uliq  444.224˜ Uvap  2513.4˜
gm gm
S1  Sliq
x x 0.929
Svap  Sliq

3 J
U2  Uliq  x˜ Uvap  Uliq U2 2.367 u 10
gm

W  mass˜ U2  U1 W 262.527 kJ Ans.

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6.37 Data, Table F.2 at 2000 kPa:
J J
x  0.94 Hvap  2797.2˜ Hliq  908.589˜
gm gm

3 J
H1  Hliq  x˜ Hvap  Hliq H1 2.684 u 10 mass  1˜ kg
gm
For superheated vapor at 2000 kPa and 575 degC, by interpolation:

J
H2  3633.4˜ Q  mass˜ H2  H1 Q 949.52 kJ Ans.
gm

6.38 First step: Q12 = 0 W12 = U2  U1


Second step: W23 = 0 Q23 = U3  U2
For process: Q = U3  U2 W = U2  U1

J J
Table F.2, Uliq  977.968˜ Uvap  2601.8˜
2700 kPa: gm gm

J J
Sliq  2.5924˜ Svap  6.2244˜
gm˜ K gm˜ K

3 J
x1  0.9 U1  Uliq  x1˜ Uvap  Uliq U1 2.439 u 10
gm
2
3 m
S1  Sliq  x1˜ Svap  Sliq S1 5.861 u 10
2
s K
J J
Table F.2, 400 kPa: Sliq  1.7764˜ Svap  6.8943˜
gm˜ K gm˜ K

J J
Uliq  604.237˜ Uvap  2552.7˜
gm gm
3 3
cm cm
Vliq  1.084˜ Vvap  462.22˜
gm gm

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Since step 1 is isentropic,
S1  Sliq
S2 = S1 = Sliq  x2˜ Svap  Sliq x2  x2 0.798
Svap  Sliq
3 J
U2  Uliq  x2˜ Uvap  Uliq U2 2.159 u 10
gm
3
cm
V2  Vliq  x2˜ Vvap  Vliq V2 369.135
gm
V3 = V2 and the final state is sat. vapor with this specific volume.
Interpolate to find that this V occurs at T = 509.23 degC and
J
U3  2560.7˜ Whence Q  U3  U2 Work  U2  U1
gm
J J
Q 401.317 Ans. Work 280.034 Ans.
gm gm

J J
6.39 Table F.2, 400 kPa & U1  2605.8˜ S1  7.0548˜
175 degC: gm gm˜ K

Table F.1,sat. vapor, J J


175 degC U2  2578.8˜ S2  6.6221˜
gm gm˜ K

mass  4˜ kg T  (175  273.15)K


˜

Q  mass˜ T˜ S2  S1 W  mass˜ U2  U1  Q

Q 775.66 kJ Ans. W 667.66 kJ Ans.

6.40 (a)Table F.2, 3000 kPa and 450 degC:


J J
H1  3344.6˜ S1  7.0854˜
gm gm˜ K
Table F.2, interpolate 235 kPa and 140 degC:
J J
H2  2744.5˜ S2  7.2003˜
gm gm˜ K

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J
'H  H2  H1 'H 600.1 Ans.
gm

'S  S2  S1 J
'S 0.115 Ans.
gm˜ K
(b) T1  (450  273.15)K
˜ T2  (140  273.15)K
˜

T1 723.15 K T2 413.15 K

P1  3000˜ kPa P2  235˜ kPa


gm
Eqs. (6.95) & (6.96) for an ideal gas: molwt  18
mol

'Hig 
3
R˜ ICPH T1  T2  3.470  1.450˜ 10  0.0  0.121˜ 10
5

molwt
§

R˜ ¨ ICPS T1  T2  3.470  1.450˜ 10
3 5
 0.0  0.121˜ 10
§ P2 · ·
 ln ¨
'Sig 
© © P1 ¹ ¹
molwt

J J
'Hig 620.6 'Sig 0.0605 Ans.
gm gm˜ K

(c) Tc  647.1˜ K Pc  220.55˜ bar Z  0.345

T1 P1 T2 P2
Tr1  Pr1  Tr2  Pr2 
Tc Pc Tc Pc
Tr1 1.11752 Pr1 0.13602 Tr2 0.63846 Pr2 0.01066
The generalized virial-coefficient correlation is suitable here

'H  'Hig 

R˜ Tc˜ HRB Tr2 Z
Pr2   HRB Tr1 Z
Pr1 
molwt
J
'H 593.95 Ans.
gm

'S  'Sig 

R˜ SRB Tr2 Z
Pr2   SRB Tr1 Z
Pr1 
molwt

J
'S 0.078 Ans.
gm˜ K

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6.41 Data, Table F.2 superheated steam at 550 kPa and 200 degC:
3
cm J J
V1  385.19˜ U1  2640.6˜ S1  7.0108˜
gm gm gm˜ K
Step 1--2: Const.-V heating to 800 kPa. At the initial specific volume
and this P, interpolation gives t = 401.74 degC, and

J J
U2  2963.1˜ S2  7.5782˜ Q12  U2  U1
gm gm˜ K
J
Q12 322.5
Step 2--3: Isentropic expansion to initial T. gm

J
Q23 = 0 S3 = S 2 S3  7.5782˜
gm˜ K
Step 3--1: Constant-T compression to initial P.
J
T  473.15˜ K Q31  T˜ S1  S3 Q31 268.465
gm
For the cycle, the internal energy change = 0.

Wcycle
Wcycle = Qcycle = Q12  Q31 K=
Q12
Q31
K  1 K 0.1675 Ans.
Q12

6.42 Table F.4, sat.vapor, 300(psi):


BTU
T1  ( 417.35  459.67) ˜ rankine H1  1202.9˜
lbm
T1 877.02 rankine BTU
S1  1.5105˜
lbm˜ rankine

Superheated steam at 300(psi) & 900 degF


BTU BTU
H2  1473.6˜ S2  1.7591˜ S3  S2
lbm lbm˜ rankine
BTU
Q12  H2  H1 Q31  T1˜ S1  S3 Q31 218.027
lbm

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For the cycle, the internal energy change = 0.

Wcycle
Wcycle = Qcycle = Q12  Q31 K= Whence
Q12
Q31
K  1 K 0.1946 Ans.
Q12

6.43 Data, Table F.2, superheated steam at 4000 kPa and 400 degC:

J
S1  6.7733˜ For both parts of the problem: S2  S1
gm˜ K

(a)So we are looking for the pressure at which saturated vapor has the given
entropy. This occurs at a pressure just below 575 kPa. By interpolation,
P2 = 572.83˜ kPa Ans.

(b)For the wet vapor the entropy is given by

x  0.95 S2 = Sliq  x˜ Svap  Sliq

So we must find the presure for which this equation is satisfied. This
occurs at a pressure just above 250 kPa. At 250 kPa:

J J
Sliq  1.6071˜ Svap  7.0520˜
gm˜ K gm˜ K

S2  Sliq  x˜ Svap  Sliq

J
S2 6.7798 Slightly > 6.7733
gm˜ K

By interpolation P2 = 250.16˜ kPa Ans.

6.44 (a) Table F.2 at the final conditions of saturated vapor at 50 kPa:
kJ kJ
S2  7.5947˜ H2  2646.0˜ S1  S2
kg˜ K kg

Find the temperature of superheated vapor at 2000 kPa with this


entropy. It occurs between 550 and 600 degC. By interpolation

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kJ
t1  559.16 (degC) H1  3598.0˜
kg

Superheat: 't  (559.16  212.37)K


˜ 't 346.79 K Ans.

kg
(b) mdot  5˜ Wdot  mdot˜ H2  H1 Wdot 4760 kW Ans.
sec

6.45 Table F.2 for superheated vapor at the initial conditions, 1350 kPa and 375
degC, and for the final condition of sat. vapor at 10 kPa:

kJ kJ kJ
H1  3205.4˜ S1  7.2410˜ H2  2584.8˜
kg kg˜ K kg
If the turbine were to operate isentropically, the final entropy would be
S2  S1
Table F.2 for sat. liquid and vapor at 10 kPa:
kJ kJ
Sliq  0.6493˜ Svap  8.1511˜
kg˜ K kg˜ K

kJ kJ
Hliq  191.832˜ Hvap  2584.8˜
kg kg
S2  Sliq
x2  x2 0.879 H' Hliq  x2˜ Hvap  Hliq
Svap  Sliq
3 kJ
H' 2.294 u 10
H2  H1 kg
K K 0.681 Ans.
H' H1

6.46 Table F.2 for superheated vapor at the initial conditions, 1300 kPa and 400
degC, and for the final condition of 40 kPa and 100 degC:
kJ kJ kJ
H1  3259.7˜ S1  7.3404˜ H2  2683.8˜
kg kg˜ K kg
If the turbine were to operate isentropically, the final entropy would be
S2  S1
Table F.2 for sat. liquid and vapor at 40 kPa:

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kJ kJ
Sliq  1.0261˜ Svap  7.6709˜
kg˜ K kg˜ K

kJ kJ
Hliq  317.16˜ Hvap  2636.9˜
kg kg
S2  Sliq
x2  x2 0.95 H' Hliq  x2˜ Hvap  Hliq
Svap  Sliq
3 kJ
H' 2.522 u 10
H2  H1 kg
K
H' H1 K 0.78 Ans.

6.47 Table F.2 at 1600 kPa and 225 degC: P  1600˜ kPa
3
cm J J
V  132.85˜ H  2856.3˜ S  6.5503˜
gm gm gm˜ K
Table F.2 (ideal-gas values, 1 kPa and 225 degC)
J J
Hig  2928.7˜ Sig  10.0681˜ P0  1˜ kPa
gm gm˜ K

R T
T  (225  273.15)K
˜ T 498.15 K VR  V  ˜
molwt P
The enthalpy of an ideal gas is independent of pressure, but the entropy
DOES depend on P:
R
˜ ln §¨

HR  H  Hig 'Sig 
molwt © P0 ¹

SR  S  Sig  'Sig

3
cm J J
VR 10.96 HR 72.4 SR 0.11 Ans.
gm gm gm˜ K

Reduced conditions: Z  0.345 Tc  647.1˜ K Pc  220.55˜ bar


T P
Tr  Tr 0.76982 Pr  Pr 0.072546
Tc Pc
The generalized virial-coefficient correlation is suitable here
0.422 0.172
B0  0.083  B0 0.558 B1  0.139  B1 0.377
1.6 4.2
Tr Tr

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By Eqs. (3.61) + (3.62) & (3.63) along with Eq. (6.40)
Pr R˜ T

Z  1  B0  Z ˜ B1 ˜
Tr
Z 0.935 VR 
P˜ molwt
˜ ( Z  1)

R ˜ Tc
HR 
molwt

˜ HRB Tr Z
Pr  SR 
R
molwt
˜ SRB Tr Z
Pr 
3
cm J J
VR 9.33 HR 53.4 SR 0.077 Ans.
gm gm gm˜ K

6.48 P  1000˜ kPa T  ( 179.88  273.15) ˜ K T 453.03 K


gm
(Table F.2) molwt  18.015
mol
3 3
cm cm
Vl  1.127˜ Vv  194.29˜ 'Vlv  Vv  Vl
gm gm

J J
Hl  762.605˜ Hv  2776.2˜ 'Hlv  Hv  Hl
gm gm

J J
Sl  2.1382˜ Sv  6.5828˜ 'Slv  Sv  Sl
gm˜ K gm˜ K

3
cm 3 J J
'Vlv 193.163 'Hlv 2.014 u 10 'Slv 4.445
gm gm gm˜ K

J J
(a) Gl  Hl  T˜ Sl Gl 206.06 G v  H v  T ˜ Sv G v 206.01
gm gm

J 'Hlv J
(b) 'Slv 4.445 r r 4.445
gm˜ K T gm˜ K
3
R T cm
(c) VR  Vv  ˜ VR 14.785 Ans.
molwt P gm

For enthalpy and entropy, assume that steam at 179.88 degC and 1 kPa
is an ideal gas. By interpolation in Table F.2 at 1 kPa:

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J J
Hig  2841.1˜ Sig  9.8834˜ P0  1˜ kPa
gm gm˜ K

The enthalpy of an ideal gas is independent of pressure; the entropy


DOES depend on P:
R
˜ ln §¨
P· J
HR  Hv  Hig 'Sig  'Sig 3.188
molwt © P0 ¹ gm˜ K


SR  Sv  Sig  'Sig HR 64.9
gm
J
Ans. SR 0.1126
gm˜ K
J
Ans.

(d) Assume ln P vs. 1/T linear and fit three data pts @ 975, 1000, & 1050 kPa.

§¨ 975 · §¨ 178.79 ·
Data: pp  ¨ 1000 ¸ ˜ kPa t  ¨ 179.88 ¸ (degC) i  1  3
¨ 1050 ¨ 182.02
© ¹ © ¹

1 § ppi ·
xi  yi  ln ¨ Slope  slope (x  y) Slope 4717
ti  273.15 © kPa ¹
P kPa
dPdT  ˜ Slope˜ K dPdT 22.984
2 K
T
J
'Slv  'Vlv˜ dPdT 'Slv 4.44 Ans.
gm˜ K

Reduced conditions: Z  0.345 Tc  647.1˜ K Pc  220.55˜ bar

T P
Tr  Tr 0.7001 Pr  Pr 0.0453
Tc Pc

The generalized virial-coefficient correlation is suitable here


0.422 0.172
B0  0.083  B0 0.664 B1  0.139  B1 0.63
1.6 4.2
Tr Tr

By Eqs. (3.61) + (3.62) & (3.63) along with Eq. (6.40)


Pr R˜ T

Z  1  B0  Z ˜ B1 ˜
Tr
Z 0.943 VR 
P˜ molwt
˜ (Z  1)

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R ˜ Tc
HR 
molwt

˜ HRB Tr Z
Pr  SR 
R
molwt
˜ SRB Tr Z
Pr 
3
cm J J
VR 11.93 HR 43.18 SR 0.069 Ans.
gm gm gm˜ K

6.49 T  ( 358.43  459.67) ˜ rankine T 818.1 rankine P  150˜ psi


(Table F.4) gm
molwt  18.015
mol
3 3
ft ft
Vl  0.0181˜ Vv  3.014˜ 'Vlv  Vv  Vl
lbm lbm

BTU BTU
Hl  330.65˜ Hv  1194.1˜ 'Hlv  Hv  Hl
lbm lbm

BTU BTU
Sl  0.5141˜ Sv  1.5695˜ 'Slv  Sv  Sl
lbm˜ rankine lbm˜ rankine

3
ft BTU
'Vlv 2.996 'Hlv 863.45
lbm lbm

(a) Gl  Hl  T˜ Sl G v  H v  T ˜ Sv

BTU BTU
Gl 89.94 Gv 89.91
lbm lbm

BTU 'Hlv BTU


(b) 'Slv 1.055 r r 1.055
lbm˜ rankine T lbm˜ rankine
3
R T ft
(c) VR  Vv  ˜ VR 0.235 Ans.
molwt P lbm

For enthalpy and entropy, assume that steam at 358.43 degF and 1 psi is
an ideal gas. By interpolation in Table F.4 at 1 psi:

BTU BTU
Hig  1222.6˜ Sig  2.1492˜ P0  1˜ psi
lbm lbm˜ rankine

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The enthalpy of an ideal gas is independent of pressure; the entropy DOES
depend on P:
BTU
HR  Hv  Hig HR 28.5 Ans.
lbm

R
˜ ln §¨
P· BTU
'Sig  'Sig 0.552
molwt © P0 ¹ lbm˜ rankine


SR  Sv  Sig  'Sig SR 0.0274
BTU
lbm˜ rankine
Ans.

(d) Assume ln P vs. 1/T linear and fit threedata points (@ 145, 150, & 155
psia)
§¨ 145 · §¨ 355.77 ·
Data: pp  ¨ 150 ¸ ˜ psi t  ¨ 358.43 ¸ (degF) i  1  3
¨ 155 ¨ 361.02
© ¹ © ¹

1 § ppi ·
xi  yi  ln ¨ Slope  slope (x  y)
ti  459.67 © psi ¹
3
Slope 8.501 u 10
P psi
dPdT  ˜ Slope˜ rankine dPdT 1.905
2 rankine
T
BTU
'Slv  'Vlv˜ dPdT 'Slv 1.056 Ans.
lbm˜ rankine

Reduced conditions: Z  0.345 Tc  647.1˜ K Pc  220.55˜ bar

T P
Tr  Tr 0.7024 Pr  Pr 0.0469
Tc Pc
The generalized virial-coefficient correlation is suitable here
0.422 0.172
B0  0.083  B0 0.66 B1  0.139  B1 0.62
1.6 4.2
Tr Tr

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By Eqs. (3.61) + (3.62) & (3.63) along with Eq. (6.40)

Pr R˜ T

Z  1  B0  Z ˜ B1 ˜
Tr
Z 0.942 VR 
P˜ molwt
˜ ( Z  1)

Tc
HR  R˜
molwt

˜ HRB Tr Z
Pr  SR 
R
molwt

˜ SRB Tr Z
Pr 

3
ft BTU BTU
VR 0.1894 HR 19.024 SR 0.0168 Ans.
lbm lbm lbm˜ rankine

6.50 For propane: Tc  369.8˜ K Pc  42.48˜ bar Z  0.152

T  ( 195  273.15) ˜ K T 468.15 K P  135˜ bar P0  1˜ bar

T P
Tr  Tr 1.266 Pr  Pr 3.178
Tc Pc
Use the Lee/Kesler correlation; by interpolation,

Z0  0.6141 Z1  0.1636 Z  Z0  Z ˜ Z1 Z 0.639

3
Z˜ R ˜ T cm
V V 184.2 Ans.
P mol

HR0  2.496˜ R˜ Tc HR1  0.586˜ R˜ Tc


3 J 3 J
HR0 7.674 u 10 HR1 1.802 u 10
mol mol

SR0  1.463˜ R SR1  0.717˜ R


J J
SR0 12.163 SR1 5.961
mol˜ K mol˜ K

HR  HR0  Z ˜ HR1 SR  SR0  Z ˜ SR1


3 J J
HR 7.948 u 10 SR 13.069
mol mol˜ K


'H  R˜ ICPH 308.15K  T  1.213  28.785˜ 10
3
 8.824˜ 10
6
 0.0  HR

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§
'S  R˜ ¨ ICPS 308.15K  T  1.213  28.785˜ 10
3
 8.824˜ 10
6 §
 0.0  ln ¨
P ··
 SR
© © ¹¹
P 0

J J
'H 6734.9 Ans. 'S 15.9 Ans.
mol mol˜ K

6.51 For propane: Tc  369.8˜ K Pc  42.48˜ bar Z  0.152

T  (70  273.15)K
˜ T 343.15 K P0  101.33˜ kPa P  1500˜ kPa
T P
Tr  Tr 0.92793 Pr  Pr 0.35311
Tc Pc

Assume propane an ideal gas at the initial conditions. Use


generalized virial correlation at final conditions.

'H  R˜ Tc˜ HRB Tr Z


Pr  'H 1431.3
J
mol
Ans.

'S  R˜ §¨ SRB Tr Z

Pr  § P ··
 ln ¨ J
'S 25.287 Ans.
© © P0 ¹ ¹ mol˜ K

6.52 For propane: Z  0.152


3
cm
Tc  369.8˜ K Pc  42.48˜ bar Zc  0.276 Vc  200.0˜
mol
If the final state is a two-phase mixture, it must exist at its saturation
temperature at 1 bar. This temperature is found from the vapor pressure
equation:
P  1˜ bar A  6.72219 B  1.33236 C  2.13868
T
D  1.38551 W (T) 1  Guess: T  200˜ K
Tc
Given

ª A˜ W (T) B˜ W (T)1.5  C˜ W (T)3  D˜ W (T)6 º


P = Pc˜ exp « »
¬ 1  W (T) ¼
T  Find(T) T 230.703 K

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The latent heat of vaporization at the final conditions will be needed for an
energy balance. It is found by the Clapeyron equation. We proceed
exactly as in Pb. 6.17.

ª A˜ W ( T)  B˜ W ( T) 1.5  C˜ W ( T) 3  D˜ W ( T) 6 º
P ( T)  Pc˜ exp « »
¬ 1  W ( T) ¼
d kPa kPa
T  230.703˜ K P ( T) 4.428 dPdT  4.428124˜
dT K K

P T
P  1˜ bar Pr  Pr 0.024 Tr  Tr 0.624
Pc Tc

0.422 0.172
B0  0.083  B0 0.815 B1  0.139  B1 1.109
1.6 4.2
Tr Tr
ª 2º
« »
R˜ T ª Pr º ¬ 1Tr 7¼
Vvap 
P ¬

˜ « 1  B0  Z ˜ B1 ˜ »
Tr ¼
Vliq  Vc˜ Zc

3
4 cm 3
Vvap 1.847 u 10 cm
mol Vliq 75.546
mol

4 J
'Hlv  T˜ Vvap  Vliq ˜ dPdT 'Hlv 1.879 u 10
mol
ENERGY BALANCE: For the throttling process there is no enthalpy
change. The calculational path from the initial state to the final is made up
of the following steps:
(1) Transform the initial gas into an ideal gas at the initial T & P.
(2) Carry out the temperature and pressure changes to the final T & P in
the ideal-gas state.
(3) Transform the ideal gas into a real gas at the final T & P.
(4) Partially condense the gas at the final T & P.

The sum of the enthalpy changes for these steps is set equal to zero, and
the resulting equation is solved for the fraction of the stream that is liquid.

For Step (1), use the generalized correlation of Tables E.7 & E.8, and let
0 1
§ HR · § HR ·
r0 = ¨ and r1 = ¨
© R ˜ Tc ¹ © R ˜ Tc ¹
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T1  370˜ K P1  200˜ bar

T1 P1
Tr  Tr 1.001 Pr  Pr 4.708
Tc Pc

By interpolation, find: r0  3.773 r1  3.568

By Eq. (6.85)
'H1  R˜ Tc˜ r0  r1˜ Z 'H1 1.327 u 10
4 J
mol
For Step (2) the enthalpy change is given by Eq. (6.95), for which


'H2  R˜ ICPH T1  T  1.213  28.785˜ 10
3
 8.824˜ 10
6
 0.0

4 J
'H2 1.048 u 10
mol

For Step (3) the enthalpy change is given by Eq. (6.87), for which
230.703˜ K 1˜ bar
Tr  Tr 0.6239 Pr  Pr 0.0235
Tc Pc

'H3  R˜ Tc˜ HRB Tr Z


Pr  For Step (4), 'H4 = '
x˜ Hlv
J
'H3 232.729
mol

For the process, 'H1 ''H2  H3  x˜ 'Hlv = 0

'H1 ''H2  H3
x x 0.136 Ans.
'Hlv

6.53 For 1,3-butadiene: Z  0.190 Tc  425.2˜ K


3
cm
Pc  42.77˜ bar Zc  0.267 Vc  220.4˜ Tn  268.7˜ K
mol
T  380˜ K P  1919.4˜ kPa T0  273.15˜ K P0  101.33˜ kPa
T P
Tr  Tr 0.894 Pr  Pr 0.449
Tc Pc

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Use Lee/Kesler correlation. HOWEVER, the values for a saturated vapor lie
on the very edge of the vapor region, and some adjacent numbers are for the
liquid phase. These must NOT be used for interpolation. Rather,
EXTRAPOLATIONS must be made from the vapor side. There may be
some choice in how this is done, but the following values are as good as any:

Z0  0.7442 Z1  0.1366 Z  Z0  Z ˜ Z1 Z 0.718


3
Z˜ R ˜ T cm
Vvap  Vvap 1182.2 Ans.
P mol

HR0  0.689˜ R˜ Tc HR1  0.892˜ R˜ Tc

3 J 3 J
HR0 2.436 u 10 HR1 3.153 u 10
mol mol

SR0  0.540˜ R SR1  0.888˜ R

J J
SR0 4.49 SR1 7.383
mol˜ K mol˜ K

HR  HR0  Z ˜ HR1 SR  SR0  Z ˜ SR1

3 J J
HR 3.035 u 10 SR 5.892
mol mol˜ K


Hvap  R˜ ICPH T0  T  2.734  26.786˜ 10
3
 8.882˜ 10
6
 0.0  HR


Svap  R˜ §¨ ICPS T0  T  2.734  26.786˜ 10
3
 8.882˜ 10
6
 0.0  ln §¨
P ··
 SR
© © P0 ¹ ¹
J J
Hvap 6315.9 Ans. Svap 1.624 Ans.
mol mol˜ K

For saturated vapor, by Eqs. (3.63) & (4.12)


ª 2º
« »
¬ 1Tr 7¼ cm
3
Vliq  Vc˜ Zc Vliq 109.89 Ans.
mol

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ª § § Pc · ·º
« 1.092˜ ¨ ln ¨  1.013 »
'Hn  R˜ Tn˜ «
© © bar ¹ ¹» 'Hn 22449
J
« Tn » mol
« 0.930  »
¬ Tc ¼
0.38
§ 1  Tr · J
By Eq. (4.13) 'H  'Hn˜ ¨ 'H 14003
¨ Tn ¸ mol
1
¨
© Tc ¹

J
Hliq  Hvap  'H Hliq 7687.4 Ans.
mol
'H J
Sliq  Svap  Sliq 38.475 Ans.
T mol˜ K

6.54 For n-butane: Z  0.200 Tc  425.1˜ K


3
cm
Pc  37.96˜ bar Zc  0.274 Vc  255˜ Tn  272.7˜ K
mol
T  370˜ K P  1435˜ kPa T0  273.15˜ K P0  101.33˜ kPa

T P
Tr  Tr 0.87 Pr  Pr 0.378
Tc Pc
Use Lee/Kesler correlation. HOWEVER, the values for a saturated vapor lie
on the very edge of the vapor region, and some adjacent numbers are for the
liquid phase. These must NOT be used for interpolation. Rather,
EXTRAPOLATIONS must be made from the vapor side. There may be
some choice in how this is done, but the following values are as good as any:

Z0  0.7692 Z1  0.1372 Z  Z0  Z ˜ Z1 Z 0.742


3
Z˜ R ˜ T cm
V V 1590.1 Ans.
P mol

HR0  0.607˜ R˜ Tc HR1  0.831˜ R˜ Tc


3 J 3 J
HR0 2.145 u 10 HR1 2.937 u 10
mol mol

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SR0  0.485˜ R SR1  0.835˜ R
J J
SR0 4.032 SR1 6.942
mol˜ K mol˜ K

HR  HR0  Z ˜ HR1 SR  SR0  Z ˜ SR1


3 J J
HR 2.733 u 10 SR 5.421
mol mol˜ K


Hvap  R˜ ICPH T0  T  1.935  36.915˜ 10
3
 11.402˜ 10
6
 0.0  HR


Svap  R˜ §¨ ICPS T0  T  1.935  36.915˜ 10
3
 11.402˜ 10
6
 0.0  ln §¨
P ··
 SR
© © ¹¹
P 0

J
Hvap 7427.4 J
mol Ans. Svap 4.197
mol˜ K Ans.

For saturated vapor, by Eqs. (3.72) & (4.12)

ª 1Tr 2/7º 3
Vliq  Vc˜ Zc¬ ¼ cm
Vliq 123.86 Ans.
mol

ª § § Pc · ·º
« 1.092˜ ¨ ln ¨  1.013 »
'Hn  R˜ Tn˜ «
© © bar ¹ ¹» 'Hn 22514
J
« Tn » mol
« 0.930  »
¬ Tc ¼
0.38
§ 1  Tr · J
By Eq. (4.13) 'H  'Hn˜ ¨ 'H 15295.2
¨ Tn ¸ mol
1
¨
© Tc ¹

J
Hliq  Hvap  'H Hliq 7867.8 Ans.
mol

'H J
Sliq  Svap  Sliq 37.141 Ans.
T mol˜ K

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6.55 Under the stated conditions the worst possible cycling of demand can be
represented as follows:
10,000 kg/hr

Dem and 2/3 hr 1/3 hr


(kg/hr)

1 hr

6,000 tim e

4,000 kg/hr

netstorage netdepletion
ofsteam ofsteam

This situation is also represented by the equation:

4000T  10000˜ 1  T = 6000


where T = time of storage liquid
2
Solution gives T  hr
3
The steam stored during this leg is: mprime  §¨ 6000
kg kg ·
 4000 ˜T
© hr hr ¹

mprime 1333.3 kg
We consider this storage leg, and for this process of steam addition to
a tank the equation developed in Problem 6-74 is applicable:

§ Hfg2 ·
m1˜ Hprime  H1  Vtank˜ ¨ P2  P1 
m2 = © Vfg2 ¹
Hfg2
Hprime  Hf2  Vf2˜
Vfg2
We can replace Vtank by m2V2, and rearrange to get

m2 ª Hfg2 § Hfg2 · º
˜ « Hprime  Hf2  Vf2˜  V2˜ ¨ P2  P1  » = Hprime  H1
m1 ¬ Vfg2 © Vfg2 ¹ ¼
m2 V1
However M1˜ v1 = m2˜ V2 = Vtank and therefore = Eq. (A)
m1 V2

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Making this substitution and rearranging we get

Hfg2
Hprime  Hf2  Vf2˜
Vfg2 Hfg2 Hprime  H1
 P2  P 1  =
V2 Vfg2 V1

In this equation we can determine from the given information everything


except Hprime and Vprime. These quantities are expressed by

H1 = Hf1  x1˜ Hfg1 and V1 = Vf1  x1˜ Vfg1


Therefore our equation becomes (with Hprime = Hg2)

§ Hfg2 ·
Hg2  Hf2  Vf2˜ ¨
© Vfg2 ¹  P  P  Hfg2 = Hg2  Hf1  x1˜ Hfg1 Eq. (B)
2 1
V2 Vfg2 Vf1  x1˜ Vfg1

In this equation only x1 is unknown and we can solve for it as follows. First
we need V2:

From the given information we can write:

0.95V2 = 1  x2 ˜ Vf2 0.05V2 = x2˜ Vg2

therefore 19 =
1  x2 ˜ Vf2 or x2 =
Vf2
x2˜ Vg2 19Vg2  Vf2

Vg2 § Vf2 · 20
Then V2 = ˜¨ = Eq. (C)
0.05 © 19Vg2  Vf2 ¹ 19 1

Vf2 Vg2

Now we need property values:

Initial state in accumulator is wet steam at 700 kPa. P1  700kPa


We find from the steam tables

kJ kJ kJ
Hf1  697.061 Hg1  2762.0 Hfg1  Hg1  Hf1 Hfg1 2064.939
kg kg kg

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3 3 3
cm cm cm
Vf1  1.108 Vg1  272.68 Vfg1  Vg1  Vf1 Vfg1 271.572
gm gm gm

Final state in accumulator is wet steam at 1000 kPa. P2  1000kPa


From the steam tables
kJ kJ kJ
Hf2  762.605 Hg2  2776.2 Hfg2  Hg2  Hf2 Hfg2 2013.595
kg kg kg
3 3 3
cm cm cm
Vf2  1.127 Vg2  194.29 Vfg2  Vg2  Vf2 Vfg2 193.163
gm gm gm

Solve Eq. (C) for V2


Vg2 § 3
Vf2 · 3m
V2  ˜¨ V2 1.18595 u 10
0.05 © 19Vg2  Vf2 ¹ kg

Next solve Eq. (B) for x1 Guess: x1  0.1

Given

§ Hfg2 ·
Hg2  Hf2  Vf2˜ ¨
© Vfg2 ¹  P  P  Hfg2 = Hg2  Hf1  x1˜ Hfg1
2 1
V2 Vfg2 Vf1  x1˜ Vfg1

4
x1  Find x1 x1 4.279 u 10
3
cm
Thus V1  Vf1  x1˜ Vfg1 V1 1.22419
gm
m2 V1
Eq. (A) gives = and mprime = m2  m1 = 2667kg
m1 V2
Solve for m1 and m2 using a Mathcad Solve Block:
mprime
Guess: m1  m2  m1
2

m2 V1 § m1 ·
Given = m2  m1 = 2667lb ¨  Find m1  m2
m1 V2 © ¹
m2
4 4
m1 3.752 u 10 kg m2 3.873 u 10 kg

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3
Finally, find the tank volume Vtank  m2˜ V2 Vtank 45.9 m Ans.

Note that just to store 1333.3 kg of saturated vapor at 1000 kPa would
require a volume of:
3
1333.3kg˜ Vg2 259 m

One can work this problem very simply and almost correctly by ignoring the
vapor present. By first equation of problem 3-15

m2 Hprime  U1 Hprime  Uf1 Hprime  Hf1


= = =
m1 Hprime  U2 Hprime  Uf2 Hprime  Hf2

3 kJ
Hprime  Hg2 Hprime 2.776 u 10
kg
Given

m2 Hprime  Hf1 § m1 ·
= m2  m1 = 2667lb ¨  Find m1  m2
m1 Hprime  Hf2 © ¹
m2

4
m2 3.837 u 10 kg

m2˜ Vf2 3
V V 45.5 m Ans.
0.95

6.56 Propylene: Z  0.140 Tc  365.6˜ K Pc  46.65˜ bar

T  400.15˜ K P  38˜ bar P0  1˜ bar

The throttling process, occurring at constant enthalpy, may be split into two
steps:
(1) Transform into an ideal gas at the initial conditions, evaluating property
changes from a generalized correlation.
(2) Change T and P in the ideal-gas state to the
final conditions, evaluating property changes by equations for an ideal gas.
Property changes for the two steps sum to the property change for the
process. For the initial conditions:

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T P
Tr  Tr 1.095 Pr  Pr 0.815
Tc Pc

Step (1): Use the Lee/Kesler correlation, interpolate.

H0  0.863˜ R˜ Tc H1  0.534˜ R˜ Tc HR  H0  Z ˜ H1

3 J 3 J 3 J
H0 2.623 u 10 H1 1.623 u 10 HR 2.85 u 10
mol mol mol
S0  0.565˜ R S1  0.496˜ R SR  S0  Z ˜ S1

J J J
S0 4.697 S1 4.124 SR 5.275
mol˜ K mol˜ K mol˜ K

Step (2): For the heat capacity of propylene,


3 6
22.706˜ 10 6.915˜ 10
A  1.637 B C
K 2
K
Solve energy balance for final T. See Eq. (4.7).

W 1 (guess) Given

HR = R˜ ª« ª« A˜WT˜  1 
B 2
˜WT ˜ 2  1 º»  C ˜WT3˜ 3  1 º»
¬¬ 2 ¼ 3 ¼
W  Find W W 0.908 Tf  W ˜ T Tf 363.27 K Ans.

§

'Sig  R˜ ¨ ICPS T  Tf  1.637  22.706˜ 10
3
 6.915˜ 10
6
 0.0  ln ¨
§ P0 · ·
© © P ¹¹
J
'Sig 22.774
mol˜ K

J
'S  '
SR  Sig 'S 28.048 Ans.
mol˜ K

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6.57 Propane: Z  0.152 Tc  369.8˜ K Pc  42.48˜ bar

T  423˜ K P  22˜ bar P0  1˜ bar


The throttling process, occurring at constant enthalpy, may be split into
two steps:
(1) Transform into an ideal gas at the initial conditions, evaluating property
changes from a generalized correlation.
(2) Change T and P in the ideal-gas state to the
final conditions, evaluating property changes by equations for an ideal gas.
Property changes for the two steps sum to the property change for the
process. For the initial conditions:
T P
Tr  Tr 1.144 Pr  Pr 0.518
Tc Pc
Step (1): Use the generalized virial correlation

HR  R˜ Tc˜ HRB Tr Z
Pr  HR 1.366 u 10
3 J
mol

SR  R˜ SRB Tr Z
Pr  SR 2.284
J
mol˜ K
Step (2): For the heat capacity of propane,
3 6
28.785˜ 10 8.824˜ 10
A  1.213 B C
K 2
K
Solve energy balance for final T. See Eq. (4.7).

W  1 (guess) Given

HR = R˜ ª« ª« A˜WT˜  1 
B 2
˜WT ˜ 2  1 º»  C ˜WT3˜ 3  1 º»
¬¬ 2 ¼ 3 ¼
W  Find W W 0.967 Tf  W ˜ T Tf 408.91 K Ans.

§

'Sig  R˜ ¨ ICPS T  Tf  1.213  28.785˜ 10
3
 8.824˜ 10
6
 0.0  ln ¨
§ P0 · ·
© © P ¹¹
J
'Sig 22.415
mol˜ K

J
'S  '
SR  Sig 'S 24.699 Ans.
mol˜ K

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6.58 For propane: Tc  369.8˜ K Pc  42.48˜ bar Z  0.152

T  (100  273.15)K
˜ T 373.15 K P0  1˜ bar P  10˜ bar
T P
Tr  Tr 1.009 Pr  Pr 0.235
Tc Pc
Assume ideal gas at initial conditions. Use virial correlation at final conditions.

'H  R˜ Tc˜ HRB Tr Z


Pr  'H 801.9
J
mol
Ans.

'S  R˜ §¨ SRB Tr Z  ln §¨
P ··

Pr  'S 20.639
J
mol˜ K
Ans.
© © P0 ¹ ¹

6.59 H2S: Z  0.094 Tc  373.5˜ K Pc  89.63˜ bar

T1  400˜ K P1  5˜ bar T2  600˜ K P2  25˜ bar

T1 P1 T2 P2
Tr1  Pr1  Tr2  Pr2 
Tc Pc Tc Pc

Tr1 1.071 Pr1 0.056 Tr2 1.606 Pr2 0.279

Use generalized virial-coefficient correlation for both sets of conditions.

Eqs. (6.91) & (6.92) are written


'H  R˜ ICPH T1  T2  3.931  1.490˜ 10  0.0  0.232˜ 10
3 5


 R˜ Tc˜ HRB Tr2 Z Pr2   HRB Tr1 Z Pr1 
§

'S  R˜ ¨ ICPS T1  T2  3.931  1.490˜ 10
3
 0.0  0.232˜ 10
5
 ln ¨
§ P2 · ·

© © P1 ¹ ¹

 R˜ SRB Tr2 Z
Pr2 
 SRB Tr1 Z
Pr1 

J J
'H 7407.3 'S 1.828 Ans.
mol mol˜ K

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6.60 Carbon dioxide: Z  0.224 Tc  304.2˜ K Pc  73.83˜ bar

T  318.15˜ K P  1600˜ kPa P0  101.33˜ kPa


Throttling process, constant enthalpy, may be split into two steps:
(1) Transform to ideal gas at initial conditions, generalized correlation
for property changes.
(2) Change T and P of ideal gas to final T & P.
Property changes by equations for an ideal gas.
Assume ideal gas at final T & P. Sum property changes for the process.
For the initial T & P:
T P
Tr  Tr 1.046 Pr  Pr 0.217
Tc Pc
Step (1): Use the generalized virial correlation

HR  R˜ Tc˜ HRB Tr Z
Pr  HR 587.999
J
mol

SR  R˜ SRB Tr Z
Pr  J
SR 1.313
mol˜ K

Step (2): For the heat capacity of carbon dioxide,


3
1.045˜ 10 5 2
A  5.457 B D  1.157˜ 10 ˜ K
K
Solve energy balance for final T. See Eq. (4.7).
W  1 (guess) Given

ª
HR = R˜ « A˜WT˜  1 
B 2
˜WT ˜ 2  1 
D § W  1· º
˜¨ »
¬ 2 T © W ¹¼

W  Find W W 0.951 Tf  W ˜ T Tf 302.71 K Ans.

§

'Sig  R˜ ¨ ICPS T  Tf  5.457  1.045˜ 10
©
3 5
 0.0  1.157˜ 10
§ P0 · ·
 ln ¨
© P ¹¹
J
'Sig 21.047
mol˜ K
J
'S  '
SR  Sig 'S 22.36 Ans.
mol˜ K

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6.61 T0  523.15˜ K P0  3800˜ kPa P  120˜ kPa

J
'S  0˜ For the heat capacity of ethylene:
mol˜ K
3 6
14.394˜ 10 4.392˜ 10
A  1.424 B C
K 2
K
(a) For the entropy change of an ideal gas, combine Eqs. (5.14) & (5.15)
with D = 0:
W  0.4 (guess) Given

ª ª
'S = R˜ «A˜ ln W  « B˜ T0  C˜ T0 ˜ ¨
2 § W  1 · º ˜ W  1  ln § P ·º
» ¨P »
¬ ¬ © 2 ¹¼ © 0 ¹¼
W  Find W W 0.589 Tf  W ˜ T0 Tf 308.19 K Ans.


'Hig  R˜ ICPH T0  Tf  1.424  14.394˜ 10
3
 4.392˜ 10
6
 0.0

4 J
'Hig 1.185 u 10
mol

J
Ws  'Hig Ws 11852 Ans.
mol

(b) Ethylene: Z  0.087 Tc  282.3˜ K Pc  50.40˜ bar

T0 P0
Tr0  Tr0 1.85317 Pr0  Pr0 0.75397
Tc Pc
At final conditions as calculated in (a)
T P
Tr  Tr 1.12699 Pr  Pr 0.02381
Tc Pc
Use virial-coefficient correlation.
The entropy change is now given by Eq. (6.92):

W  0.5 (guess) Given

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ª ª
'S = R˜ «A˜ ln W  « B˜ T0  C˜ T0 ˜ ¨
§ W  1 · º ˜ W  1  ln § P · º
2
» ¨P »
« ¬ © 2 ¹ ¼ © 0 ¹ »
« § W ˜ T0 · »
 SRB ¨ Z
Pr   SRB Tr0 Z
Pr0 
« »
¬ © Tc ¹ ¼
W  Find W T  W ˜ T0 T 303.11 K Ans.

T
Tr  Tr 1.074
Tc

The work is given by Eq. (6.91):


'Hig  R˜ ICPH T0  T  1.424  14.394˜ 10
3 6
 4.392˜ 10  0.0

4 J
'Hig 1.208 u 10
mol


Ws  'Hig  R˜ Tc˜ HRB Tr Z
Pr   HRB Tr0 Z
Pr0 

J
Ws 11567 Ans.
mol

6.62 T0  493.15˜ K P0  30˜ bar P  2.6˜ bar


J
'S  0˜ For the heat capacity of ethane:
mol˜ K
3 6
19.225˜ 10 5.561˜ 10
A  1.131 B C
K 2
K
(a) For the entropy change of an ideal gas, combine Eqs. (5.14) & (5.15)
with D = 0:
W  0.4 (guess) Given
ª ª
'S = R˜ «A˜ ln W  « B˜ T0  C˜ T0 ˜ ¨
2 § W  1 · º ˜ W  1  ln § P ·º
» ¨P »
¬ ¬ © 2 ¹¼ © 0 ¹¼
W  Find W W 0.745 T  W ˜ T0 T 367.59 K Ans.


'Hig  R˜ ICPH T0  T  1.131  19.225˜ 10
3 6
 5.561˜ 10  0.0

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3 J
'Hig 8.735 u 10
mol

J
Ws  'Hig Ws 8735 Ans.
mol

(b) Ethane: Z  0.100 Tc  305.3˜ K Pc  48.72˜ bar

T0 P0
Tr0  Tr0 1.6153 Pr0  Pr0 0.61576
Tc Pc

At final conditions as calculated in (a)


T P
Tr (T) Tr (T) 1.20404 Pr  Pr 0.05337
Tc Pc

Use virial-coefficient correlation.


The entropy change is now given by Eq. (6.83):

W  0.5 (guess) Given

ª ª § W  1 · º ˜ W  1  ln § P · º
'S = R˜ «A˜ ln W  « B˜ T0  C˜ T0 ˜ ¨
2
» ¨P »
« ¬ © 2 ¹ ¼ © ¹ »
0
« § W ˜ T · »
« SRB ¨ Tc ZPr   SRB Tr0 ZPr0 
0
»
¬ © ¹ ¼
W  Find W T  W ˜ T0 T 362.73 K Ans.
T
Tr  Tr 1.188
Tc
The work is given by Eq. (6.91):


'Hig  R˜ ICPH T0  T  1.131  19.225˜ 10
3
 5.561˜ 10
6
 0.0

3 J
'Hig 9.034 u 10
mol

Ws  'Hig  R˜ Tc˜ HRB Tr Z


Pr   HRB Tr0 Z
Pr0 

J
Ws 8476
mol
Ans.

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6.63 n-Butane: Z  0.200 Tc  425.1˜ K Pc  37.96˜ bar

T0  323.15˜ K P0  1˜ bar P  7.8˜ bar


J
'S  0˜ For the heat capacity of n-butane:
mol˜ K
3 6
36.915˜ 10 11.402˜ 10
A  1.935 B C
K 2
K
T0 P0
Tr0  Tr0 0.76017 Pr0  Pr0 0.02634
Tc Pc
P
Pr  Pr 0.205
Pc


HRB Tr0 Z
Pr0  = 0.05679 HRB0  0.05679

The entropy change is given by Eq. (6.92) combined with Eq. (5.15) with D = 0:

(guess) W  0.4
ª ª § W  1 · º ˜ W  1  ln § P · º
'S = R˜ «A˜ ln W  « B˜ T0  C˜ T0 ˜ ¨
2
Given » ¨P »
« ¬ © 2 ¹ ¼ © ¹ »
0
« § T ˜ W · »
« SRB ¨ Tc ZPr   SRB Tr0 ZPr0 
0
»
¬ © ¹ ¼

W  Find W W 1.18 T  W ˜ T0 T 381.43 K Ans.


T
Tr  Tr 0.89726
Tc
The work is given by Eq. (6.91):


'Hig  R˜ ICPH T0  T  1.935  36.915˜ 10
3
 11.402˜ 10
6
 0.0

3 J
'Hig 6.551 u 10
mol

Ws  'Hig  R˜ Tc˜ HRB Tr Z


Pr 
 HRB Tr0 Z
Pr0 

J
Ws 5680 Ans.
mol

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6.64 The maximum work results when the 1 kg of steam is reduced in a
completely reversible process to the conditions of the surroundings,
where it is liquid at 300 K (26.85 degC). This is the ideal work.
From Table F.2 for the initial state of superheated steam:
kJ kJ
H1  3344.6˜ S1  7.0854˜
kg kg˜ K
From Table F.1, the state of sat. liquid at 300 K is essentially correct:
kJ kJ
H2  112.5˜ S2  0.3928˜ TV  300˜ K
kg kg˜ K
By Eq. (5.27),
kJ
Wideal  H2  H1  TV ˜ S2  S1 Wideal 1224.3
kg
Ans.

6.65 Sat. liquid at 325 K (51.85 degC), Table F.1:


3
kJ kJ cm
Hliq  217.0˜ Sliq  0.7274˜ Vliq  1.013˜
kg kg˜ K gm

Psat  12.87˜ kPa For the compressed liquid at


325 K and 8000 kPa, apply
P1  8000˜ kPa Eqs. (6.28) and (6.29) with
T  325˜ K 6 1
E  460˜ 10 ˜K
kJ
H1  Hliq  Vliq˜ 1  E ˜ T ˜ P1  Psat H1 223.881
kg
kJ
S1  Sliq  E ˜ Vliq˜ P1  Psat S1 0.724
kg˜ K

For sat. vapor at 8000 kPa, from Table F.2:


kJ kJ
H2  2759.9˜ S2  5.7471˜ TV  300˜ K
kg kg˜ K

kJ
Heat added in boiler: Q  H2  H1 Q 2536
kg
Maximum work from steam, by Eq. (5.27):
kJ
Wideal  H1  H2  TV ˜ S1  S2 Wideal 1029
kg

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Work as a fraction of heat added:

Wideal
Frac  Frac 0.4058 Ans.
Q
The heat not converted to work ends up in the surroundings.

Q  Wideal kg kW
SdotG.surr  ˜ 10˜ SdotG.surr 50.234
TV sec K

kg kW
SdotG.system  S1  S2 ˜ 10˜ sec SdotG.system 50.234
K

Obviously the TOTAL rate of entropy generation is zero. This is because


the ideal work is for a completely reversible process.

6.66 Treat the furnace as a heat reservoir, for which


kJ kg
Qdot  2536˜ ˜ 10˜ T  (600  273.15)K
˜ T 873.15 K
kg sec
Qdot kW kW
SdotG   50.234˜ SdotG 21.19 Ans.
T K K
By Eq. (5.34)

TV  300˜ K Wdotlost  TV ˜ SdotG Wdotlost 6356.9 kW Ans.

6.67 For sat. liquid water at 20 degC, Table F.1:


kJ kJ
H1  83.86˜ S1  0.2963˜
kg kg˜ K
For sat. liquid water at 0 degC, Table F.1:
kJ kJ
H0  0.04˜ S0  0.0000˜
kg kg˜ K
For ice at at 0 degC:
kJ 333.4 kJ
H2  H0  333.4˜ S2  S0  ˜
kg 273.15 kg˜ K

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kJ kJ
H2 333.44 S2 1.221
kg kg˜ K

kg
TV  293.15˜ K mdot  0.5˜ K t  0.32
sec
By Eqs. (5.26) and (5.28):

Wdotideal  mdot˜ ª¬ H2  H1  TV ˜ S2  S1 º¼ Wdotideal 13.686 kW

Wdotideal
Wdot  Wdot 42.77 kW Ans.
Kt

6.68 This is a variation on Example 5.6., pp. 175-177, where all property values
are given. We approach it here from the point of view that if the process
is completely reversible then the ideal work is zero. We use the notation of
Example 5.6:
kJ kJ kJ
H1  2676.0˜ S1  7.3554˜ H2  0.0˜
kg kg˜ K kg

kJ kJ
S2  0.0˜ Q'  2000˜ TV  273.15˜ K
kg˜ K kg
The system consists of two parts: the apparatus and the heat reservoir at
elevated temperature, and in the equation for ideal work, terms must be
included for each part.
Wideal = 'Happaratus.reservoir  TV ˜ 'Sapparatus.reservoir

'Happaratus.reservoir = H2  H1  Q'
kJ
Q' Wideal = 0.0˜
'Sapparatus.reservoir = S2  S1  kg
T'
T'  450˜ K (Guess)

= H2  H1  Q'  TV ˜ §¨ S2  S1 
kJ Q' ·
Given 0˜
kg © T' ¹

T'  Find (T') T' 409.79 K Ans.

(136.64 degC)

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6.69 From Table F.4 at 200(psi):
BTU BTU
H1  1222.6˜ S1  1.5737˜ (at 420 degF)
lbm lbm˜ rankine

BTU BTU (Sat. liq.


Hliq  355.51˜ Hvap  1198.3˜ and vapor)
lbm lbm

BTU BTU
Sliq  0.5438˜ Svap  1.5454˜ x  0.96
lbm˜ rankine lbm˜ rankine

H2  Hliq  x˜ Hvap  Hliq S2  Sliq  x˜ Svap  Sliq

3 BTU BTU
H2 1.165 u 10 S2 1.505
lbm lbm˜ rankine

Neglecting kinetic- and potential-energy changes,


on the basis of 1 pound mass of steam after mixing, Eq. (2.30) yields for
the exit stream:
BTU
H  0.5˜ H1  0.5˜ H2 H 1193.6 (wet steam)
lbm
H  Hliq
x x 0.994 Ans.
Hvap  Hliq

BTU
S  Sliq  x˜ Svap  Sliq S 1.54
lbm˜ rankine
By Eq. (5.22) on the basis of 1 pound mass of exit steam,

4 BTU
SG  S  0.5˜ S1  0.5˜ S2 SG 2.895 u 10 Ans.
lbm˜ rankine

6.70 From Table F.3 at 430 degF (sat. liq. and vapor):
3 3
ft ft 3
Vliq  0.01909˜ Vvap  1.3496˜ Vtank  80˜ ft
lbm lbm
BTU BTU
Uliq  406.70˜ Uvap  1118.0˜ mliq  4180˜ lbm
lbm lbm

3
VOLliq  mliq˜ Vliq VOLliq 79.796 ft

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3
VOLvap  Vtank  VOLliq VOLvap 0.204 ft

VOLvap
mvap  mvap 0.151 lbm
Vvap
mliq˜ Uliq  mvap˜ Uvap BTU
U1  U1 406.726
mliq  mvap lbm

By Eq. (2.29) multiplied through by dt, we can write,


(Subscript t denotes the contents of the tank.
d mt˜ Ut  H˜ dm = 0 H and m refer to the exit stream.)

m
´
Integration gives: m2˜ U2  m1˜ U1  µ H dm = 0
¶0
From Table F.3 we see that the enthalpy of saturated vapor changes
from 1203.9 to 1203.1(Btu/lb) as the temperature drops from 430 to 420
degF. This change is so small that use of an average value for H of
1203.5(Btu/lb) is fully justified. Then
BTU
m2˜ U2  m1˜ U1  Have ˜ m = 0 Have  1203.5˜
lbm
m1  mliq  mvap
m2 (mass) m1  mass
Property values below are for sat. liq. and vap. at 420 degF

3 3
ft ft
Vliq  0.01894˜ Vvap  1.4997˜
lbm lbm

BTU BTU
Uliq  395.81˜ Uvap  1117.4˜
lbm lbm

Vtank V2 (mass) Vliq


V2 (mass) x(mass)
m2 (mass) Vvap  Vliq

U2 (mass) Uliq  x(mass)˜ Uvap  Uliq

mass  50˜ lbm (Guess)

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m1˜ U1  U2 ( mass)
Given mass =
Have  U2 ( mass)

mass  Find ( mass) mass 55.36 lbm Ans.

6.71 The steam remaining in the tank is assumed to have expanded isentropically.
Data from Table F.2 at 4500 kPa and 400 degC:
3
J cm 3
S1  6.7093˜ V1  64.721˜ Vtank  50˜ m
gm˜ K gm
J By interpolation in Table F.2
S2 = S1 = 6.7093˜
gm˜ K at this entropy and 3500 kPa:

3
cm
V2  78.726˜ t2 = 362.46˜ C Ans.
gm

Vtank Vtank
m1  m2  'm  m1  m2 'm 137.43 kg Ans.
V1 V2

6.72 This problem is similar to Example 6.8, where it is shown that

Q = ' mt˜ Ht  H˜ 'mt


Here, the symbols with subscript t refer to the contents of the tank,
whereas H refers to the entering stream.
We illustrate here development of a simple expression for the first term on
the right. The1500 kg of liquid initially in the tank is unchanged during the
process. Similarly, the vapor initially in the tank that does NOT condense
is unchanged. The only two enthalpy changes within the tank result from:

1. Addition of 1000 kg of liquid water. This contributes an enthalpy change of

Hliq˜ 'mt
2. Condensation of y kg of sat. vapor to sat. liq.
This contributes an enthalpy change of
y˜ Hliq  Hvap = '
y˜ Hlv
Thus ' mt˜ Ht = Hliq˜ 'mt  y˜ 'Hlv

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Similarly, ' mt˜ Vt = Vliq˜ 'mt  y˜ 'Vlv = 0
Whence Q = Hliq˜ 'mt  y˜ 'Hlv  H˜ 'mt

'mt  1000˜ kg Required data from Table F.1 are:


kJ
At 50 degC: H  209.3˜
kg
3
kJ cm
At 250 degC: Hliq  1085.8˜ Vliq  1.251˜
kg gm
3
kJ cm
'Hlv  1714.7˜ 'Vlv  48.79˜
kg gm
Vliq˜ 'mt
y y 25.641 kg
'Vlv

Q  'mt˜ Hliq  H  y˜ 'Hlv Q 832534 kJ Ans.

3 kJ
6.73 Given: Vtank  0.5˜ m Hin  120.8˜
kg
kJ
C  0.43˜ T1  295˜ K mtank  30˜ kg
kg˜ K

Data for saturated nitrogen vapor:

§ 80 · § 1.396 · § 0.1640 ·
¨ 85 ¨ 2.287 ¨ 0.1017
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 90 ¸ ¨ 3.600 ¸ ¨ 0.06628 ¸ 3
T  ¨ 95 ¸ ˜ K P  ¨ 5.398 ¸ ˜ bar V  ¨ 0.04487 ¸ ˜
m
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ kg
¨ 100 ¸ ¨ 7.775 ¸ ¨ 0.03126 ¸
¨ 105 ¸ ¨ 10.83 ¸ ¨ 0.02223 ¸
¨ ¨ ¨
© 110 ¹ © 14.67 ¹ © 0.01598 ¹

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§ 78.9 ·
¨ 82.3 At the point when liquid nitrogen starts to
¨ ¸ accumulate in the tank, it is filled with saturated
¨ 85.0 ¸ vapor nitrogen at the final temperature and having
H  ¨ 86.8 ¸ ˜
kJ
properties
¨ ¸ kg
¨ 87.7 ¸ mvap  Tvap  Vvap  Hvap  Uvap
¨ 87.4 ¸
¨
© 85.6 ¹
By Eq. (2.29) multiplied through by dt, d nt˜ Ut  H˜ dm = dQ

Subscript t denotes the contents of the tank; H and m refer to the inlet
stream. Since the tank is initially evacuated, integration gives
mvap˜ Uvap  Hin˜ mvap = Q = mtank˜ C˜ Tvap  T1 (A)

Vtank
Also, mvap = (B)
Vvap
Calculate internal-energy values for saturated vapor nitrogen at the given
values of T:
§ 56.006 ·
 o ¨ 59.041
U  (H  P˜ V) ¨ ¸
¨ 61.139 ¸
U ¨ 62.579 ¸
kJ
¨ ¸ kg
¨ 63.395 ¸
¨ 63.325 ¸
¨
© 62.157 ¹
Fit tabulated data with cubic spline:

Us  lspline (T  U) Vs  lspline (T  V)

t  interp (Us  T  U  t)
Uvap () t  interp (Vs  T  V  t)
Vvap ()

Tvap  100˜ K (guess)

Combining Eqs. (A) & (B) gives:

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Given
mtank˜ C˜ T1  Tvap ˜ Vvap Tvap
Uvap Tvap  Hin =
Vtank

Tvap  Find Tvap Tvap 97.924 K

Vtank
mvap 
Vvap Tvap mvap 13.821 kg Ans.

6.74 The result of Part (a) of Pb. 3.15 applies, with m replacing n:

m2˜ U2  H  m1˜ U1  H = Q = 0
Whence m2˜ H  U2 = m1˜ H  U1
Also U2 = Uliq.2  x2˜ 'Ulv.2
Vtank
V2 = Vliq.2  x2˜ 'Vlv.2 V2 =
m2
Eliminating x2 from these equations gives

§ Vtank ·
¨  Vliq.2
¨
m2˜ H  Uliq.2 
m2 ¸
˜ 'Ulv.2 = m1˜ H  U1
¨ 'Vlv.2
© ¹
which is later solved for m2

3 Vtank
Vtank  50˜ m m1  16000˜ kg V1 
m1
3
3m
V1 3.125 u 10
kg
Data from Table F.1 @ 25 degC:
3 3
cm cm
Vliq.1  1.003˜ 'Vlv.1  43400˜
gm gm

kJ kJ
Uliq.1  104.8˜ 'Ulv.1  2305.1˜
kg kg

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V1  Vliq.1
x1  U1  Uliq.1  x1˜ 'Ulv.1
'Vlv.1

5 kJ
x1 4.889 u 10 U1 104.913
kg
Data from Table F.2 @ 800 kPa:
3 kJ
cm Uliq.2  720.043˜
Vliq.2  1.115˜ kg
gm
3
cm kJ
'Vlv.2  (240.26  1.115)˜ 'Ulv.2  (2575.3  720.043)˜
gm kg
3
m 3 kJ
'Vlv.2 0.239 'Ulv.2 1.855 u 10
kg kg

kJ
Data from Table F.2 @ 1500 kPa: H  2789.9˜
kg

§ 'Ulv.2 ·
m1˜ H  U1  Vtank˜ ¨
m2  © 'Vlv.2 ¹ m2
4
2.086 u 10 kg
§ 'Ulv.2 ·
H  Uliq.2  Vliq.2˜ ¨
© 'Vlv.2 ¹
3
msteam  m2  m1 msteam 4.855 u 10 kg Ans.

6.75 The result of Part (a) of Pb. 3.15 applies, with n1 = Q = 0


Whence U2 = H
From Table F.2 at 400 kPa and 240 degC

kJ Interpolation in Table F.2 will produce values of t


H = 2943.9˜
kg and V for a given P where U = 2943.9 kJ/kg.

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§ 1 · § 384.09 · § 303316 ·
¨ 100 ¨ 384.82 ¨ 3032.17
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ cm3
P2  ¨ 200 ¸ t2  ¨ 385.57 ¸ V2  ¨ 1515.61 ¸ ˜
¨ 300 ¸ ¨ 386.31 ¸ ¨ 1010.08 ¸ gm
¨ ¨ ¨
© 400 ¹ © 387.08 ¹ © 757.34 ¹
3 Vtank
i  1  5 Vtank  1.75˜ m massi 
V2
i
§ 5.77 u 10 3 · T rises very slowly as P increases
¨
¨ 0.577 ¸
mass ¨ ¸ 3
1.155 ¸ kg
¨
¨ 1.733 ¸ 2
¨ massi
© 2.311 ¹ 1

0
0 200 400
P2
i
3
6.76 Vtank  2˜ m Data from Table F.2 @ 3000 kPa:
3 3
cm cm
Vliq  1.216˜ Vvap  66.626˜
gm gm

kJ kJ
Hliq  1008.4˜ Hvap  2802.3˜
kg kg
Vtank
x1  0.1 V1  Vliq  x1˜ Vvap  Vliq m1 
V1
3
3m
V1 7.757 u 10 m1 257.832 kg
kg

The process is the same as that of Example 6.8, except that the stream
flows out rather than in. The energy balance is the same, except for a sign:

Q = ' mt˜ Ht  H˜ 'mtank

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where subscript t denotes conditions in the tank, and H is the enthalpy of
the stream flowing out of the tank. The only changes affecting the
enthalpy of the contents of the tank are:
1. Evaporation of y kg of sat. liq.:

y˜ Hvap  Hliq
2. Exit of 0.6˜ m1˜ kg of liquid from the tank:
0.6˜ m1˜ Hliq
Thus
' mt˜ Ht = y˜ Hvap  Hliq  0.6˜ m1˜ Hliq
Similarly, since the volume of the tank is constant, we can write,

' mt˜ Vt = y˜ Vvap  Vliq  0.6˜ m1˜ Vliq = 0

0.6˜ m1˜ Vliq


Whence y=
Vvap  Vliq

0.6˜ m1˜ Vliq


Q= ˜ Hvap  Hliq  0.6˜ m1˜ Hliq  H˜ 'mtank
Vvap  Vliq

But H = Hliq and 0.6˜'


m1 = mtank
and therefore the last two terms of the energy equation cancel:

0.6˜ m1˜ Vliq


Q ˜ Hvap  Hliq Q 5159 kJ Ans.
Vvap  Vliq

6.77 Data from Table F.1 for sat. liq.:

kJ kJ
H1  100.6˜ (24 degC) H3  355.9˜ (85 degC)
kg kg

Data from Table F.2 for sat. vapor @ 400 kPa:


kJ
H2  2737.6˜
kg
By Eq. (2.30), neglecting kinetic and potential energies and setting the
heat and work terms equal to zero:
H3˜ mdot3  H1˜ mdot1  H2˜ mdot2 = 0

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kg
Also mdot1 = mdot3  mdot2 mdot3  5˜
sec
Whence mdot3˜ H1  H3
mdot2 
H1  H2

mdot1  mdot3  mdot2


kg kg
mdot2 0.484 Ans. mdot1 4.516 Ans.
sec sec

6.78 Data from Table F.2 for sat. vapor @ 2900 kPa:
kJ kJ kg
H3  2802.2˜ S3  6.1969˜ mdot3  15˜
kg kg˜ K sec
Table F.2, superheated vap., 3000 kPa, 375 degC:
kJ kJ
H2  3175.6˜ S2  6.8385˜
kg kg˜ K
Table F.1, sat. liq. @ 50 degC:
3
cm kJ kJ
Vliq  1.012˜ Hliq  209.3˜ Sliq  0.7035˜
gm kg kg˜ K

Psat  12.34˜ kPa T  323.15˜ K


Find changes in H and S caused by pressure increase from 12.34 to 3100
kPa. First estimate the volume expansivity from sat. liq, data at 45 and 55
degC:
3
cm
'V  (1.015  1.010)˜ 'T  10˜ K P  3100˜ kPa
gm
3
 3 cm 1 'V 4 1
'V 5 u 10 E ˜ E 4.941 u 10 K
gm Vliq 'T

Apply Eqs. (6.28) & (6.29) at constant T:


kJ
H1  Hliq  Vliq˜ 1  E ˜ T ˜ P  Psat H1 211.926
kg
kJ
S1  Sliq  E ˜ Vliq˜ P  Psat S1 0.702
kg˜ K

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By Eq. (2.30), neglecting kinetic and potential energies and setting the heat
and work terms equal to zero:
H3˜ mdot3  H1˜ mdot1  H2˜ mdot2 = 0
Also mdot2 = mdot3  mdot1

mdot3˜ H3  H2 kg
Whence mdot1  mdot1 1.89 Ans.
H1  H2 sec

kg
mdot2  mdot3  mdot1 mdot2 13.11
sec
For adiabatic conditions, Eq. (5.22) becomes
SdotG  S3˜ mdot3  S1˜ mdot1  S2˜ mdot2
kJ
SdotG 1.973 Ans.
sec˜ K

The mixing of two streams at different temperatures is irreversible.

6.79 Table F.2, superheated vap. @ 700 kPa, 200 degC:


kJ kJ
H3  2844.2˜ S3  6.8859˜
kg kg˜ K

Table F.2, superheated vap. @ 700 kPa, 280 degC:


kJ kJ kg
H1  3017.7˜ S1  7.2250˜ mdot1  50˜
kg kg˜ K sec
Table F.1, sat. liq. @ 40 degC:
kJ kJ
Hliq  167.5˜ Sliq  0.5721˜
kg kg˜ K
By Eq. (2.30), neglecting kinetic and potential energies and setting the heat
and work terms equal to zero:
H2  Hliq H3˜ mdot3  H1˜ mdot1  H2˜ mdot2 = 0
Also mdot3 = mdot2  mdot1

mdot1˜ H1  H3 kg
mdot2  mdot2 3.241 Ans.
H3  H2 sec
For adiabatic conditions, Eq. (5.22) becomes

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S2  Sliq mdot3  mdot2  mdot1

SdotG  S3˜ mdot3  S1˜ mdot1  S2˜ mdot2


kJ
SdotG 3.508 Ans.
sec˜ K
The mixing of two streams at different temperatures is irreversible.

6.80 Basis: 1 mol air at 12 bar and 900 K (1)

+ 2.5 mol air at 2 bar and 400 K (2)

= 3.5 mol air at T and P.

T1  900˜ K T2  400˜ K P1  12˜ bar P2  2˜ bar

7 J
n1  1˜ mol n2  2.5˜ mol CP  R CP 29.099
2 mol˜ K
1st law: T  600˜ K (guess)

Given n1˜ CP˜ T  T1  n2˜ CP˜ T  T2 = 0˜ J

T  Find (T) T 542.857 K Ans.

2nd law: P  5˜ bar (guess)

Given ª n ˜ § C ˜ ln§ T ·  R˜ ln § P · ·  º J


« 1 ¨ P ¨ T1 ¨P » = 0˜ K
« © © ¹ © 1 ¹¹ »
«  n2˜ §¨ CP˜ ln§¨ ·  R˜ ln §¨ · ·
T P
»
¬ © © T2 ¹ © P2 ¹ ¹ ¼

P  Find (P) P 4.319 bar Ans.

lb 7 R BTU
6.81 molwt  28.014˜ CP  ˜ CP 0.248
lbmol 2 molwt lbm˜ rankine

Ms = steam rate in lbm/sec


lbm
Mn = nitrogen rate in lbm/sec Mn  40˜
sec

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(1) = sat. liq. water @ 212 degF entering

(2) = exit steam at 1 atm and 300 degF

(3) = nitrogen in at 750 degF T3  1209.67˜ rankine


(4) = nitrogen out at 325 degF T4  784.67˜ rankine

BTU BTU
H1  180.17˜ S1  0.3121˜ (Table F.3)
lbm lbm˜ rankine

BTU BTU
H2  1192.6˜ S2  1.8158˜ (Table F.4)
lbm lbm˜ rankine

Eq. (2.30) applies with negligible kinetic and potential energies and with the
work term equal to zero and with the heat transfer rate given by

lbm BTU
Ms  3˜ (guess) Q = 60˜ ˜ Ms
sec lbm

BTU
Given Ms˜ H2  H1  Mn˜ CP˜ T4  T3 = 60˜ ˜ Ms
lbm
lbm
Ms  Find Ms Ms 3.933 Ans.
sec
Eq. (5.22) here becomes
Q
SdotG = Ms˜ S2  S1  Mn˜ S4  S3 
TV

§ T4 · BTU BTU
S4  S3 = CP˜ ln ¨ Q  60˜ ˜ Ms Q 235.967
© T3 ¹ lbm sec

TV  529.67˜ rankine

§ § T4 · · Q
SdotG  Ms˜ S2  S1  Mn˜ ¨ CP˜ ln ¨ 
© © T3 ¹ ¹ TV
BTU
SdotG 2.064 Ans.
sec˜ rankine

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gm 7 R J
6.82 molwt  28.014˜ CP  ˜ CP 1.039
mol 2 molwt gm˜ K
Ms = steam rate in kg/sec
kg
Mn= nitrogen rate in kg/sec Mn  20˜
sec
(1) = sat. liq. water @ 101.33 kPa entering
(2) = exit steam at 101.33 kPa and 150 degC
(3) = nitrogen in @ 400 degC T3  673.15˜ K
(4) = nitrogen out at 170 degC T4  443.15˜ K
kJ kJ
H1  419.064˜ S1  1.3069˜ (Table F.2)
kg kg˜ K
kJ kJ
H2  2776.2˜ S2  7.6075˜ (Table F.2)
kg kg˜ K

By Eq. (2.30), neglecting kinetic and potential energies and setting


the work term to zero and with the heat transfer rate given by
kg kJ
Ms  1˜ (guess) Q = 80˜ ˜ Ms
sec kg
kJ
Given Ms˜ H2  H1  Mn˜ CP˜ T4  T3 = 80˜ ˜ Ms
kg

kg
Ms  Find Ms Ms 1.961 Ans.
sec
Eq. (5.22) here becomes
Q
SdotG = Ms˜ S2  S1  Mn˜ S4  S3 
TV

§ T4 · kJ
S4  S3 = CP˜ ln ¨ TV  298.15˜ K Q  80˜ ˜ Ms
© T3 ¹ kg

§ § T4 · · Q
SdotG  Ms˜ S2  S1  Mn˜ ¨ CP˜ ln ¨ 
© © T3 ¹ ¹ TV
kJ
SdotG 4.194 Ans.
sec˜ K

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6.86 Methane = 1; propane = 2
T  363.15˜ K P  5500˜ kPa y1  0.5 y2  1  y1

Z 1  0.012 Z 2  0.152 Zc1  0.286 Zc2  0.276

Tc1  190.6˜ K Tc2  369.8˜ K


Pc1  45.99˜ bar Pc2  42.48˜ bar
The elevated pressure here requires use of either an equation of state or
the Lee/Kesler correlation with pseudocritical parameters. We choose the
latter.
Tpc  y1˜ Tc1  y2˜ Tc2 Ppc  y1˜ Pc1  y2˜ Pc2

Tpc 280.2 K Ppc 44.235 bar

T P
Tpr  Tpr 1.296 Ppr 
Tpc Ppc Ppr 1.243

By interpolation in Tables E.3 and E.4:


Z0  0.8010 Z1  0.1100

Z  y1˜ Z 1  y2˜ Z 2 Z 0.082 Z  Z0  Z ˜ Z1 Z 0.81

For the molar mass of the mixture, we have:


gm gm
molwt  y1˜ 16.043  y2˜ 44.097 ˜ molwt 30.07
mol mol

3
Z˜ R˜ T cm kg m
V V 14.788 mdot  1.4˜ u  30˜
P˜ molwt gm sec sec
3
4 cm Vdot 2
Vdot  V˜ mdot Vdot 2.07 u 10 A A 6.901 cm
sec u

4˜ A
D D 2.964 cm Ans.
S

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6.87 Vectors containing T, P, Tc, and Pc for the calculation of Tr and Pr:

§ 500 · § 425.2 · § 20 · § 42.77 ·


¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
¨ 400 ¸ ¨ 304.2 ¸ ¨ 200 ¸ ¨ 73.83 ¸
¨ 450 ¸ ¨ 552.0 ¸ ¨ 60 ¸ ¨ 79.00 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 600 ¸ ¨ 617.7 ¸ ¨ 20 ¸ ¨ 21.10 ¸
¨ 620 ¸ ¨ 617.2 ¸ ¨ 20 ¸ ¨ 36.06 ¸ 
o
T ¨ ¸ Tc  ¨ ¸ P ¨ ¸ Pc  ¨ ¸ Tr 
T
¨ 250 ¸ ¨ 190.6 ¸ ¨ 90 ¸ ¨ 45.99 ¸ Tc
¨ 150 ¸ ¨ 154.6 ¸ ¨ 20 ¸ ¨ 50.43 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ 
o
P
¨ 500 ¸ ¨ 469.7 ¸ ¨ 10 ¸ ¨ 33.70 ¸ Pr 
¨ 450 ¸ ¨ 430.8 ¸ ¨ 35 ¸ ¨ 78.84 ¸ Pc
¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
© 400 ¹ © 374.2 ¹ © 15 ¹ © 40.60 ¹
1.176 0.468
1.315 2.709
0.815 0.759
0.971 0.948
1.005 0.555
Tr Pr
1.312 1.957
0.97 0.397
1.065 0.297
1.045 0.444
1.069 0.369

Parts (a), (g), (h), (i), and (j) --- By virial equation:

§ 500 · § 20 · § 425.2 · § 42.77 · § .190 ·


¨ 150 ¨ 20 ¨ 154.6 ¨ 50.43 ¨ .022
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
T  ¨ 500 ¸ ˜ K P  ¨ 10 ¸ ˜ bar Tc  ¨ 469.7 ¸ ˜ K Pc  ¨ 33.70 ¸ ˜ bar Z  ¨ .252 ¸
¨ 450 ¸ ¨ 35 ¸ ¨ 430.8 ¸ ¨ 78.84 ¸ ¨ .245 ¸
¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
© 400 ¹ © 15 ¹ © 374.2 ¹ © 40.6 ¹ © .327 ¹

o 
o
T P
Tr  Pr 
Tc Pc

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§ 1.176 · § 0.468 ·
¨ 0.97 ¨ 0.397
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
Tr ¨ 1.065 ¸ Pr ¨ 0.297 ¸
¨ 1.045 ¸ ¨ 0.444 ¸
¨ ¨
© 1.069 ¹ © 0.369 ¹
o o
B0  §¨ 0.073 
0.422 ·
Eq. (3.65) B1  § 0.139 
0.172 ·
Eq. (3.66)
1.6 ¨ 4.2
© Tr ¹ © Tr ¹

 o  o
0.675 0.722
DB0  Eq. (6.89) DB1  Eq. (6.90)
2.6 5.2
Tr Tr

¨§ ·
0.052
§ 0.253 · § 0.443 · § 0.311 ·
¨ 0.37 ¨ 0.056 ¸ ¨ 0.73 ¨ 0.845
¨ ¸ ¨ 3 ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
B0 ¨  0.309 ¸ B1 ¨ 6.718 u 10 ¸ DB0 ¨ 0.574 ¸ DB1 ¨ 0.522 ¸
¨ 0.321 ¸ ¨ 3¸ ¨ 0.603 ¸ ¨ 0.576 ¸
¨ 4.217 u 10 ¨ ¨
¨ ¸
© 0.306 ¹ ¨ 9.009 u 10  3 © 0.568 ¹ © 0.51 ¹
© ¹
Combine Eqs. (3.61) + (3.62), (3.63), and (6.40) and the definitions of Tr and
Pr to get:
o
VR  ª«R˜ ˜ B0  Z ˜ B1 »
Tc º
¬ Pc ¼
o
Eq. (6.87)
HR  ¬ª R˜ Tc˜ Pr˜ ª¬ B0 ZTr˜ DB0  ˜ (B1  Tr˜ DB1)º¼ º¼

 o
SR  ª¬R˜ Pr˜ DB0  Z ˜ DB1 º¼ Eq. (6.88)

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§ 1.377 u 103 ·
¨ § 1.952 ·
§ 200.647 · ¨ 559.501 ¸ ¨ 2.469
¨ 94.593
¨ ¸ cm3 ¨ 3
¸ J ¨ ¸ J
VR ¨ 355.907 ¸
HR ¨  1.226 u 10 ¸ SR ¨  1.74 ¸
¨ 146.1 ¸ mol ¨ 3¸
mol
¨ 2.745 ¸ mol˜ K
¨ ¨ 1.746 u 10 ¸ ¨
© 232.454 ¹ ¨ 3 © 2.256 ¹
© 1.251 u 10 ¹
Parts (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) --- By Lee/Kesler correlation:
By linear interpolation in Tables E.1--E.12:
0 1
(HR) (HR) HR
DEFINE: h0 equals h1 equals h equals
RTc RTc RTc
0 1
(SR) (SR) SR
s0 equals s1 equals s equals
R R R

§ .663 · § 0.208 · § 2.008 · § 0.233 ·


¨ .124 ¨ .050 ¨ 4.445 ¨ 5.121
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
Z0  ¨ .278 ¸ Z1  ¨ .088 ¸ h0  ¨ 3.049 ¸ h1  ¨ 2.970 ¸
¨ .783 ¸ ¨ .036 ¸ ¨ 0.671 ¸ ¨ 0.596 ¸
¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
© .707 ¹ © 0.138 ¹ © 1.486 ¹ © 0.169 ¹

§ 1.137 · § 0.405 ·
¨ 4.381 ¨ 5.274
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
s0  ¨ 2.675 ¸ s1  ¨ 2.910 ¸
¨ 0.473 ¸ ¨ 0.557 ¸
¨ ¨
© 0.824 ¹ © 0.289 ¹

§ 400 · § 200 · § 304.2 · § .224 ·


¨ 450 ¨ 60 ¨ 552.0 ¨ .111
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
T  ¨ 600 ¸ ˜ K P  ¨ 20 ¸ ˜ bar Tc  ¨ 617.7 ¸ ˜ K Z  ¨ .492 ¸
¨ 620 ¸ ¨ 20 ¸ ¨ 617.2 ¸ ¨ .303 ¸
¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
© 250 ¹ © 90 ¹ © 190.6 ¹ © .012 ¹

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 o  o
Z Z0  Z ˜ Z1 Eq. (3.57) h h0  Z ˜ h1 Eq. (6.85)
o
s s0  Z ˜ s1 (6.86)
o  o
HR  ( h˜ Tc˜ R) SR  ( s˜ R)

§ 5.21 u 103 ·
§ 0.71 · ¨ § 10.207 ·
¨ 0.118 ¨ 2.301 u 104 ¸ ¨ 41.291
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ J ¨ ¸ J
Z ¨ 0.235 ¸ HR ¨ 2.316 u 104 ¸ SR ¨ 34.143 ¸
¨ 0.772 ¸ ¨ 3
¸ mol ¨ 5.336 ¸ mol˜ K
¨ ¨ 4.37 u 10 ¸ ¨
© 0.709 ¹ ¨ 3 © 6.88 ¹
© 2.358 u 10 ¹
§ 48.289 ·

o
¨
¨ 549.691 ¸ 3
ª T º ¨
VR  «R˜ ˜ ( Z  1)» VR 3 ¸ cm
¬ P ¼ 1.909 u 10 ¸
¨ mol And.
¨ 587.396 ¸
¨
© 67.284 ¹

The Lee/Kesler tables indicate that the state in Part (c) is liquid.

6.88 Vectors containing T, P, Tc1, Tc2, Pc1, Pc2, Z1, and Z2 for Parts (a) through (h)

§ 650 · § 60 · § 562.2 · § 553.6 ·


¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
¨ 300 ¸ ¨ 100 ¸ ¨ 304.2 ¸ ¨ 132.9 ¸
¨ 600 ¸ ¨ 100 ¸ ¨ 304.2 ¸ ¨ 568.7 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
350 ¸ 75 ¸ ¨ 305.3 ¸ ˜ K 282.3 ¸
T ¨ ˜K P ¨ ˜ bar Tc1  Tc2  ¨ ˜K
¨ 400 ¸ ¨ 150 ¸ ¨ 373.5 ¸ ¨ 190.6 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 200 ¸ ¨ 75 ¸ ¨ 190.6 ¸ ¨ 126.2 ¸
¨ 450 ¸ ¨ 80 ¸ ¨ 190.6 ¸ ¨ 469.7 ¸
¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
© 250 ¹ © 100 ¹ © 126.2 ¹ © 154.6 ¹

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§ 48.98 · § 40.73 · § .210 · § .210 ·
¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
¨ 73.83 ¸ ¨ 34.99 ¸ ¨ .224 ¸ ¨ .048 ¸
¨ 73.83 ¸ ¨ 24.90 ¸ ¨ .224 ¸ ¨ .400 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
48.72 50.40 .100 .087
Pc1  ¨ ¸ ˜ bar Pc2  ¨ ¸ ˜ bar Z1  ¨ ¸ Z2  ¨ ¸
¨ 89.63 ¸ ¨ 45.99 ¸ ¨ .094 ¸ ¨ .012 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 45.99 34.00 .012 .038
¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 45.99 ¸ ¨ 33.70 ¸ ¨ .012 ¸ ¨ .252 ¸
¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
© 34.00 ¹ © 50.43 ¹ © .038 ¹ © .022 ¹
 o  o  o
Tpc  (.5˜ Tc1  .5˜ Tc2) Ppc  (.5˜ Pc1  .5˜ Pc2) Z .5˜ Z1  .5˜ Z2
o o
T P
Tpr  Ppr 
Tpc Ppc

§ 557.9 · § 44.855 · § 0.21 ·


¨ ¨ ¨
¨ 218.55 ¸ ¨ 54.41 ¸ ¨ 0.136 ¸
¨ 436.45 ¸ ¨ 49.365 ¸ ¨ 0.312 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
Tpc ¨ 293.8 ¸ K Ppc ¨ 49.56 ¸ bar Z ¨ 0.094 ¸
¨ 282.05 ¸ ¨ 67.81 ¸ ¨ 0.053 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 158.4 ¸ ¨ 39.995 ¸ ¨ 0.025 ¸
¨ 330.15 ¸ ¨ 39.845 ¸ ¨ 0.132 ¸
¨ ¨ ¨
© 140.4 ¹ © 42.215 ¹ © 0.03 ¹
§ 1.165 · § 1.338 ·
¨ ¨
¨ 1.373 ¸ ¨ 1.838 ¸
¨ 1.375 ¸ ¨ 2.026 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 1.191 ¸ ¨ 1.513 ¸
Tpr Ppr
¨ 1.418 ¸ ¨ 2.212 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 1.263 1.875
¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 1.363 ¸ ¨ 2.008 ¸
¨ ¨
© 1.781 ¹ © 2.369 ¹

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Lee/Kesler Correlation --- By linear interpolation in Tables E.1--E.12:

§ .6543 · § .1219 · § 1.395 · § .461 ·


¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
¨ .7706 ¸ ¨ .1749 ¸ ¨ 1.217 ¸ ¨ .116 ¸
¨ .7527 ¸ ¨ .1929 ¸ ¨ 1.346 ¸ ¨ .097 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
.6434 .1501  1.510  .400
Z0  ¨ ¸ Z1  ¨ ¸ h0  ¨ ¸ h1  ¨ ¸
¨ .7744 ¸ ¨ .1990 ¸ ¨ 1.340 ¸ ¨ .049 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ .6631 .1853  1.623  .254
¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ .7436 ¸ ¨ .1933 ¸ ¨ 1.372 ¸ ¨ .110 ¸
¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
© .9168 ¹ © .1839 ¹ © 0.820 ¹ © 0.172 ¹

§ .890 · § .466 ·
¨ ¨
¨ .658 ¸ ¨ .235 ¸
¨ .729 ¸ ¨ .242 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
 .944  .430
s0  ¨ ¸ s1  ¨ ¸
¨ .704 ¸ ¨ .224 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
 .965  .348
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ .750 ¸ ¨ .250 ¸
¨ ¨
© .361 ¹ © .095 ¹
0 1
( HR) ( HR) HR
h0 equals h1 equals h equals
RTpc RTpc RTpc
0 1
( SR) ( SR) SR
s0 equals s1 equals s equals
R R R

 o  o
Z Z0  Z ˜ Z1 Eq. (3.57) h h0  Z ˜ h1 Eq. (6.85)

o
s s0  Z ˜ s1 Eq. (6.86)

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 o  o
HR  (hTpc
˜ ˜ R) SR  (s˜ R)

§ 0.68 · § 6919.583 · § 8.213 ·


¨ ¨ ¨
¨ 0.794 ¸ ¨ 2239.984 ¸ ¨ 5.736 ¸
¨ 0.813 ¸ ¨ 4993.974 ¸ ¨ 6.689 ¸
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
Z ¨ 0.657 ¸ HR ¨ 3779.762 ¸ J SR ¨ 8.183 ¸ J
¨ 0.785 ¸ ¨ 3148.341 ¸ mol ¨ 5.952 ¸ mol˜ K Ans.
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¨ 0.668 ¸ ¨ 2145.752 ¸ ¨ 8.095 ¸
¨ 0.769 ¸ ¨ 3805.813 ¸ ¨ 6.51 ¸
¨ ¨ ¨
© 0.922 ¹ © 951.151 ¹ © 3.025 ¹

6.95 Tc  647.1K Pc  220.55bar

At Tr = 0.7: T  0.7˜ Tc T 452.97 K


Find Psat in the Saturated Steam Tables at T = 452.97 K

T1  451.15K P1  957.36kPa T2  453.15K P2  1002.7kPa

P2  P1
Psat  ˜ (T  T1) P1 Psat 998.619 kPa Psat 9.986 bar
T2  T1

Psat
Psatr  Psatr 0.045 Z  1  log Psatr Z 0.344 Ans.
Pc
This is very close to the value reported in Table B.1 (Z = 0.345).

6.96 Tc  374.2K Pc  40.60bar

At Tr = 0.7: T  0.7˜ Tc T 471.492 rankine

T  T  459.67rankine T 11.822 degF


Find Psat in Table 9.1 at T = 11.822 F

T1  10degF P1  26.617psi T2  15degF P2  29.726psi

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P2  P1
Psat  ˜ ( T  T1)  P1 Psat 27.75 psi Psat 1.913 bar
T2  T1

Psat
Psatr  Psatr 0.047 Z  1  log Psatr Z 0.327 Ans.
Pc

This is exactly the same as the value reported in Table B.1.

6.101 For benzene

a) Z  0.210 Tc  562.2K Pc  48.98bar Zc  0.271 Tn  353.2K

Tn atm
Trn  Trn 0.628 Psatrn  1 Psatrn 0.021
Tc Pc

6.09648 6
lnPr0 ( Tr)  5.92714   1.28862˜ ln ( Tr)  0.169347˜ Tr Eqn. (6.79)
Tr

15.6875 6
lnPr1 ( Tr)  15.2518   13.4721˜ ln ( Tr)  0.43577˜ Tr Eqn. (6.80)
Tr

ln Psatrn  lnPr0 Trn


Z Eqn. (6.81). Z 0.207
lnPr1 Trn

lnPsatr ( Tr)  lnPr0 ( Tr)  Z ˜ lnPr1 ( Tr) Eqn. (6.78)

ª 2º
Psatrn ¬ 1 1T rn 7 »¼
«
Zsatliq  ˜ Zc Eqn. (3.73) Zsatliq 0.00334
Trn

0.422 Psatrn
B0  0.083  Eqn. (3.65) Z0  1  B0˜ Eqn. (3.64)
1.6 Trn
Trn
B0 0.805 Z0 0.974

0.172 Psatrn Equation


B1  0.139  Eqn. (3.66) Z1  B1˜ following
4.2 Trn
Trn Eqn. (3.64)
B1 1.073 Z1 0.035

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Zsatvap  Z0  Z ˜ Z1 Eqn. (3.57) Zsatvap 0.966

'Zlv  Zsatvap  Zsatliq 'Zlv 0.963

d 2
'Hhatlv  lnPsatr Trn ˜'
Trn ˜ Zlv 'Hhatlv 6.59
dTrn
kJ
'Hlv  R˜'
Tc˜ Hhatlv 'Hlv 30.802 Ans.
mol

This compares well with the value in Table B.2 of 30.19 kJ/mol

The results for the other species are given in the table below.

EstimatedValue (kJ/mol) Table B.2 (kJ/mol)


Benzene 30.80 30.72
iso-Butane 21.39 21.30
Carbon tetrachloride 29.81 29.82
Cyclohexane 30.03 29.97
n-Decane 39.97 38.75
n-Hexane 29.27 28.85
n-Octane 34.70 34.41
Toluene 33.72 33.18
o-Xylene 37.23 36.24

6.103 For CO2: Z  0.224 Tc  304.2K Pc  73.83bar


At the triple point: Tt  216.55K Pt  5.170bar
a) At Tr = 0.7 T  0.7Tc T 212.94 K

Tt Pt
Ttr  Ttr 0.712 Ptr  Ptr 0.07
Tc Pc

6.09648 6
lnPr0 (Tr) 5.92714   1.28862˜ ln (Tr) 0.169347˜ Tr Eqn. (6.79)
Tr

15.6875 6
lnPr1 (Tr) 15.2518   13.4721˜ ln (Tr) 0.43577˜ Tr Eqn. (6.80)
Tr

ln Ptr  lnPr0 Ttr


Z Eqn. (6.81). Z 0.224 Ans.
lnPr1 Ttr

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This is exactly the same value as given in Table B.1
1atm
b) Psatr  Psatr 0.014 Guess: Trn  0.7
Pc

Given ln Psatr = lnPr0 Trn  Z ˜ lnPr1 Trn Trn  Find Trn

Trn 0.609 Tn  Trn˜ Tc Tn 185.3 K Ans.

This seems reasonable; a Trn of about 0.6 is common for triatomic species.

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