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Ownership Company Unit


Luton, UK Development Department
Author Title
Jiming Chen System design of Primary Scrambling Code planning for UMTS system

System Name iBuildNet


Modules WNS
Document Type Detail Design
Document 1.0.0
Version
Creation Date [2015/05/15]

Designer Jiming Chen


Requirements [Corresponding document link or ID in Cognidox]
Doc Position
Development RP-000765-DD
Code
Responsible WNS
Modules
Main Developers Wenkang Zhao
Support Tianyou Yu
Developers
Related Modules
Priority 4
Difficulty 4
Phase Type Medium
Development 4 weeks
Period

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Review
Version Review Date Result Comment
er

1.0.0

Change History
Version Date Comment Modifier
1.0.0 2015/05/15 Create the document Jiming Chen

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CATALOG

1. BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION .................................................... 4


2. ISSUE DESCRIPTION .......................................................... 4
3. SOLUTION DESIGN ............................................................ 5
3.1 Logic Design ........................................................................................................................................ 6
3.2 Interface Design .................................................................................................................................. 7
3.3 Function Design ................................................................................................................................ 11
3.4 Modules and Classes Initial Design ...................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.5 Test Case List .................................................................................................................................... 12

4. SUMARRY................................................................... 12
5. BRIEF .................................................................... 12
6. REFERENCE................................................................. 12

PICTURES CATALOG

TABLES CATALOG

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1 BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION

In the UMTS network planning, the PSC (Primary Scrambling Code) planning is one of the most
important steps. To assign and use PSC reasonably could reduce interference and increase
resource utilization and QOS of the UMTS system.

For downlink physical channels, a total of 218-1 = 262143 scrambling codes can be generated.
Scrambling codes k = 0,1, … , 8191 are used, These 8192 codes are divided into 512 groups,
each of which contains 16 scrambling code. The first scrambling code of each group is called
primary codes (SSC). The 512 PSCs are also divided into 64 groups, each of which contains 8
PSCs. Downlink PSC is used to distinguish the different cells. So more attention should be given
in PSC allocation.

Each PSC is defined a GOLD sequence, and each cell’s downlink pilot channel transmit a
pseudo-random sequence corresponding to the PSC of the cell. As can be understood from the
above description, if all the cells in the network transmit the same PSC, it will be impossible for a
mobile to identify different cells. Cell search and selection will be impossible. Therefore, it is
important to intelligently allocate physical cell IDs to cells so as to allow easy recognition of cells
by mobiles.

2 ISSUE DESCRIPTION

In the UMTS network, there are multiple deployment scenario, such regular cluster macro
scenario, HetNet scenario, and indoor scenario, so it is more difficulty for the PSC planning to
assign the PSCs to all cell without conflicting, careful planning and optimisation should be need
to maximize the interference between cells.

Figure 1 give the downlink PSC group.

Figure 1 downlink primary scrambling code group

PSC planning principle:

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The intra-frequency cells interfering to the primary cell cannot use the same cell PSCs as the
primary cell, i.e. cell doesn’t have the same cell PSC with the neighbouring cells.

3 SOLUTION DESIGN

The cell PSCs can be planned in one of the following methods:

Primary cell uses different PSCs from the neihbouring cells, with the PSCs of the primary cell
and those of the neighbouring cells belongs to different scrambling code groups.

The scrambling code groups is as following:

PSC/Group 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

PSC 1 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 112 120

PSC 2 1 9 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 73 81 89 97 105 113 121

PSC 3 2 10 18 26 34 42 50 58 66 74 82 90 98 106 114 122

PSC 4 3 11 19 27 35 43 51 59 67 75 83 91 99 107 115 123

PSC 5 4 12 20 28 36 44 52 60 68 76 84 92 100 108 116 124

PSC 6 5 13 21 29 37 45 53 61 69 77 85 93 101 109 117 125

PSC 7 6 14 22 30 38 46 54 62 70 78 86 94 102 110 118 126

PSC 8 7 15 23 31 39 47 55 63 71 79 87 95 103 111 119 127

In general, there is less 4 intra-cells in a site in actual network, so we can divide a group (8
PSCs every group) to 2 subgroups (4 PSCs every subgroup). Then 512 PSCs can divide 128
subgroups. The first PSC every subgroup take part in the PSC allocation, the other PSCs are
allocated the same cell, as shown in the following tables.

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3.1 Logic Design

PSC Planning Criterion

When planning PSCs the following priority order are recommended:

a) The same PSCs should be avoided within the same site or as neighbours

b) The same subgroup PSCs should be avoided within as neighbours

c) The same group PSCs should be avoided within as neighbours

PSC Planning Algorithm

The PSC planning algorithm is an iterative algorithm based on an object function, and try
different physical cell IDs to cells in order to minimize the object function.

The result of this problem is presented by an n x m two-dimensional matrix W. Based on different


cell numbers in UMTS system would get different matrix W. Every element in this matrix is

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presented as xi,j, which the value is 1 or 0. When PSC j is assigned to cell i, xi,j = 1, otherwise xi,j
= 0. In order to satisfy the demand vector, we need to make
∑NPSC
k=0 x i,k = Di ∀i, which D i is cell i’s PSC demand, here each cell will be assigned a PSC, so
Di=1, n is number of cell, m is the number of usable or candidate PSC.

Object function:
M(Cell) M(Cell) NPSC
intra
wi,j
min ∑ ∑ ∑ yi,j,k
xi,k Di ∗ Dj
i=0 j=0 k=0

Subject to:
NPSC

∑ xi,k = Di ∀i
k=0
xi,k ∈ {0,1}, Di is the number of PSC required by Cell i, wi,j is the interference from cell j to cell i,
and yi,j,k is the interference factor based on same PSC, same PSS, and same SSS.

If not consider interference from adjacent channels then,


y α, the ith and jth cell has the same PSC,or subgroup,or group
i,j,k={
0,otherwise

3.2 UI and Interface Design

For the planning, click the PSC planning, as shown in Figure 5

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Figure 5 UI for planning

And click the ‘PSC Planning’ button, and the planning form is shown in Figure 6

And the planning results is based on the table, as shown in Table 1

Table1 PSC table

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PCI

For the optimisation, UI is as shown in Figure 6.

(a) General

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(b) Targets

(c) Input variables

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(d) Results
Figure 6 UI
In the initial step, the PSC can be selected the first candidate PSC.

3.3 Function Design

For implementing the PSC planning and optimisation, the some function modular should be
determined firstly:

ANR (Automatic Neighbour Relation) list

Based the RSRP, a cell can build an ANR table if the RSRP from the cell is within D dB from the
strongest cell RSRP, where D=30dB.

For the outdoor system, the co-site cell must be neighbour, which means the RSRP from co-site
cells maybe is less than the D dB compare with the strongest cell RSRP, but, the co-site cell
should be added in neighbour list.

But, the neighbour cell should be symmetry, i.e. two cells should be neighbour each other, so if
cell i is the neighbour of cell j, and cell j is automatically neighbour of cell i.

Interference Matrix

Based on the cell number m, there need to build a interference matrix m x m, with each element
wi,j representing the total interference received from transmitter j to transmitter i.

In the matrix, wi,j is calculated based on the tx power of Cell j, and the path loss from Cell j to Cell
i. Therefore, based on RRPS, the path loss can be obtained.

But, because the PSC is the pseudo-random sequence, so the relation between the two
sequences will affect the interference calculation. So iBuildNet quantifies the interference of
different PSC into interference factor.

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a) In the PSC planning, if the PSC of two cells is the same, which means the pseudo-
random sequence is the same, so the two cells are interfered totally, so the interference
factor is 1, i.e. αPSC =1;

b) If the PSC is the same subgroup, then the interference factor is 0.8, i.e. αPSC=0.8;

c) If the PSC is the same group, then the interference factor is 0.5, i.e. αPSC=0.5;

d) If the PSC is not above case, then the interference factor is 0, i.e. αPSC=0

Based on the candidate PSC set, iBuildNet judges the PSC is the same, or the subgroup, or
group, or not to determine the matrix Y.

3.4 Consider Measurement

In the PSC planning, if the measurement is done for the outside cells or inter cells, i.e. the PSC
can be obtained, and the planning for inside cells or intra cells should be considered the existing
PSC and the interference, so the interpolation based measurement should be implemented.

Based on the interpolation, the interference from measurement can be obtained, and the inter
cell interference matrix can be calculated.

3.5 Optimisation Algorithm

Based on the interference matrix, interference factor, candidate set, and measurement results,
the optimisation algorithm can be implemented by used the above optimisation expression.

But for the optimisation, the optimisation engine, designed by Hui, can be used. After prepare the
data structure and call the IFOmex.dll for PSC optimisation.

3.6 Test Case List

After planning the wireless network, run the PSC planning to assign the PSC for each cell, and
check whether the adjacent cells’ PSC meet the criterion.

4 SUMARRY

This document gives the design report of PSC planning and optimisation for UMTS system to
improve the interference between adjacent cells’ Pilot Signal, including the function design,
related modular and structure, test case.

5 BRIEF

This document presents the PSC planning and optimisation design detail, test detail.

6 REFERENCE

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