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DEUTSCHE NORM December 2005

DIN 267-26
D
ICS 21.060.30 Supersedes
DIN 267-26:1987-10

Technical delivery conditions for fasteners –


Part 26: Conical spring washers for bolt/nut assemblies
Mechanische Verbindungselemente –
Technische Lieferbedingungen –
Teil 26: Spannscheiben aus Federstahl für Schraubenverbindungen
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Document comprises 10 pages

Translation by DIN-Sprachendienst.
In case of doubt, the German-language original should be consulted as the authoritative text.

© No part of this translation may be reproduced without prior permission of


DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., Berlin. Beuth Verlag GmbH, 10772 Berlin, Germany,
has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen).
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DIN 267-26:2005-12

Foreword
This standard has been prepared by the Normenausschuss Mechanische Verbindungselemente (Fasteners
Standards Committee), Technical Committee NA 067-04-02 AA Scheiben und Ringe.

The DIN 267 standards series consists of the following parts, under the general title Technical delivery
conditions for fasteners:

⎯ Part 2: Design and dimensional accuracy

⎯ Part 6: Design and tolerances for product grade F fasteners

⎯ Part 13: Parts for bolt/nut assemblies with specific mechanical properties for use at temperatures ranging
from –200 °C to +700 °C

⎯ Part 24: Hardness classes for nuts

⎯ Part 26: Conical spring washers for bolt/nut assemblies

⎯ Part 27: Adhesive-coated steel screws, bolts and studs

⎯ Part 28: Self-locking steel screws, bolts and studs

⎯ Part 29: Product grades for parts for bolt/nut assemblies for use at temperatures ranging from –200 °C to
+700 °C

⎯ Part 30: Metric thread rolling screws of property class 10.9

Amendments

This standard differs from DIN 267-26:1987-10 as follows:

a) The title has been amended.

b) The standard now only covers conical spring washers.


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c) References have been updated.

d) In order to reduce the risk of hydrogen embrittlement, a maximum hardness of 490 HV has been
specified.

e) For conical spring washers intended for use with screw and washer assemblies, the minimum free height
has been corrected in accordance with DIN 6908:1995-08.

f) The compression load for spring force testing has been increased.

g) The residual spring force values are no longer given as provisional specifications.

h) A normative Annex A giving a detailed description of the test device for the spring force test has been
added.

i) A normative Annex B on the determination of the spring characteristic curve has been included.

Previous editions

DIN 267-26: 1987-10

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DIN 267-26:2005-12

1 Scope
This standard specifies requirements and methods of test for conical spring washers which are intended for
use with bolt/nut assemblies as dealt with in the following standards:

⎯ DIN 6796, Conical spring washers for bolt/nut assemblies

⎯ DIN 6908, Conical spring washers for screw and washer assemblies

It is recommended that this standard also be applied for conical spring washers for bolt/nut assemblies which
have not been standardized.

Conical spring washers made from materials other than spring steel are not covered by this standard.

NOTE Conical spring washers serve to counteract the loss in inherent tension caused by setting and creep of a
bolt/nut assembly provided that

⎯ they are sufficiently resilient to increase the overall resilience of the assembly;

⎯ their inherent spring force can compensate for any loss in tension so that the clamping force required to ensure the
reliability of the assembly is maintained.

There may be relative movement between bolt and nut if the friction between the clamped components is
overcome by transverse forces. If this does occur, loosening of the assembly cannot usually be prevented by
spring washers.

Thus, when using these components, it should be checked whether the spring washers may usefully be
employed as the elements maintaining the clamping force.

2 Normative references
The following reference documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.

DIN 879-1, Precision dial indicators — Part 1: Analogue indicators


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DIN 6796, Conical spring washers for bolt/nut assemblies

DIN 6908, Conical spring washers for screw and washer assemblies

DIN EN 10089, Hot rolled steels for quenched and tempered springs — Technical delivery conditions

DIN EN 10132-4, Cold-rolled narrow steel strip for heat-treatment — Technical delivery conditions — Part 4:
Spring steels and other applications

DIN EN ISO 3269, Fasteners — Acceptance inspection

DIN EN ISO 4042, Fasteners — Electroplated coatings

DIN EN ISO 6507-1, Metallic materials — Vickers hardness test — Part 1: Test method

DIN EN ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method (scales A, B, C, D,
E, F, G, H, K, N, T)

DIN EN ISO 18265, Metallic materials — Conversion of hardness values

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DIN 267-26:2005-12

VDI 2230-1:2003, Systematic calculation of high duty bolted joints — Joints with one cylindrical bolt

3 General requirements
The effectiveness of springs washers in bolt/nut assemblies depends on

⎯ the material (see clause 4) and

⎯ whether the test criteria specified in clause 5 are met.

Spring washers shall have a smooth surface and be free from scale and burrs. The surface roughness shall
be specified in the relevant product standards where required. In the as-delivered condition, spring washers
shall have rust protection.

DIN EN ISO 4042 shall apply with regard to electroplating.

NOTE Hydrogen-induced embrittlement cannot be ruled out when employing current methods of applying metal
coating from aqueous solutions (see DIN EN ISO 4042). As there is even an increased risk of embrittlement in the case of
components with a hardness of ≥ 400 HV, particular care is to be taken when selecting the material, and in connection
with heat treatment and surface treatment.

4 Material
Spring washers shall be made of spring steel (FSt) complying with DIN EN 10089 or DIN EN 10132-4, or of
spring steel with equivalent properties, the grade being at the manufacturer's discretion. This requirement
shall also apply where the documentation does not specify any material. Spring washers for bolt/nut
assemblies, in the hardened and tempered condition, shall have a hardness of 420 HV to 490 HV.

5 Testing

5.1 Testing for dimensional stability and finish

The specifications of DIN EN ISO 3269 shall apply for acceptance inspection with respect to the dimensional
stability of spring washers. For the characteristics
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⎯ internal diameter,

⎯ washer thickness,

⎯ free height and

⎯ external diameter,

an AQL value of 1,5 shall apply.

5.2 Testing the mechanical properties

5.2.1 General

The mechanical properties shall be tested as specified in 5.2.2 to 5.2.5.

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DIN 267-26:2005-12

5.2.2 Hardness testing

DIN EN ISO 6507-1 shall apply for the Vickers hardness test.

DIN EN ISO 6508-1 shall apply for the Rockwell hardness test.

DIN EN ISO 18265 shall apply for the conversion of hardness values.

When testing conical spring washers, the value shall be measured, where possible, in the middle of the
washer surface. The supporting surface on which the measurement is made shall be firm.

5.2.3 Test for permanent set

The spring washers to be tested shall be compressed for two minutes using the compression loads specified
in Table 1.

NOTE The compression loads correspond to the preloads for bolts of property class 8.8, with µG = 0,12 in
accordance with VDI 2230-1:2003.

The free height of the washers (height after release of pressure) shall not be less than the values specified in
Table 1.

5.2.4 Permanent load test

Ten conical spring washers, threaded with alternating orientation on a bolt and separated from one another by
parallel-faced washers (hardened to at least 500 HV), shall not fracture after 48 hours conditioning at a
temperature of +100 °C under the compression loads specified in Table 1, nor shall the free height be more
than 2 % below the values specified in Table 1.
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DIN 267-26:2005-12

Table 1 — Test for permanent set

Nominal size
2 2,5 3 3,5 4 5 6
(bolt thread size)
Compression loada
0,92 1,54 2,35 3,16 4,4 7,2 10,2
kN

Minimum free DIN 6796 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,9 1,1 1,3 1,7
height
mm DIN 6908b — 0,61 0,72 0,92 1,12 1,35 1,70

Nominal size
7 8 10 12 14 16 18
(bolt thread size)
Compression loada
14,8 18,6 29,6 43 59,1 80,9 102
kN

Minimum free DIN 6796 2 2,2 2,8 3,4 4 4,6 5,1


height
mm DIN 6908 b — 2,24 2,8 3,43 — — —

Nominal size
20 22 24 27 30
(bolt thread size)
Compression loada
130 162 188 246 300
kN

Minimum free DIN 6796 5,6 6,1 6,8 7,3 8


height
mm DIN 6908b — — — — —
a Corresponds to the preload for bolts of property class 8.8, with µG = 0,12 in accordance with VDI 2230-1.

b As a deviation from the specifications given in the relevant product standard for washers for screw assemblies, the bolt thread
size instead of the inside diameter shall be used as the relevant nominal size.
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5.2.5 Spring force test

In order to assess the resilience of spring washers, a spring force test shall be carried out. This test permits
the residual spring force to be determined.

The washer to be tested shall be placed in the test device and subjected to the compression load specified in
Table 2. The test device shall be designed to permit as uniform an application of the load as possible. The
pressure platen shall have a minimum surface hardness of 60 HRC. After two minutes, the load applied to the
spring washer shall be slowly and steadily released through a travel of 20 µm, which shall be measured using
a precision measuring device. The residual spring force after release through a travel of 20 µm shall reach the
values specified in Table 2, due allowance being made for any deformation of the test device.

A suitable test device is described in Annex A.

Specifications for determining the spring characteristics are given in Annex B.

Table 3 summarizes the residual spring forces required for all washer types.

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DIN 267-26:2005-12

Table 2 — Minimum residual spring forces

Nominal sizea 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16
Compression loadb
4,4 7,2 10,2 14,8 18,6 29,6 43 59,1 80,9
kN
Minimum residual spring force
1,4 2,3 4,2 6,2 7,7 12,4 18 25 34
kN

Nominal sizea 18 20 22 24 27 30
Compression loadb
102 130 162 188 246 300
kN
Minimum residual spring force
57 73 91 122 161 196
kN
a As a deviation from the specifications given in DIN 6908 for washers for screw assemblies, the bolt thread size instead of the
inside diameter shall be used as the relevant nominal size.
b Corresponds to the preload for bolts of property class 8.8, with µG = 0,12 in accordance with VDI 2230-1.

Table 3 — Residual spring forces (overview)

Compression load Residual spring force after release


Type of
As specified in corresponding to the through travel of 20 µm, as a
washer
preload for property class percentage of the compression load
35 % for nominal sizes 4 to 5
Conical spring DIN 6796 45 % for nominal sizes 6 to 16
8.8
washer DIN 6908 60 % for nominal sizes 18 to 22
70 % for nominal sizes above 22

6 Form of supply
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Conical spring washers shall be packed to give adequate protection against mechanical damage during
transport.

The packages shall be marked with the standard designation specified in the relevant product standard, e.g.:

DIN 6796 — 8 — FSt


In addition, the number of units in the package and the manufacturer’s symbol shall be stated on the package.

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DIN 267-26:2005-12

Annex A
(normative)

Test device for the spring force test

A.1 General
Figure A.1 shows an example of a suitable test device. Other designs may be used, provided the
requirements specified in A.2 are met.
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Key

1 Pressure platen 5 Centring device


2 Bearing plate 6 Pedestal
3 Centring pins 7 Sleeve
4 Measuring pin 8 Travel gauge

Figure A.1 — Example of a test device

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DIN 267-26:2005-12

A.2 Requirements for the test device


a) Low resilience and, if possible, only (elastic) compressive deformation without flexural deformation of the
complete test device, in particular in the zone where the force is transmitted from the pressure platen (1)
to the bearing plate (2) and the upper part of the pedestal (6).

b) Centric bore in the pedestal permitting the passage of the measuring pin (4) of the travel gauge (8) and
that of the sleeve (7).

c) Fastening of travel gauge (8) using a sleeve (7) at exactly the same height as the upper face of the
bearing plate (2), so as to ensure that the error resulting from the inherent deformation of the gauge is as
small as possible.

d) Bearing plate (2) and sleeve (7) removable, so that bearing plates for different washer diameters can be
used.

e) All surfaces via which the force is applied and the elastic deformations of which are included in the travel
measurements shall have a roughness Ra ≤ 0,4 (corresponding to Rz ≤ 1,6).

f) The bearing plate (2) and the pressure platen (1) shall have a hardness ≥ 60 HRC.

g) The pressure platen (1) shall be guided so as to be parallel to the bearing plate, a useful feature being a
play of some tenths of a millimetre in the plane of the bearing plate to compensate for low elastic forces
(this is generally provided for in universal testing machines).

h) The compression load shall be adjustable to within 2 %, and it shall be possible to read the residual
spring force to within 2 %.

i) The dial indicator, the inductive travel gauge or any other travel gauge (8) used may only have a relative
repeatability error and reversibility error not exceeding 1 µm for any partial measuring range of 40 µm, the
direction of movement of the measuring pin being away from the gauge (see DIN 879-1 for definitions).
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DIN 267-26:2005-12

Annex B
(normative)

Determination of spring characteristic curve


When determining the spring characteristic of spring washers as part of the spring force test, the effect of the
elastic deformation of the test device is to be allowed for by deducting the spring travel originating in the test
device from the overall travel (i.e. that of spring washer and test device). The relief characteristic curve for the
test device is to be determined as follows.

Instead of a spring washer, a plain washer shall be placed in the test device (see Figure A.1 for example). The
plain washer shall be lapped on both sides and have a tolerance on parallelism ≤ 1 µm and a hardness
≥ 700 HV. The washer dimensions (inside diameter, outside diameter and thickness) shall be identical to
those of the spring washer to be tested. The relief characteristic curve of the test device, starting at the
compression loads specified in Table 2, shall be plotted.

NOTE It is essential that parallel-faced washers having the same dimensions as the spring washers to be tested be
used when recording the relief characteristic curve of the test device, as different-sized washers will give different
characteristics.

In Figure B.1, the continuous line represents the total relief characteristic curve (conical spring washer plus
test device) and the dashed line the relief characteristic curve of the device only. A segment of the curve of
the spring washer obtained by subtraction of the two curves is plotted as a chain line.

To avoid any reversibility error of the force measuring device and the travel gauge, the values of compression
load specified in Table 2 may be exceeded by 5 % when applying the load. The starting point for measuring
the 20 µm travel shall, however, be the compression load specified.
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a
Total relief curve
b
Relief characteristic curve of test device
c
Relief characteristic curve of spring washer
d
Residual spring force X recorded when spring washer has been released by through travel of 20 µm

Figure B.1 — Determination of spring characteristic (relief characteristic curve) (example)

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