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Application of Geomatics in Preparation

of PDD for A/R Projects under CDM

Subhash Ashutosh
Joint Director
Forest Survey of India
sashutosh30@yahoo.com
AFORESTATION & REFORESTATION PROJECTS
UNDER CDM
Project Design Document (PDD) of LULUCF
Projects under CDM
• describes the project
• illustrates how the methodology will be applied
• estimates the greenhouse gases and
environmental and socio-economic impacts of the
project
• gives baseline information, and
• presents a measurement & monitoring plan
Important Requirements & Concepts in the PDD

• Defining Project Boundary


• Baseline Scenario
• Additionality
• Leakage
• Permanence
• Measurement & Monitoring Plan
Application of Geomatics in Preparation of PDD

• project boundary
• analyzing eligibility of land
• baseline scenario
• measurement and monitoring plan

A spatial database in GIS along with the time


series of satellite data would facilitate other
concepts like additionality and project
management in general
Boundary of the Project Areas

The project boundary should geographically delineate all


sequestrations and emissions that are significant, can be
attributed to the project and are under the control of the
project participants.
Define Project Boundary

• Project can vary in size


10’s ha  1000’s ha
• Project can be one contiguous block or many small
blocks of land spread over a wide area
• One or many landowners

Spatial Database in GIS with attributes attached


to each polygon
Use of GPS in Boundary Survey

• handheld / DGPS
• small patches < 0.4ha;
handheld GPS is not effective
• cost of DGPS – starts from Rs 4.50 lakh
• cost of handheld GPS – starts from Rs 7000/-
• WGS,84 datum
compatible to OSM of SOI
UTM Projection system
Use of GPS in Boundary Survey contd.

•Accurate registration of the boundary with the satellite


data is necessary
•Projection transformation to bring the boundary and
satellite data to the same projection system
datum
spheroid
projection system
•Geo-referencing the image using the locally picked up
GCPs (with the help of GPS)
•Developing a local projection system with the help of
DGPS
Project Area – One block Project Area – Many parcels of land
Analysing Eligibility of Lands w.r.t December 1989
Rule (& Definition of Forest)

‘no forest to be present within the project boundaries


between 31 December 1989 and the start of the project
activity’

Documentary proof of forest absence to be provided


Definition of Forest

Designated National Authorities, have the role of deciding


for their country where to lay the thresholds from a range
determined at COP9, namely:

•Minimum tree crown cover value between 10 and 30 %


•Minimum land area value between 0.05 and 1 hectare;
•Minimum tree height value between 2 and 5 metres.

The definition of forest accepted by India is


“Forest is a minimum area of land of 0.05 ha with tree
crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than
30% with trees with the potential to reach a minimum
height of 5 meters at maturity in-situ”.
Eligibility of Lands

31st December 1989 Rule


• no forest to be present within the project boundaries between
31 December 1989 and the start of the project activity
(The tool requires proof that the area is not currently forest, that it was
not forest on 31 December 1989, and that at no intermediate time was
it forested and subsequently deforested)

Satellite data set of the start, current and intervening periods

• status of forest as per the definition


• extent
• canopy density
Analysis of Eligibility of Land Parcels by FSI in the HP
Mid-Himalayan Region Afforestation Bio-Carbon Project

Project Features
• The interventions proposed under the BC project makes the
villagers a strategic seller of carbon credits under the CDM
• Afforestation on 12000 Ha involving 600 Gram Panchayats
• Parcel of lands are spread over the nine districts of the state – more
than 1200 polygons
• Focus is only on afforestation for which the farmers will receive cash
incentive (by being a potential seller of carbon credit) on three types
of lands;
(i) non-arable agriculture waste land,
(ii) degraded forest land,
(iii) degraded common property land
FSI’s Assistance in the Project

• impart training in delineating boundaries of the proposed plantation


sites using GPS
• provide forest cover maps for baseline scenario
• analyse eligibility of the identified lands with respect to 31st
December, 1989 Rule and CDM definition of forest
• using co-registered two date satellite data set
• Generate maps of each afforestation site
• facilitate in creating a GIS database for the project
• suggest inventory design for monitoring of the plantations as per the
CDM guidelines
Methodology

• GPS survey of all the land parcels was done to generate


boundaries and measure area
• Boundaries of the patches from GPS provided vector
coverage in GIS
• Satellite images of the two dates were co-registered using
image-to-image rectification approach (Autosync software)
• Satellite images of the two dates i.e prior to December 1989
and the current one were classified using hybrid
classification approach to give forest cover in three canopy
density classes; < 10%, 10-30% and >30%
• Vector coverage of the patches of lands was overlaid on the
classification to analyze each patch for canopy density
before 31st December 1989 and currently



1989 2004

LANDSAT TM IRS P6 LISS III




LANDSAT TM 1990 LISS III 2004


Eligibility of Polygons of Banoli-Khas
Outcome

• In the first phase of the project, eligibility of 97 parcels of


lands has been examined
• the area of parcels of land range between 1.8 ha to 52 ha
• 93 parcels of lands were found to confirm to the eligibility
criteria
• documentary evidence (maps) showing eligibility of each
parcel of land was generated
Problems Faced in this Approach

• Shift in the GPS (generated) boundaries and the


Satellite Image
• The shift is more pronounced in hilly terrain (if ortho-
rectified image is not being used)
• Traversing boundaries of the larger land parcels (>5
ha) with GPS in hilly terrain is difficult and time
consuming exercise
• At places in the shadows, GPS signal is weak or
absent
Modified Approach

• instead of traversing the boundaries of the identified parcels of


lands, only GPS observation of the co-ordinates of a central point of
the parcel is taken
• details of land cover and features around the identified parcel of land
is recorded on a form
• point locations of the land parcels are downloaded to give a point
vector coverage
• point coverage showing central points of the parcels are then
overlaid on the remote sensing data
• details recorded on the field forms are then also used to delineate
the identified parcels of the lands on the remote sensing data by on-
screen digitization of the polygons
• multi spectral images (FCCs) would be more helpful in accurately
delineating the identified polygons because of enhanced
interpretability of the features seen in tonal variations
• an alternative to the multi spectral image could be fused image of
panchromatic image (high resolution) with the multi spectral image
(somewhat coarser resolution)
• this method saves cost and time significantly
• it is also more objective in approach because, before delineating the
polygons of the land parcels, the applicability for eligibility of lands
under the 31st December 1989 Rule is also examined
• once the land parcels have been delineated on the satellite image,
suitable maps of the same on large scale say 1: 10,000 or larger
showing high resolution satellite image in the background can be
generated to facilitate demarcation of the lands on the ground
Fused Image of IRS P6 LISS-III and PAN Data
Map of the Land Parcel on Fused image of IRS P6
Liss-III and PAN data
1: 5,000 Scale
Satellite Data Options

IKONOS PAN LISS III


1m 5.8m 23.5m

LANDSAT TM
30m
IKONOS PAN 1:5000
LISS IV Image

Scale 1: 10000

Scale 1: 50000
Baseline Scenario
represents GHG emissions that would occur in the
absence of the proposed project activity
Baseline Scenario (contd.)
• Annex 3 of the Project Design Document
• land-use determination
• baseline carbon stocks (estimate through measurements)

LEGEND

Landuse / Landcover Map based on Classification of Satellite Data


Baseline Scenario: steps

• Land use land cover map of the project area


• Stratify the project area
•Soil
•Climate
•previous land use
•existing vegetation
•tree species to be planted
•year to be planted
•anthropogenic influence, etc.
• Determine baseline scenario (focus on possible encroachment)
• Determine baseline carbon stock changes
•Sites with trees: yield data, allometric equations …
Measurement & Monitoring Plan

• To estimate the carbon stock on the land periodically


• Stratified sampling approach
• Cost effective method
• Conservative estimates
• Accurate and precise within a limit
Steps

Define Project Boundary

Stratify project area

Decide which carbon pools to


measure

Develop sampling design – plot type,


shape, size, number, and layout

Determine measurement
frequency
• Stratification based sampling method is key to baseline
scenario and measurement & monitoring plan
• Satellite data based mapping provides the practicable
and cost effective way of doing this
• Area and objectives specific approach for stratification
using remote sensing
Stratify the Project Area

• The stratification should be carried out using criteria


that are directly related to the variables to be
measured and monitored
– for example, the carbon pools in trees

• there is a trade-off between the number of strata and


sampling intensity.

• the purpose of stratification is to partition natural


variation in the system and so reduce monitoring
costs.
Potential stratification options

• Land use (for example, forest, plantation, agroforestry,


grassland, cropland, irrigated cropland);
• Vegetation species (Forest type);
• Slope (for example, steep, flat);
• Drainage (for example, flooded, dry);
• Age of vegetation;
• Proximity to settlement.
• Typically, a project might have between one and six
strata.
Remote Sensing & GIS Based Approach for
Stratification of Forests for Growing Stock
Assessment
: A Case Study of Kolasib Division (Mizoram)
Methodology
VEGETATION MAPS /
SATELLITE ADMINISTRATIVE SOI
THEMATIC MAPS /
DATA MAPS TOPOSHEETS
ATTRIBUTE

Radiometric
and Geometric
BOUNDARIES DRAINAGE / ROAD /
Correction STATE, DISTRICT DEM
NETWORK / CONTOURS
DIVISION, RANGE, SETTLEMENT
BEAT, BLOCK, RF, PF, PA

CLASSIFICATION NDVI
(Hybrid Approach) Transformation BUFFER
SLOPE MAP

ALTITUDE
Ground Truth

ASPECT MAP
Forest Type map Forest Cover map

SPATIAL DATA
IN GIS

Stratification of forest Marking of random sample


Generation of maps
areas by overlay and points as per the
criteria application inventory design
for field inventory Field Inventory MANAGEMENT MAPS
Assessment of Growing Stock using Remote Sensing & GIS
: A Case Study of Kolasib Division

Mizoram state
India
STUDY AREA

Mizoram state Kolasib Forest Division


India

Mizoram
Spatial Layers taken into account for Stratification

Forest Cover
Forest type
Slope
Altitude
Aspect
Division boundary

Kolasib Forest Division

Legend
Division Boundary
Range boundary

Legend
Range Boundary
Settlements

Legend
Range Boundary
Settlements
Settlements
Roads

Legend
Division Boundary
Unmetalled Road
Metalled Road
Reserved forest area

rest
e res erved fo
Inner lin

Tut-Langkaih
protected
reserved forest

Legend
Division Boundary
Reserved Forest
Contours - 100m interval

Legend
Division Boundary
Contour
Digital Elevation Model

Legend
Low

High
Perspective View of Kolasib Forest Division
(FCC Draped on Digital Elevation Model)
Altitude

Legend
Slope

Legend
Drainage

Legend
Division Boundary
Drainage
Forest Density Forest Type
map
Forest Strata
map
 Dense Miscellaneous forest – the forest dominated mainly by
trees of different species with a crown density of 40% and
above.

 Dense Pure Bamboo forest – The forest dominated mainly by


Overlay Bamboo with very high number of culm per unit area.

 Dense Mixed bamboo forest – Forest where dominating


components are both -Tree and bamboo, found almost in
equal proportion. Crown density is >40%.
Forest
Strata  Open Miscellaneous forest – the forest dominated mainly by
trees of different species with a crown density of <40%.

 Open Mixed bamboo forest – Mixed forest of bamboo and tree


with Crown density less than 40%.

 Open Pure Bamboo forest – The forest dominated mainly by


Bamboo with comparatively less number of bamboo per unit
area.

 Road side Teak Plantation

 Non-forest - area with less than 10% tree crown density.


Forest Strata

Legend
Sampling Design

 Stratified random sampling method with probability proportion


to area of each class was adopted for the pilot forest inventory

 145 stratified random points were generated

 The sampling intensity was kept 0.009 % of the total geographical


area of the study area.

 Among these 145 points, 89 points belongs to reserved forest area,

 Sampling intensity for reserved forest area is 0.012%.

 Estimation of Growing Stock:

Tree - Volume equation (FSI and FRI)


Bamboo – Regression equation (FSI)
Distribution of Sample plots

Total No of
Plots in Plots in
Strata Geographic Reserved Geographic Kolasib Forest
area(Sq.Km.) Forest area(Sq.Km.) Division

Dense Misc. Forest 122 30 317 39

Open Misc. Forest 78 30 239 39

Dense Mixed Bamboo 186 28 320 36

Open Mixed Bamboo 95 32 154 42

Dense Pure Bamboo 54 22 142 29

Open Pure Bamboo 57 19 140 25

Road side Teak Plantation 7 11 8 14

Non Forest 153 8 239 10

Total 752 180 1559 234


Stratified Random Points
Results

Area Distribution
Geographic Forest cover Percentage
Range name Area(Sq.km.) (Sq.km.) (%)
BAIRABI 265.00 220.31 83.14
BILKHAWTHLIR 95.00 65.89 69.36
BUHCHANG 56.00 37.94 67.76
BUKPUI 250.00 234.12 93.65
KAWNPUI 286.00 250.89 87.73
KOLASIB 154.00 115.95 75.30
N-HLIMEN 256.00 242.48 94.72
SAIPUM 124.00 106.99 86.29
VAIRENGTE 73.00 45.39 62.19
Total 1559.00 1320.00 84.67
Growing Stock in Kolasib Forest Division – Entire Division

Tree Data

Stem/ha (nos.) = 139.14


Total Stem (nos.) = 22111529
Volume per ha (cu m) = 32.58
Total Volume (cu m) = 5360781

Bamboo Data (Clump Forming)

Culm /ha (Nos.) = 67.26


Total Culm (Nos.) = 11400187
Weight/ha (Tonnes ) = 0.425
Total Weight (Tonnes) = 66237

Bamboo Data (Non Clump Forming)

Culm /ha (Nos.) = 4891.18


Total Culm (Nos.) = 765663875
Weight/ha (Tonnes ) = 15.13
Total Weight (Tonnes) = 2472220
Growing Stock in Kolasib Forest Division – Reserved Forest
Tree Data

Stem/ha (nos.) = 141.83


Total Stem (nos.) = 8748312
Volume per ha (cu m) = 34.39
Total Volume (cu m) = 2499581

Bamboo Data (Clump Forming)

Culm /ha (Nos.) = 73.13


Total Culm (Nos.) = 6073775
Weight/ha (Tonnes ) = 0.425
Total Weight (Tonnes) = 31665

Bamboo Data (Non Clump Forming)

Culm /ha (Nos.) = 4911.25


Total Culm (Nos.) = 325887851
Weight/ha (Tonnes ) = 15.86
Total Weight (Tonnes) = 1164191
Strata wise Error

Forest classes Standard Error (%)


Dense Misc. Forest 6.57
Open Misc. Forest 5.10
Dense Mixed Bamboo 6.96
Open Mixed Bamboo 9.15
Dense Pure Bamboo 7.45
Open Pure Bamboo 2.40
Road side teak Plantation 8.59
Non Forest 3.15
Total 6.23
Summing up

• application of Geomatics in preparation of PDD is a


necessity, rather than an option
• Geomatics based methodologies in survey, mapping
and natural resource assessment are well established
• specific methodologies with respect to PDD for
LULUCF projects under CDM need to be standardised
• capacity building needs priority and thrust
Thank you